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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779303/challenges-to-human-rabies-elimination-highlighted-following-a-rabies-outbreak-in-bovines-and-a-human-in-punjab-india
#1
Victoria J Brookes, Gurlal S Gill, Balbir B Singh, Bhupinder S Sandhu, Navneet K Dhand, Rabinder S Aulakh, Michael P Ward
In August 2015, a rabies outbreak occurred in bovines in a Punjab village, India; subsequently, a farmer in the same village died of rabies in October 2015. We surveyed farmers to describe the outbreak, the demographics and rabies prophylaxis administered to householders on case farms, and farmers' knowledge of rabies prevention and treatment. We used multiple correspondence analysis to guide investigation of associations between demographics, farm status and rabies knowledge, attitudes and practices. The number of affected bovines was unusually high; 15 cattle and buffalo died on 13 smallholder farms (attack rate 4%)...
February 18, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777493/health-students-experiences-of-the-process-of-interprofessional-education-a-pilot-project
#2
Gerda Reitsma, Belinda Scrooby, Tinda Rabie, Michelle Viljoen, Karlien Smit, Antoinette Du Preez, Ronel Pretorius, Abie Van Oort, Mariëtte Swanepoel, Adéle Naudé, Robin Dolman
The need for interprofessional education (IPE) in health science disciplines is a current global trend. However, despite international support and demand, IPE is still new to many health professions curricula in South Africa. Furthermore, while ample existing academic literature addresses commonly encountered barriers to IPE, there is still a need to investigate the dynamics and challenges associated with the process of implementing IPE at universities. IPE is not yet part of the formal curriculum at a faculty of health sciences at a South African Higher Education Institute, so a pilot project was conducted to investigate the experiences of an IPE process by students from different health professions toward informing the planning and implementation of IPE in the formal curriculum...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775880/rabies-prophylaxis-strategy-in-iran-a-need-for-an-alternative-strategy-would-the-essen-regimen-be-replaced-by-zagreb-protocol
#3
Pooneh Rahimi, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mohammad R Shirzadi, Golnaz Bahramali, Mohammad R Aghasadeghi
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal zoonotic infectious disease, which can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis that could be expensive in countries with a large population. The Essen protocol with injection of 5 single doses of human rabies vaccine on separate days is a well-known rabies prophylaxis schedule. Decreasing the number of vaccine doses and the number of clinical visits due to an effective alternative schedule is strongly needed. The 2-1-1 regimen, known as Zagreb, is one of the best candidates to succeed Essen...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772404/effects-of-an-attachment-based-intervention-in-infancy-on-children-s-autonomic-regulation-during-middle-childhood
#4
Alexandra R Tabachnick, K Lee Raby, Alison Goldstein, Lindsay Zajac, Mary Dozier
The present study used a longitudinal randomized clinical trial to test whether an early intervention has causal effects on children's autonomic nervous system regulation. When children were infants, parents involved with Child Protective Services received Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; N = 43), an intervention that promotes sensitive parenting, or a control intervention (N = 53). When children were 9 years old, children whose parents had received ABC exhibited higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia and lower heart rate at rest and during a parent-child interaction than children in the control group...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772332/early-events-in-rabies-virus-infection-attachment-entry-and-intracellular-trafficking
#5
REVIEW
Yidi Guo, Ming Duan, Xinping Wang, Jie Gao, Zhenhong Guan, Maolin Zhang
Rabies virus (RABV), an enveloped virus with a single-stranded and negative-sense RNA genome, is the type species of the Lyssavirus Genus within the Rhabdoviridae family. As the causative agent of rabies with a nearly 100% fatality, the neurotropic RABV pose a serious threat to the global public health. Though a great effort has been made toward understanding the molecular mechanism underlying virus infection cycle, there are still many aspects need to be elucidated, especially on the early events during virus replication cycle...
