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A Roschger, P Roschger, W Wagermaier, J Chen, A van Tol, F Repp, S Blouin, A Berzlanovich, G M Gruber, K Klaushofer, P Fratzl, R Weinkamer
The osteocyte lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) penetrates bone and houses the osteocytes and their processes. Despite its rather low volume fraction, the LCN represents an outstanding large surface that is possibly used by the osteocytes to interact with the surrounding mineralized bone matrix thereby contributing to mineral homeostasis. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe such contributions by spatially correlating the local density of the LCN with the mineral content at the same location in micrometer-sized volume elements in human osteons...
March 18, 2019: Bone
Nihat Laçin, Bozan Serhat İzol, Ebru Gökalp Özkorkmaz, Buşra Deveci, Mehmet Cudi Tuncer
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of allopurinol administration on osteoinductive reaction and bone development with graft material. METHODS: Thirty-six Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, calvarial bone defect was only created without any treatment. In the Defect + Graft group, allograft treatment was performed by forming 8 mm calvarial bone defect. In the Defect + Graft + Allopurinol group, alloplastic bone graft was placed in the calvarial bone defect and then, allopurinol (50 mg/kg/day) treatment was intraperitoneally applied for 28 days...
March 18, 2019: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Masamu Inoue, Takehito Ono, Yoshitaka Kameo, Fumiyuki Sasaki, Takashi Ono, Taiji Adachi, Tomoki Nakashima
Bone undergoes a constant reconstruction process of resorption and formation called bone remodeling, so that it can endure mechanical loading. During food ingestion, masticatory muscles generate the required masticatory force. The magnitude of applied masticatory force has long been believed to be closely correlated with the shape of the jawbone. However, both the mechanism underlying this correlation and evidence of causation remain largely to be determined. Here, we established a novel mouse model of increased mastication in which mice were fed with a hard diet (HD) to elicit greater masticatory force...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Christina L Ross, Dennis C Ang, Graça Almeida-Porada
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovium (synovitis), with inflammatory/immune cells and resident fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) acting as major players in the pathogenesis of this disease. The resulting inflammatory response poses considerable risks as loss of bone and cartilage progresses, destroying the joint surface, causing joint damage, joint failure, articular dysfunction, and pre-mature death if left untreated. At the cellular level, early changes in RA synovium include inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, and stimulation of angiogenesis to the site of injury...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming-Jie Kuang, Wei-Hao Zhang, Wei-Wei He, Lei Sun, Jian-Xiong Ma, Dachuan Wang, Xin-Long Ma
PURPOSE: Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIONFH) is a common disease following long-term use or large doses of glucocorticoids. The pathogenesis of GIONFH remains controversial, and abnormal bone metabolism caused by glucocorticoids(GCs) may be one of the important factors. Due to its positive effect on bone remodeling, naringin shows potential therapeutic effects in bone metabolism-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that naringin regulated bone metabolism in rat GIONFH via the Akt/Bad signal cascades...
March 13, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Ningning Jiang, Fengyang Guo, Boyao Sun, Xiuyun Zhang, Hui Xu
Fluoride accumulates and is toxic to bones. Clinical bone lesions occur in a phased manner, being less severe early in the natural course of skeletal fluorosis. Previous research rarely focused on osteocyte, osteoclast, and osteoblast at the same time, although these three types of cells are involved in the process of fluorosis. In this study, commitment of bone cells was performed according to their respective characteristics. Osteocyte-like cells were verified by protein expression of sclerostin (SOST) in IDG-SW3 cell culture with mineral medium...
March 14, 2019: Biological Trace Element Research
Ivor P Geoghegan, David A Hoey, Laoise M McNamara
The integrin αv β3 has been shown to play an important role in osteocyte mechanotransduction. It has been reported that there are fewer β3 integrin-containing cells in osteoporotic bone cells. Osteocytes cultured in vitro under estrogen deficient conditions demonstrate altered mechanotransduction. However, it is unknown whether the altered mechanotransduction in estrogen deficient osteocytes is directly associated with defective αv β3 expression or signalling. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of estrogen deficiency for regulating MLO-Y4 cell morphology, αv β3 expression, focal adhesion formation and mechanotransduction by osteocytes...
