Catriona R Mayland, Qiaoling Marilyn Ho, Hannah C Doughty, Simon N Rogers, Prithvi Peddinti, Praytush Chada, Stephen Mason, Matthew Cooper, Paola Dey
BACKGROUND: The palliative care needs of people with advanced head and neck cancer pose unique complexities due to the impact the illness has on eating, speaking, appearance and breathing. Examining these needs would help provide guidance about developing relevant models of care and identify gaps in research knowledge. AIM: To identify and map out the palliative care needs and experiences for people with advanced head and neck cancer. DESIGN: A scoping literature review following the methods described by the Joanna Briggs Institute...
October 21, 2020: Palliative Medicine
Brian W Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Worldviews about human's relationship with the natural world play an important role in psychological health. However, very little is currently known regarding the way worldviews about nature are linked with psychological health during a severe natural disaster and how this link may differ according to cultural context. In this study, we measured individual differences in worldviews about nature and psychological health during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic within two different cultural contexts (Japan and United States)...
February 15, 2021: Personality and Individual Differences
Bárbara Du-Rocher, Renata Binato, Julio Cesar Madureira de-Freitas-Junior, Stephany Corrêa, André Luiz Mencalha, José Andrés Morgado-Díaz, Eliana Abdelhay
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were first used as a source for cell therapy in 1995; however, despite their versatility and unambiguous demonstration of efficacy and safety in preclinical/phase I studies, the positive effect of MSCs in human phase III studies did not resemble the success obtained in mouse models of disease. This dissonance highlights the need to more thoroughly study the immunobiology of MSCs to make better use of these cells. Thus, we aimed to study the immunobiology of MSCs by using chip array analysis as a method for general screening to obtain a global picture in our model study and found IFNy and IL-17 signaling as the first two "top canonical pathways" involved in MSCs immunomodulation...
October 16, 2020: Stem cell reviews and reports
Yurim Seo, Eunjoo Pacifici
With the ongoing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, efforts to harmonize technical requirements of registering drugs and biologics, including vaccines, have produced a number of useful guidelines utilized around the world. However, such efforts have not been extended to the regulatory review process or product labeling. Prescribing information and patient information leaflet are two types of such product labeling documents. This study examined the differences in the languages of these documents between the United States (US) and European Union (EU)...
October 12, 2020: Vaccine
Brendan Hokowhitu, John G Oetzel, Mary Louisa Simpson, Sophie Nock, Rangimahora Reddy, Pare Meha, Kirsten Johnston, Anne-Marie Jackson, Bevan Erueti, Poia Rewi, Isaac Warbrick, Michael P Cameron, Yingsha Zhang, Stacey Ruru
BACKGROUND: The Aotearoa New Zealand population is ageing accompanied by health and social challenges including significant inequities that exist between Māori and non-Māori around poor ageing and health. Although historically kaumātua (elder Māori) faced a dominant society that failed to realise their full potential as they age, Māori culture has remained steadfast in upholding elders as cultural/community anchors. Yet, many of today's kaumātua have experienced 'cultural dissonance' as the result of a hegemonic dominant culture subjugating an Indigenous culture, leading to generations of Indigenous peoples compelled or forced to dissociate with their culture...
October 2, 2020: BMC Geriatrics
Alex M Silver, Aimee E Stahl, Rita Loiotile, Alexis S Smith-Flores, Lisa Feigenson
The question of how people's preferences are shaped by their choices has generated decades of research. In a classic example, work on cognitive dissonance has found that observers who must choose between two equally attractive options subsequently avoid the unchosen option, suggesting that not choosing the item led them to like it less. However, almost all of the research on such choice-induced preference focuses on adults, leaving open the question of how much experience is necessary for its emergence. Here, we examined the developmental roots of this phenomenon in preverbal infants ( N = 189)...