February 14, 2019: Virus Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770325/should-efavirenz-be-used-in-children-and-if-so-how
#6
Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, Helena Rabie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Lancet HIV
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768294/quantum-rabi-model-with-two-photon-relaxation
#7
Moein Malekakhlagh, Alejandro W Rodriguez
We study a cavity-QED setup consisting of a two-level system coupled to a single cavity mode with two-photon relaxation. The system dynamics is modeled via a Lindblad master equation consisting of the Rabi Hamiltonian and a two-photon dissipator. We show that an even-photon relaxation preserves the Z_{2} symmetry of the Rabi model, and provide a framework to study the corresponding non-Hermitian dynamics in the number-parity basis. We discuss the role of different terms in the two-photon dissipator and show how one can extend existing results for the closed Rabi spectrum to the open case...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765696/electron-nuclear-correlated-multiphoton-route-to-rydberg-fragments-of-molecules
#8
Wenbin Zhang, Xiaochun Gong, Hui Li, Peifen Lu, Fenghao Sun, Qinying Ji, Kang Lin, Junyang Ma, Hanxiao Li, Junjie Qiang, Feng He, Jian Wu
Atoms and molecules exposed to strong laser fields can be excited to the Rydberg states with very high principal quantum numbers and large orbitals. It allows acceleration of neutral particles, generate near-threshold harmonics, and reveal multiphoton Rabi oscillations and rich photoelectron spectra. However, the physical mechanism of Rydberg state excitation in strong laser fields is yet a puzzle. Here, we identify the electron-nuclear correlated multiphoton excitation as the general mechanism by coincidently measuring all charged and neutral fragments ejected from a H2 molecule...
February 14, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765564/photoelectrical-imaging-and-coherent-spin-state-readout-of-single-nitrogen-vacancy-centers-in-diamond
#9
Petr Siyushev, Milos Nesladek, Emilie Bourgeois, Michal Gulka, Jaroslav Hruby, Takashi Yamamoto, Michael Trupke, Tokuyuki Teraji, Junichi Isoya, Fedor Jelezko
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have become an important instrument for quantum sensing and quantum information science. However, the readout of NV spin state requires bulky optical setups, limiting fabrication of miniaturized compact devices for practical use. Here we realized photoelectrical detection of magnetic resonance as well as Rabi oscillations on a single-defect level. Furthermore, photoelectrical imaging of individual NV centers at room temperature was demonstrated, surpassing conventional optical readout methods by providing high imaging contrast and signal-to-noise ratio...
February 15, 2019: Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761616/nir-biosensing-of-neurotransmitters-in-stem-cell-derived-neural-interface-using-advanced-core-shell-upconversion-nanoparticles
#10
Hudifah Rabie, Yixiao Zhang, Nicholas Pasquale, Maureen J Lagos, Philip E Batson, Ki-Bum Lee
Nondestructive neurotransmitter detection and real-time monitoring of stem cell differentiation are both of great significance in the field of neurodegenerative disease and regenerative medicine. Although luminescent biosensing nanoprobes have been developed to address this need, they have intrinsic limitations such as autofluorescence, scattering, and phototoxicity. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have gained increasing attention for various biomedical applications due to their high photostability, low auto-fluorescent background, and deep tissue penetration; however, UCNPs also suffer from low emission intensities due to undesirable energy migration pathways...
February 13, 2019: Advanced Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760425/clinical-utility-of-pre-exercise-stress-testing-in-people-with-diabetes
#11
Marni J Armstrong, Doreen M Rabi, Danielle A Southern, Alykhan Nanji, William A Ghali, Ronald J Sigal
BACKGROUND: Although suggested by practice guidelines, the need for pre-exercise stress testing in asymptomatic people with diabetes remains controversial. We examined the utility of screening with pre-exercise stress testing in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We completed a cohort study, evaluating patients with diabetes who attended an exercise program intake session between 2007 and 2012. The exposure of interest was referral for pre-exercise stress testing determined by an algorithm requiring sedentary patients with diabetes and ≥ 1 cardiac risk factor to undergo testing...
February 2019: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759098/late-effects-of-total-body-irradiation-on-hematopoietic-recovery-and-immune-function-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Laura P Hale, Gowrisankar Rajam, George M Carlone, Chen Jiang, Kouros Owzar, Greg Dugan, David Caudell, Nelson Chao, J Mark Cline, Thomas C Register, Gregory D Sempowski
While exposure to radiation can be lifesaving in certain settings, it can also potentially result in long-lasting adverse effects, particularly to hematopoietic and immune cells. This study investigated hematopoietic recovery and immune function in rhesus macaques Cross-sectionally (at a single time point) 2 to 5 years after exposure to a single large dose (6.5 to 8.4 Gray) of total body radiation (TBI) derived from linear accelerator-derived photons (2 MeV, 80 cGy/minute) or Cobalt 60-derived gamma irradiation (60 cGy/min)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30757989/romantic-functioning-mediates-prospective-associations-between-childhood-abuse-and-neglect-and-parenting-outcomes-in-adulthood
#13
Madelyn H Labella, K Lee Raby, Jodi Martin, Glenn I Roisman
Research suggests intergenerational links between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent parenting quality, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying intergenerational continuities in parenting. Adult romantic functioning may be one plausible mechanism, given its documented associations with both adverse caregiving in childhood and parenting quality in adulthood. The present study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to (a) investigate prospective associations between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and multiple parenting outcomes in adulthood, and (b) evaluate the degree to which adult romantic functioning mediates those associations...