March 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zheng Xiong, Haiyan Li, Puskal Kunwar, Yin Zhu, Rafael Ramos, Shannon Mcloughlin, Tackla Winston, Zhen Ma, Pranav Soman
The unique capabilities of ultrafast lasers to introduce user-defined microscale modifications within 3D cell-laden hydrogels have been used to investigate fundamental cellular phenomenon such as adhesion, alignment, migration and organization. In this work, we report a new material modification phenomenon coined as 'densification' and its influence on the behavior of encapsulated cells. Femtosecond laser writing technique was used to write densified lines of width 1-5μm within the bulk of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) constructs...
March 13, 2019: Biofabrication
M Zarka, E Hay, A Ostertag, C Marty, C Chappard, F Oudet, K Engelke, J D Laredo, M Cohen-Solal
OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the whole joint characterized by cartilage loss and subchondral bone remodeling. The role of microcracks in cartilage integrity and subchondral bone homeostasis is not fully understood. The main goal of this work was to evaluate microcrack density in both calcified cartilage and subchondral bone plate in relation to cartilage damage in humans and to better define the association of microcracks and osteocyte density in subchondral bone. METHODS: We investigated 18 bone cores from cadaveric human knees that were stained with En-Bloc Basic Fuchsin...
March 9, 2019: Bone
Brahim Mehadji, Yoseph Ahmed, Jean-Philippe Berteau
One of the most-scanned joints in preclinical animal models dealing with musculoskeletal pathologies is the mouse knee. While three-dimensional (3D) characterization of bone tissue porosity have previously been performed on cortical bone, it has not yet been comprehensively performed for the subchondral bone (SB) and the calcified cartilage (CC), which compose the subchondral mineralized zone (SMZ). Thus, it remains challenging to assess changes that occur in the SMZ of the mouse knee during pathologies such as osteoarthritis...
March 1, 2019: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jae Hong Park, Soo Yeon Jung, Chi-Kyou Lee, Myung Jin Ban, Sang Jin Lee, Ha Yeong Kim, Hyun Ju Oh, Byeong Kook Kim, Hae Sang Park, Si-Hyong Jang, Han Su Kim
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of a tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cell (TMSC)-transplanted polycaprolactone/beta-tricalcium phosphate prosthesis (specifically designed for easier fixing and grafting with a single scaffold) on rabbit mandible osteogenesis. METHODS: The mandibles of 18 rabbits were exposed, and 10 × 8-mm bone defects were made. Two rabbits did not receive implants; four were reconstructed with the scaffold control (SC) (SC group); four were reconstructed with scaffolds soaked in peripheral blood (PB) (PB group); four were reconstructed with TMSC-transplanted scaffolds (TMSC group); and four were reconstructed with differentiated osteocyte-transplanted scaffolds (DOC) (DOC group)...
March 12, 2019: Laryngoscope
Xiaonan Xin, Xi Jiang, Liping Wang, Paiyz Mikael, Mary Beth McCarthy, Li Chen, Augustus D Mazzocca, Syam Nukavarapu, Alexander C Lichtler, David W Rowe
The effectiveness of autologous cell-based skeletal repair continues to be controversial in part because in vitro predictors of in vivo human bone formation by cultured human progenitor cells are not reliable. To assist in the development of in vivo assays of human osteoprogenitor potential, a fluorescence-based histology of nondecalcified mineralized tissue is presented that provides multiple criteria to distinguish human and host osteoblasts, osteocytes, and accumulated bone matrix in a mouse calvarial defect model...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Vittorio Gatti, Bishoy Ghobryal, Michelle J Gelbs, Michael B Gerber, Stephen B Doty, Luis Cardoso, Susannah P Fritton
Reduced mechanical loading can lead to disuse osteoporosis, resulting in bone fragility. Disuse models report macroscopic bone loss due to muscle inactivity and immobilization, yet only recently has there been quantification of the effects of disuse on the vascular pores and osteocyte network, which are believed to play an important role in mechanotransduction via interstitial fluid flow. The goal of this study was to perform a high-resolution analysis of the effects of muscle inactivity on intracortical porosity and osteocyte lacunar density in skeletally mature rats...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
W H Nijhuis, D M Eastwood, J Allgrove, I Hvid, H H Weinans, R A Bank, R J Sakkers
The majority of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have mutations in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 gene, which has consequences for the composition of the bone matrix and bone architecture. The mutations result in overmodified collagen molecules, thinner collagen fibres and hypermineralization of bone tissue at a bone matrix level. Trabecular bone in OI is characterized by a lower trabecular number and connectivity as well as a lower trabecular thickness and volumetric bone mass. Cortical bone shows a decreased cortical thickness with less mechanical anisotropy and an increased pore percentage as a result of increased osteocyte lacunae and vascular porosity...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Barbora Veselá, Eva Švandová, Jan Bobek, Hervé Lesot, Eva Matalová
