Federica Veronese, Francesco Branciforti, Elisa Zavattaro, Vanessa Tarantino, Valentina Romano, Kristen M Meiburger, Massimo Salvi, Silvia Seoni, Paola Savoia
BACKGROUND: The use of teledermatology has spread over the last years, especially during the recent SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Teledermoscopy, an extension of teledermatology, consists of consulting dermoscopic images, also transmitted through smartphones, to remotely diagnose skin tumors or other dermatological diseases. The purpose of this work was to verify the diagnostic validity of images acquired with an inexpensive smartphone microscope (NurugoTM ), employing convolutional neural networks (CNN) to classify malignant melanoma (MM), melanocytic nevus (MN), and seborrheic keratosis (SK)...
March 5, 2021: Diagnostics
Meet Patel, Adam Eckburg, Shahina Gantiwala, Zachary Hart, Joshua Dein, Katie Lam, Neelu Puri
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with invasive growth patterns. In 2021, 106,110 patients are projected to be diagnosed with melanoma, out of which 7180 are expected to die. Traditional methods like surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are not effective in the treatment of metastatic and advanced melanoma. Recent approaches to treat melanoma have focused on biomarkers that play significant roles in cell growth, proliferation, migration, and survival. Several FDA-approved molecular targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed against genetic biomarkers whose overexpression is implicated in tumorigenesis...
March 5, 2021: Cancers
Ellen M Zwijnenburg, Satish F K Lubeek, Johanna E M Werner, Avital L Amir, Willem L J Weijs, Robert P Takes, Sjoert A H Pegge, Carla M L van Herpen, Gosse J Adema, Johannes H A M Kaanders
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin mainly seen in the elderly. Its incidence is rising due to ageing of the population, increased sun exposure, and the use of immunosuppressive medication. Additionally, with the availability of specific immunohistochemical markers, MCC is easier to recognize. Typically, these tumors are rapidly progressive and behave aggressively, emphasizing the need for early detection and prompt diagnostic work-up and start of treatment. In this review, the tumor biology and immunology, current diagnostic and treatment modalities, as well as new and combined therapies for MCC, are discussed...
March 31, 2021: Cancers
Hsuan Ping Chang, Yuen Kiu Cheung, Dhaval K Shah
Monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) is one of the most commonly used payloads for developing antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). However, limited studies have comprehensively evaluated the whole-body disposition of MMAE. Consequently, here, we have investigated the whole-body pharmacokinetics (PK) of MMAE in tumor-bearing mice. We show that while MMAE is rapidly eliminated from the plasma, it shows prolonged and extensive distribution in tissues, blood cells, and tumor. Highly perfused tissues (e.g., lung, kidney, heart, liver, and spleen) demonstrated tissue-to-plasma area under the concentration curve (AUC) ratios > 20, and poorly perfused tissues (e...
March 23, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Tamer M Shehata, Mahmoud M Ibrahim, Heba S Elsewedy
Curcumin is a poorly water-soluble drug that is used for the treatment of inflammations, tumors, wound healing antioxidant and other diseases. In the current manuscript, it is successfully formulated into proniosome gels. The proniosomes are readily hydrated into niosomal formulations using warm water. Proniosomes were prepared using nonionic surfactants (tween 80, span 60) either solely or in combinations with cholesterol. The produced niosomal formulations were homogenous in size with vesicular sizes >343 and <1800 nm...
March 4, 2021: Polymers
Haisheng Lin, Zhihong Zheng, Jianjun Yuan, Chaohua Zhang, Wenhong Cao, Xiaoming Qin
Marine collagen peptides have high potential in promoting skin wound healing. This study aimed to investigate wound healing activity of collagen peptides derived from Sipunculus nudus (SNCP). The effects of SNCP on promoting healing were studied through a whole cortex wound model in mice. Results showed that SNCP consisted of peptides with a molecular weight less than 5 kDa accounted for 81.95%, rich in Gly and Arg. SNCP possessed outstanding capacity to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human skin fibroblasts (HSF) cells proliferation and migration in vitro...
March 4, 2021: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sullim Lee, Giang Do Hoang, Daeyoung Kim, Ho Sueb Song, Sungyoul Choi, Dongho Lee, Ki Sung Kang
The skin is an important organ in the human body that protects the body from environmentally hazardous substances. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause inflammatory reactions and degradation of the extracellular matrix leading to skin aging and various cutaneous lesions. This study evaluated the potential of isoflavones isolated from Maclura tricuspidata fruit to prevent TNF-α-induced skin inflammation in normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). It focused on alpinumisoflavone (AIF) that suppressed the accumulation of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-treated HDFs...