October 2, 2020: Psychological Science
Simon Schweighofer, David Garcia, Frank Schweitzer
It is known that individual opinions on different policy issues often align to a dominant ideological dimension (e.g., left vs right) and become increasingly polarized. We provide an agent-based model that reproduces alignment and polarization as emergent properties of opinion dynamics in a multi-dimensional space of continuous opinions. The mechanisms for the change of agents' opinions in this multi-dimensional space are derived from cognitive dissonance theory and structural balance theory. We test assumptions from proximity voting and from directional voting regarding their ability to reproduce the expected emerging properties...
September 2020: Chaos
Heather McCormack, Sally Nathan, Rick Varma, Bridget Haire
ISSUES ADDRESSED: This study examined navigation of health care interactions by health consumers attending Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC), an inner-city sexual health clinic in Sydney, Australia. We aimed to assess accessibility and appropriateness of communications between SSHC and patients in the context of health literacy. METHODS: We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with health consumers, assessed health literacy using the Short Health Literacy Assessment for English Speaking Adults (SAHL-E) and conducted a focus group with clinical staff...
October 1, 2020: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Ana Margarida Cunha, Joana Pereira-Mendes, Armando Almeida, Marco Rafael Guimarães, Hugo Leite-Almeida
Rodent models have been fundamental to understand chronic pain (CP) pathophysiology and to test for potential treatments. Pain assessment in CP models is most frequently based on the evaluation of allodynia or hyperalgesia. However, these correspond only to a part of CP-related problems which include ongoing pain, depression, anxiety, disrupted sleep and attentional deficits. A growing number of preclinical studies have been assessing these manifestations in CP rodent models. We reviewed and systematized this information by behavioral domain...
September 24, 2020: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Paul Hinnersmann, Katrin Hoier, Stephan Dutke
This study investigated situational changes in learners' degree of autonomous regulation during other-initiated learning activities and examined the influence of the instructional style on such changes. To this end, relative autonomous motivation of 172 fifth to seventh grade students was measured before, during and after execution of a musical learning activity. It was experimentally manipulated whether students were instructed in an autonomy-supportive or a controlling style. As expected based on self-determination theory and the action-based model of cognitive dissonance, relative autonomous motivation increased in the course of the execution of the learning activity...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Ilan Fischer, Shacked Avrashi, Tomer Oz, Rabab Fadul, Koral Gutman, Daniel Rubenstein, Gregory Kroliczak, Sebastian Goerg, Andreas Glöckner
Following the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the globe coerced their citizens to adhere to preventive health behaviours, aiming to reduce the effective reproduction numbers of the virus. Driven by game theoretic considerations and inspired by the work of US National Research Council's Committee on Food Habits (1943) during WWII, and the post-WWII Yale Communication Research Program, the present research shows how to achieve enhanced adherence to health regulations without coercion. To this aim, we combine three elements: (i) indirect measurements, (ii) personalized interventions, and (iii) attitude changing treatments (IMPACT)...
August 2020: Royal Society Open Science
Denise Alexander, Jessica Eustace-Cook, Maria Brenner
Little is understood about the dynamic circumstances within which the initiation of technology dependence takes place in children. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the influences on the initiation of technology dependence and the issues that require further exploration and consideration. Scientific literature that directly or indirectly discussed the initiation of technology dependence in children was identified. A three-stage screening process of title and abstract scrutiny, full-text scanning and in-depth full-text reading resulted in 63 relevant articles from 1133 initially reviewed...
September 23, 2020: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
William Brady DeHart, Sarah E Snider, Derek A Pope, Warren K Bickel
Objective: Research concerning trans-disease processes aims to ascertain an underlying mechanism of several seemingly dissonant behaviors, pathological conditions, or both. The theory of reinforcer pathology posits that excessive delay discounting and the maladaptive overvaluation of a particular commodity underlie a variety of dysfunctional health behavior ranging from substance abuse to overeating and financial responsibility. The present study extends recent health behavior research by examining the extent delay discounting and food valuation correlate with engagement in a latent factor model of health and financial behaviors among healthy-weight participants and participants with obesity using the Health Behaviors Questionnaire...