The mandible is a tooth-bearing structure involving one of the most prominent bones of the facial region. Mesenchymal cell condensation is the first morphological sign of osteogenesis, and several studies have focused on this stage also in the mandible. Little information is available about the early post-condensation period, during which avascular soft condensation turns into vascularized bone, and all three major bone cell types, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, differentiate. In the mouse first lower molar region, the post-condensation period corresponds to the prenatal days 13-15...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Gustavo A Gomez, Maneeshi S Prasad, Nabjot Sandhu, Patrick B Shelar, Alan W Leung, Martin I García-Castro
The developmental biology of neural crest cells in humans remains unexplored due to technical and ethical challenges. The use of pluripotent stem cells to model human neural crest development has gained momentum. We recently introduced a rapid chemically defined approach to induce robust neural crest by WNT/β-CATENIN activation. Here we investigate the temporal requirements of ectopic WNT activation needed to induce neural crest cells. By altering the temporal activation of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN with a GSK3 inhibitor we find that a 2 Day pulse of WNT/β-CATENIN activation via GSK3 inhibition is optimal to generate bona fide neural crest cells, as shown by their capacity to differentiate to neural crest specific fates including peripheral neurons, glia, melanoblasts and ectomesenchymal osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
February 28, 2019: Developmental Biology
Delphine B Maurel, Tsutomu Matsumoto, Julian A Vallejo, Mark L Johnson, Sarah L Dallas, Yukiko Kitase, Marco Brotto, Michael J Wacker, Marie A Harris, Stephen E Harris, Lynda F Bonewald
Transgenic mice are widely used to delete or overexpress genes in a cell specific manner to advance knowledge of bone biology, function and disease. While numerous Cre models exist to target gene recombination in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, few target osteocytes specifically, particularly mature osteocytes. Our goal was to create a spatial and temporal conditional Cre model using tamoxifen to induce Cre activity in mature osteocytes using a Bac construct containing the 5' and 3' regions of the Sost gene (Sost ERT2 Cre)...
2019: Bone Research
Jingjing Sha, Takahiro Kanno, Kenichi Miyamoto, Yunpeng Bai, Katsumi Hideshima, Yumi Matsuzaki
A novel three-dimensional (3D) porous uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-d/l-lactide (3D-HA/PDLLA) composite demonstrated superior biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, biodegradability, and plasticity, thereby enabling complex maxillofacial defect reconstruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-a type of adult stem cell-have a multipotent ability to differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteocytes. In a previous study, we found that CD90 (Thy-1, cluster of differentiation 90) and CD271 (low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor) double-positive cell populations from human bone marrow had high proliferative ability and differentiation capacity in vitro...
February 27, 2019: Materials
Hyeon Kyeong Choi, Gyeong-Ji Kim, Han-Seok Yoo, Da Hye Song, Kang-Hyun Chung, Kwon-Jai Lee, Young Tae Koo, Jeung Hee An
This study evaluated the effects of vitamin C on osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast formation, and the effects of vitamin C concentration on bone microstructure in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed the recovery of bone mineral density and bone separation in OVX rats treated with vitamin C. Histomorphometrical analysis revealed improvements in the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes; the osteoblast and osteoclast surface per bone surface; and bone volume in vitamin C-treated OVX rats...
February 27, 2019: Nutrients
Seiji Fukumoto
Osteocytes has many functions such as sensing mechanical stress to bone, regulating formation and activity of osteoclasts as well as modulation of bone metabolism and function of other organs through production of humoral factors such as sclerostin and FGF23. Sclerostin suppresses bone formation and stimulate bone resorption by inhibiting Wnt activity. FGF23 regulates phosphate metabolism mainly acting on kidney. In contrast, it is also reported that sclerostin works in kidney and FGF23 inhibits Wnt activity in osteoblasts...
2019: Clinical Calcium
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