Jianxin Wang, Guangchen Zhang, Yang Sui, Zhuowen Yang, Yinzhu Chu, Hailing Tang, Binbin Guo, Cong Zhang, Changjun Wu
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an essential role in the development and metastasis of breast cancer (BC). More studies are needed on the differences and functions of immune components and matrix components. In this study, we calculated the proportion of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) and the proportion of immune and matrix components of BC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We performed Cox regression analysis and constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) network based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and obtained the most crucial gene CD52 ...
2020: Frontiers in Genetics
Matthew A Stults-Kolehmainen, Miguel Blacutt, John B Bartholomew, Todd A Gilson, Garrett I Ash, Paul C McKee, Rajita Sinha
To better explain daily fluctuations in physical activity and sedentary behavior, investigations of motivation are turning from social cognitive frameworks to those centered on affect, emotion and automaticity, such as the Affect and Health Behavior Framework (AHBF), Integrated Framework and Affective-Reflective Theory (ART). This shift has necessitated: (a) re-examination of older theories and their constructs, such as drives, needs and tensions and (b) an inspection of competing theories from other fields that also attempt to explain dynamic changes in health behaviors...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuiko Kimura, Keiya Iijima, Yutaro Takayama, Suguru Yokosako, Yuu Kaneko, Mayu Omori, Takanobu Kaido, Yukiko Kano, Masaki Iwasaki
The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) is accepted, but whether the efficacy of DBS treatment in the Japanese population is equivalent to those reported internationally and whether adverse effects are comparable are not yet known. This study evaluated the clinical practice and outcome of DBS for TS in a Japanese institution. This study included 25 consecutive patients with refractory TS treated with thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nucleus DBS. The severity of tics was evaluated with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) before surgery, at 1 year after surgery, and at the last follow-up of 3 years or more after surgery...
November 26, 2020: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Ganesh Walunj, Anthony Bearden, Amit Patil, Taban Larimian, Jijo Christudasjustus, Rajeev Kumar Gupta, Tushar Borkar
Titanium carbide (TiC) reinforced nickel (Ni) matrix composites were processed via mechanical alloying (MA) followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Mechanical alloying has gained special attention as a powerful non-equilibrium process for fabricating amorphous and nanocrystalline materials, whereas spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a unique technique for processing dense and near net shape bulk alloys with homogenous microstructure. TiC reinforcement varied from 5 to 50 wt.% into nickel matrix to investigate its effect on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ni-TiC composites...
November 23, 2020: Materials
Ziliang Zhu, Dengji Guo, Jiao Xu, Jianjun Lin, Jianguo Lei, Bin Xu, Xiaoyu Wu, Xujin Wang
Titanium-nickel shape memory alloy (SMA) has good biomedical application value as an implant. Alloy corrosion will promote the release of toxic nickel ions and cause allergies and poisoning of cells and tissues. With this background, surface modification of TiNi SMAs using TiC-powder-assisted micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) was proposed. This aims to explore the effect of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters and TiC powder concentration on the machining properties and surface characteristics of the TiNi SMA...
November 20, 2020: Micromachines
Lilach Rachamim, Sharon Zimmerman-Brenner, Osnat Rachamim, Hila Mualem, Netanel Zingboim, Michael Rotstein
Practice guidelines endorse comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) as first-line treatment for tic disorders (TD) in youth. Nevertheless, CBIT is rarely available due to various barriers. This study evaluated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an Internet-based, self-help CBIT program (ICBIT) guided by parents with minimal therapist support delivered via telepsychotherapy. Forty-one youths, aged 7-18 years, were randomly assigned to receive either ICBIT (n = 25) or a wait-list (WL) condition (n = 16) in a crossover design...
November 24, 2020: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Constantine Sedikides
Narcissism, a trait reflecting egocentric exceptionalism and social selfishness, has captured scholarly interest due to its intricate composition and social implications. The construct is polyhedric, comprising several key forms: grandiose versus vulnerable, agentic versus communal, admirative versus rivalrous, collective versus individual. These forms can be integrated into structural models that add predictive power or process models that add explanatory power. The narcissistic nucleus is argued, and partly shown, to be brittle in the face of self-threat...