March 25, 2021: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Samu Luostarinen, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is an ion channel mainly studied in sensory neurons where it mediates itch, pain and neurogenic inflammation. Recently, some nonneuronal cells have also been shown to express TRPA1 to support inflammatory responses. To address the role of TRPA1 in skin inflammation, we aimed to investigate TRPA1 expression in keratinocytes. HaCaT cells (a model of human keratinocytes) and skin biopses from wild-type and TRPA1 deficient mice were used in the studies. TRPA1 expression in nonstimulated keratinocytes was very low but significantly inducible by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in an nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK)-dependent manner...
March 24, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paweł Cisek, Dariusz Kieszko, Mateusz Bilski, Radomir Dębicki, Ewelina Grywalska, Rafał Hrynkiewicz, Dominika Bębnowska, Izabela Kordzińska-Cisek, Agnieszka Rolińska, Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Ludmiła Grzybowska-Szatkowska
BACKGROUND: Eyelid tumors are rare skin cancers, the most common of which is basal cell carcinoma characterized primarily by local growth. In addition to surgery, radiotherapy is among the basic methods of treatment. External beam radiotherapy is associated with the risk of complications within ocular structures, especially the lens. In the case of interstitial brachytherapy, it is possible to administer a high dose to the clinical target volume (CTV), while reducing it in the most sensitive structures...
March 20, 2021: Cancers
Kazuhiro Okumura, Megumi Saito, Eriko Isogai, Yuichi Wakabayashi
MSM/Ms is a unique inbred mouse strain derived from the Japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus molossinus , which has been approximately 1 million years genetically distant from standard inbred mouse strains mainly derived from M. m. domesticus . Due to its genetic divergence, MSM/Ms has been broadly used in linkage studies. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for the MSM/Ms genome, and sequence analysis of the MSM/Ms genome showed approximately 1% of nucleotides differed from those in the commonly used inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J...
March 1, 2021: Cancers
Shannon Cunningham, Shelby McCauley, Kanimozhi Vairamani, Joseph Speth, Swati Girdhani, Eric Abel, Ricky A Sharma, John P Perentesis, Susanne I Wells, Anthony Mascia, Mathieu Sertorio
Ultra-high dose rate radiation has been reported to produce a more favorable toxicity and tumor control profile compared to conventional dose rates that are used for patient treatment. So far, the so-called FLASH effect has been validated for electron, photon and scattered proton beam, but not yet for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS). Because PBS is the state-of-the-art delivery modality for proton therapy and constitutes a wide and growing installation base, we determined the benefit of FLASH PBS on skin and soft tissue toxicity...
March 1, 2021: Cancers
Yolanda Prezado, Ryochi Hirayama, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Taku Inaniwa, Immaculada Martínez-Rovira, Olivier Seksek, Annaïg Bertho, Sachiko Koike, Dalila Labiod, Frederic Pouzoulet, Laura Polledo, Nils Warfving, Aléthéa Liens, Judith Bergs, Takashi Shimokawa
(1) Background: among all types of radiation, very heavy ions, such as Neon (Ne) or Argon (Ar), are the optimum candidates for hypoxic tumor treatments due to their reduced oxygen enhancement effect. However, their pioneering clinical use in the 1970s was halted due to severe side effects. The aim of this work was to provide a first proof that the combination of very heavy ions with minibeam radiation therapy leads to a minimization of toxicities and, thus, opening the door for a renewed use of heavy ions for therapy; (2) Methods: mouse legs were irradiated with either Ne MBRT or Ne broad beams at the same average dose...
March 17, 2021: Cancers
Jo L W Lambert, Sofie De Schepper, Reinhart Speeckaert
The biologic era has greatly improved the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Biologics can however induce a wide variety of skin eruptions, especially those targeting the TNF-α and Th17 pathway. These include infusion reactions, eczema, psoriasis, lupus, alopecia areata, vitiligo, lichenoid reactions, granulomatous disorders, vasculitis, skin cancer, and cutaneous infections. It is important to recognize these conditions as treatment-induced adverse reactions and adapt the treatment strategy accordingly...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Monica Sforna, Elisabetta Chiaradia, Ilaria Porcellato, Serenella Silvestri, Giulia Moretti, Luca Mechelli, Chiara Brachelente
Although numerous animal models, especially mouse models, have been established for the study of melanoma, they often fail to accurately describe the mechanisms of human disease because of their anatomic, physiological, and immune differences. The dog, as a spontaneous model of melanoma, is nowadays considered one of the most valid alternatives due to the heterogeneity of clinical presentations and of histological and genetic similarities of canine melanoma with the human counterpart. The aim of the study was to optimize a protocol for the isolation and cultivation of healthy and neoplastic canine melanocytes derived from the same animal and obtained from cutaneous and mucosal (oral) sites...