September 21, 2020: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Rober Boshra, Kyle I Ruiter, Kiret Dhindsa, Ranil Sonnadara, James P Reilly, John F Connolly
The current literature presents a discordant view of mild traumatic brain injury and its effects on the human brain. This dissonance has often been attributed to heterogeneities in study populations, aetiology, acuteness, experimental paradigms and/or testing modalities. To investigate the progression of mild traumatic brain injury in the human brain, the present study employed data from 93 subjects (48 healthy controls) representing both acute and chronic stages of mild traumatic brain injury. The effects of concussion across different stages of injury were measured using two metrics of functional connectivity in segments of electroencephalography time-locked to an active oddball task...
2020: Brain communications
Dong-Ho Mun, Benjamin Pradere, Shahrokh F Shariat, Mesut Remzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify the available evidence on aerosol viral transmission risk during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and evaluate its impact on guidelines development and clinical activity worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a scoping review on PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, clinical trial register, and grey literature repository databases to identify reports on viral transmission via surgical smoke or aerosolization. A systematic review of all available national and international guidelines was also performed to report their recommendations...
September 16, 2020: BJU International
F Briend, C Nathou, N Delcroix, S Dollfus, O Etard
BACKGROUND: Most repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies aiming to reduce auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia target the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), but the efficacy of this approach remains controversial. The observed differences in efficacy could be attributed to inaccurate target localization. Here, to precisely quantify anatomical bias induced by localization method, we developed a free open-source software (GeodesicSlicer) that computes shortest curved path (i...
September 12, 2020: Schizophrenia Research
Jordi Camí, Alex Gomez-Marin, Luis M Martínez
Cognitive scientists have paid very little attention to magic as a distinctly human activity capable of creating situations that are considered impossible because they violate expectations and conclude with the apparent transgression of well-established cognitive and natural laws. This illusory experience of the "impossible" entails a very particular cognitive dissonance that is followed by a subjective and complex "magical experience". Here, from a perspective inspired by visual neuroscience and ecological cognition, we propose a set of seven fundamental cognitive phenomena (from attention and perception to memory and decision-making) plus a previous pre-sensory stage that magicians interfere with during the presentation of their effects...
2020: PeerJ
Alice Swordy, Lorraine M Noble, Theresa Bourne, Logan Van Lessen, Amali U Lokugamage
INTRODUCTION: A global movement on respectful maternity care has arisen because of widespread accounts of dehumanized maternity care. This article considers the use of a transformative learning approach to highlight patient agency and personhood in health care. An educational intervention using patient narratives was introduced in a maternity unit to foster a culture of listening and responsiveness to women's voices. This article reports the impact on staff and student learning, empathy, and reflective practice...
September 4, 2020: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Anthea Fagan, Jackie Lea, Vicki Parker
There is growing evidence demonstrating that nursing students encounter unsafe and poor clinical practice when on clinical placement. The impact on nursing students remains relatively under-explored, especially in the Australian context. This two-phased qualitative study used Interpretive Description to explore 53 pre-registration nursing students' perceptions and experiences of speaking up for patient safety. Results of the study identified students believe speaking up is the right thing to do, and their professional responsibility...
September 3, 2020: Nursing Inquiry
Frances Kilbertus, Rola Ajjawi, Douglas Archibald
INTRODUCTION: Patient demographics demand physicians who are competent in and embrace palliative care as part of their professional identity. Published literature describes ways that learners acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes for palliative care. These studies are, however, limited by their focus on the individual where learning is about acquisition. Viewing learning as a process of becoming through the interplay of individual, social relationships and cultures, offers a novel perspective from which to explore the affordances for professional identity development...
August 27, 2020: Perspectives on Medical Education
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