November 20, 2020: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Suvi Virtanen, Anna Sidorchuk, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Gustaf Brander, Paul Lichtenstein, Antti Latvala, David Mataix-Cols
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) have an elevated risk of subsequent substance misuse. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the association between ICD diagnoses of TS/CTD and substance misuse outcomes, accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors. The cohort included all individuals living in Sweden at any time between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 2013...
September 22, 2020: Biological Psychiatry
Bruce Rawlings, Cristine H Legare
The development of tool innovation presents a paradox. How do humans have such diverse and complex technology, ranging from smartphones to aircraft, and yet young children find even simple tool innovation challenges, such as fashioning a hook to retrieve a basket from a tube, remarkably difficult? We propose that the solution to this paradox is the cognitive ontogenesis of tool innovation. Using a common measure of children's tool innovation, we describe how multiple cognitive mechanisms work in concert at each step of its process: recognizing the problem, generating appropriate solutions, and the social transmission of innovations...
November 19, 2020: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Sascha C T Nicklisch, Amro Hamdoun
Small molecule transporters (SMTs) in the ABC and SLC families are important players in disposition of diverse endo- and xenobiotics. Interactions of environmental chemicals with these transporters were first postulated in the 1990s, and since validated in numerous in vitro and in vivo scenarios. Recent results on the co-crystal structure of ABCB1 with the flame-retardant BDE-100 demonstrate that a diverse range of man-made and natural toxic molecules, hereafter termed Transporter-Interfering Chemicals (TICs), can directly bind to SMTs and interfere with their function...
November 22, 2020: FEBS Letters
Giovanni Anobile, Roberto Arrighi, Elisa Castaldi, David C Burr
Incoming sensory input provides information for the planning and execution of actions, which yield motor outcomes that are themselves sensory inputs. One dimension where action and perception strongly interact is numerosity perception. Many non-human animals can estimate approximately the number of external elements as well as their own actions, and neurons have been identified that respond to both. Recent psychophysical adaptation studies on humans also provide evidence for neural mechanisms responding to both the number of externally generated events and self-produced actions...
November 18, 2020: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Danilo Buonsenso, Cristina De Rose, Paolo Mariotti
Decades of research have confirmed that children develop best when they are in safe, supportive, nurturing relationships (1). Positive relationships with parents are essential for children's growth, health and wellbeing (1,2), as they protect them and help them to regulate their emotions during stressful times. If children are unnecessarily and traumatically removed from their parents, their physical and mental health and wellbeing will suffer (1,2).
November 21, 2020: Acta Paediatrica
Hitoshi Fukazawa, Akari Tada, Lynn G L Richardson, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Susumu Uehara, Yasuko Ito-Inaba, Takehito Inaba
The majority of genes encoding photosynthesis-associated proteins in the nucleus are induced by light during photomorphogenesis, allowing plants to establish photoautotrophic growth. Therefore, optimizing the protein import apparatus of plastids, designated as the translocon at the outer and inner envelope membranes of chloroplast (TOC-TIC) complex, upon light exposure is a prerequisite to the import of abundant nuclear-encoded photosynthesis-associated proteins. However, the mechanism that coordinates the optimization of the TOC-TIC complex with the expression of nuclear-encoded photosynthesis-associated genes remains to be characterized in detail...