March 10, 2021: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Natasha T Hill, David Kim, Klaus J Busam, Emily Y Chu, Clayton Green, Isaac Brownell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA (virus-positive MCC, VP-MCC) and carry a low somatic mutation burden whereas virus-negative MCC (VN-MCC) possess numerous ultraviolet-signature mutations. In contrast to viral oncogenes and sequence mutations, little is known about genomic structural variants in MCC. To identify copy number variants in commonly altered genes, we analyzed genomic DNA from 31 tumor samples using the Nanostring nCounter copy number cancer panel...
March 6, 2021: Cancers
Muna Poudel, Garam Kim, Poshan Yugal Bhattarai, Jin-Young Kim, Hong Seok Choi
IL-34 has been recently identified as a ligand for CSF1R that regulates various cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Although the binding of IL-34 to CSF1R modulates several cancer-driving signaling pathways, little is known about the role of IL-34/CSF1R signaling in breast cancer. Herein, we report that IL-34 induces epithelial cell transformation and breast tumorigenesis through activation of MEK/ERK and JNK/c-Jun pathways. IL-34 increased the phosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and c-Jun through CSF1R in mouse skin epidermal JB6 C141 cells and human breast cancer MCF7 cells...
March 8, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cheolwoo Park, Jaeyoung Park, Won-Jin Kim, Woong Kim, Hyeonsook Cheong, Seok-Jun Kim
Skin aging is caused by exposure to various external factors. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induces oxidative stress, photoaging, and inflammation in skin cells. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (red pine) has various antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of red pine on skin have rarely been reported. The protective effects of malonic acid (MA) isolated from Pinus densiflora were investigated against UVB-induced damage in an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
March 7, 2021: Polymers
Teresa Troiani, Stefania Napolitano, Gabriella Brancaccio, Valentina Belli, Annarita Nappi, Caterina Miro, Domenico Salvatore, Monica Dentice, Michele Caraglia, Renato Franco, Emilio Francesco Giunta, Vincenzo De Falco, Davide Ciardiello, Fortunato Ciardiello, Giuseppe Argenziano
Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and its incidence is growing worldwide. In the last ten years, the therapeutic scenario of this disease has been revolutionized by the introduction of targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors. However, in patients with many lesions and bulky tumors, in which surgery is no longer feasible, there is a need for new treatment options. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, a clinical case where a melanoma patient harboring the SMO p.Gln216Arg mutation has been treated with imiquimod, showing a complete and durable response...
March 14, 2021: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Yingying Shi, Yichao Lu, Chunqi Zhu, Zhenyu Luo, Xiang Li, Yu Liu, Mengshi Jiang, Xu Liu, Lihua Luo, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Transplantation is the most effective, and sometimes the only resort for end-stage organ failure. However, allogeneic graft suffers greatly from lymphocyte-mediated immunorejection, which bears close relationship with a hyperactivation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in host lymphocytes, especially in CD8+ T cells (T-8). Therefore, regulating lymphocytic ER unfolded protein response (UPR) might be a potential therapeutic breakthrough in alleviating graft rejection. Here, ER-targetable liposome is prepared via the surface modification of ER-targeting peptide (Pardaxin), which efficiently loads and directly delivers small molecule inhibitor of UPR sensor IRE1α into the ER of lymphocytes, inducing a systemic immunosuppression that facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis in the tumor inoculation challenge in vivo...
March 24, 2021: Biomaterials
Maria Leticia Gobo Silva, Celso Abdon Lopes de Mello, Samuel Aguiar, Felipe D Almeida Costa, Paulo Roberto Stevanato Filho, Tiago Santoro Bezerra, Suely Akiko Nakagawa, Antonio Geraldo Nascimento, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Ranyell Matheus Spencer Sobreira Batista, Ulisses Ribaldo Nicolau, Maria Nirvana Da Cruz Formiga, Janaina Naiara Germano, Bruna Elisa Catin Kupper, Antonio Cassio De Assis Pellizzon, Ademar Lopes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optimal treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcomas (ESTS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus concomitant hypofractionated RT (hypo-RT) in local and distant disease relapse. Here we report safety, feasibility and early outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, single arm study with a goal accrual of 70 patients. Between 2015 and 2018, 18 patients with histologically confirmed nonmetastatic ESTS were assigned to receive doxorubicin and ifosfamide for three neoadjuvant cycles, concomitant with hypo-RT (25Gy in 5 fractions) followed by surgery...
March 31, 2021: Radiotherapy and Oncology
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