November 20, 2020: Scientific Reports
Miriam Ficial, Opeyemi A Jegede, Miriam Sant'Angelo, Yue Hou, Abdallah Flaifel, Jean-Christophe Pignon, David A Braun, Megan Wind-Rotolo, Maura Sticco-Ivins, Paul J Catalano, Gordon J Freeman, Arlene H Sharpe, F Stephen Hodi, Robert J Motzer, Catherine J Wu, Michael B Atkins, David F McDermott, Sachet A Shukla, Toni K Choueiri, Sabina Signoretti
PURPOSE: We sought to validate levels of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating cells (TIC) expressing PD-1 but not TIM-3 and LAG-3 (IF biomarker) (Pignon et al, 2019) and to investigate human endogenous retroviruses (hERVs) as predictors of response to anti-PD-1 in a randomized trial of nivolumab (nivo) versus everolimus (evero) in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) (CheckMate-025). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor tissues (nivo: n=116, evero: n=107) were analyzed by multiparametric immunofluorescence (IF) and qRT-PCR...
November 20, 2020: Clinical Cancer Research
Kati Mielke, Raik Wagner, Laxmi S Mishra, Fatih Demir, Andreas Perrar, Pitter F Huesgen, Christiane Funk
The ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsH12 has been suggested to participate in a heteromeric motor complex driving protein translocation into the chloroplast. FtsH12 was immuno-detected in proplastids, seedlings, leaves and roots. Expression of Myc-tagged FtsH12 under its native promotor allowed identification of FtsHi1, 2, 4 and 5 and plastidic NAD-MDH, five of the six interaction partners in the suggested import motor complex, at native expression levels. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seedlings with reduced FtsH12 abundance exhibited pale cotyledons and small, deformed chloroplasts with altered thylakoid structure...
November 20, 2020: Journal of Experimental Botany
Klaus Zollner, Martin Gmitra, Jaroslav Fabian
The concept of swapping the two most important spin interactions-exchange and spin-orbit coupling-is proposed based on two-dimensional multilayer van der Waals heterostructures. Specifically, we show by performing realistic ab initio simulations, that a single device consisting of a bilayer graphene sandwiched by a 2D ferromagnet Cr_{2}Ge_{2}Te_{6} (CGT) and a monolayer WS_{2}, is able not only to generate, but also to swap the two interactions. The highly efficient swapping is enabled by the interplay of gate-dependent layer polarization in bilayer graphene and short-range spin-orbit and exchange proximity effects affecting only the layers in contact with the sandwiching materials...
November 6, 2020: Physical Review Letters
Murray Shanahan, Matthew Crosby, Benjamin Beyret, Lucy Cheke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2020: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Medha Shekhar, Dobromir Rahnev
Confidence judgments are typically less informative about one's accuracy than they could be; a phenomenon we call metacognitive inefficiency. We review the existence of different sources of metacognitive inefficiency and classify them into four categories based on whether the corruption is due to: (i) systematic or nonsystematic influences, and (ii) the input to or the computation of the metacognitive system. Critically, the existence of different sources of metacognitive inefficiency provides an alternative explanation for behavioral findings typically interpreted as evidence for domain-specific (and against domain-general) metacognitive systems...
November 16, 2020: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Edwin Gevorkyan, Mirosław Rucki, Sergey Panchenko, Dmitry Sofronov, Leszek Chałko, Tomasz Mazur
In this study, the effect of the addition of silicon carbide to alumina ceramics commonly used in cutting tool applications is addressed. Performance of Al2 O3 -SiC composite cutting inserts during the machining of hardened steels and ductile iron was compared to the results obtained for a cutting tool made out of 99 wt.% Al2 O3 , Al2 O3 -TiC, Al2 O3 -TiC-ZrO2 , and Al2 O3 -TiN. In almost all tests, the composite with silicon carbide demonstrated better wear resistance, longer tool lifetime, and the ability to cut at higher speeds...
November 17, 2020: Materials
Hui Liu, Ning Hsieh, Zhenmei Zhang, Yan Zhang, Kenneth M Langa
OBJECTIVES: We provide the first nationally representative population-based study of cognitive disparities among same-sex and different-sex couples in the United States. METHOD: We analyzed data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000-2016). The sample included 23,669 respondents (196 same-sex partners and 23,473 different-sex partners) aged 50 and older who contributed to 85,117 person-period records (496 from same-sex partners and 84,621 from different-sex partners)...
November 19, 2020: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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