February 2019: Development and Psychopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756123/hsv-hepatitis-in-pregnancy-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Ashley Lane McCormack, Nader Rabie, Brianna Whittemore, Trevor Murphy, Collin Sitler, Everett Magann
Importance: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Immunocompromised individuals, including pregnant women, are the most susceptible. When primary infection occurs during pregnancy, risk for disseminated HSV is greatly increased. Disseminated HSV can manifest in the form of HSV hepatitis. Objective: We aim to review the literature and summarize what is known about HSV hepatitis in pregnancy to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition...
February 2019: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755721/a-hypothalamus-habenula-circuit-controls-aversion
#15
Iakovos Lazaridis, Ourania Tzortzi, Moritz Weglage, Antje Märtin, Yang Xuan, Marc Parent, Yvonne Johansson, Janos Fuzik, Daniel Fürth, Lief E Fenno, Charu Ramakrishnan, Gilad Silberberg, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Konstantinos Meletis
Encoding and predicting aversive events are critical functions of circuits that support survival and emotional well-being. Maladaptive circuit changes in emotional valence processing can underlie the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to aversion and mood regulation through modulation of the dopamine and serotonin systems. We have defined the identity and function of glutamatergic (Vglut2) control of the LHb, comparing the role of inputs originating in the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753961/status-of-antiviral-therapeutics-against-rabies-virus-and-related-emerging-lyssaviruses
#16
REVIEW
Venice Du Pont, Richard K Plemper, Matthias J Schnell
Rabies virus (RABV) constitutes a major social and economic burden associated with 60 000 deaths annually worldwide. Although pre-exposure and post-exposure treatment options are available, they are efficacious only when initiated before the onset of clinical symptoms. Aggravating the problem, the current RABV vaccine does not cross-protect against the emerging zoonotic phylogroup II lyssaviruses. A requirement for an uninterrupted cold chain and high cost of the immunoglobulin component of rabies prophylaxis generate an unmet need for the development of RABV-specific antivirals...
February 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747617/expression-of-human-ficolin-2-in-hepatocytes-confers-resistance-to-infection-by-diverse-hepatotropic-viruses
#17
Paywast J Jalal, Richard A Urbanowicz, Emma Horncastle, Monika Pathak, Chun Goddard, Amanj Saeed, Christopher P Mason, Jonathan K Ball, William L Irving, C Patrick McClure, Barnabas J King, Alexander W Tarr
The liver-expressed pattern recognition receptors mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 contribute to the innate immune response by activating complement. Binding of soluble ficolin-2 to viral pathogens can directly neutralize virus entry. We observed that the human hepatoma cell line HuH7.5, which is routinely used for the study of hepatotropic viruses, is deficient in expression of MBL, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We generated a cell line that expressed and secreted ficolin-2. This cell line (HuH7...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747148/evaluating-human-rabies-control-in-asia-using-one-health-principles-to-assess-control-programmes-for-rabies
#18
S Ghai, T Hemachudha
Rabies is a global issue, and kills tens of thousands of people every year, despite being a preventable disease. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to eliminate dog-mediated rabies by 2030 requires serious collaborative efforts across Ministries and countries. This cross-sector cooperation includes, but is not limited to, physicians, veterinarians, local authorities, local communities and the media; in other words, a 'One Health' approach. Countries where human rabies has been successfully eliminated still require constant vigilance, in terms of regulations on companion animal ownership and vaccination, the movement of animals from countries where the disease still exists, and the continued raising of public awareness...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747147/preface-rabies
#19
M Eloit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747146/introduction-history-of-rabies-control-by-vaccination
#20
A C Banyard, L M McElhinney, N Johnson, A R Fooks
Since antiquity, rabies has remained one of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humankind, with a case fatality rate approaching 100% following the onset of clinical disease. It is present on all continents where terrestrial mammals exist, with the majority of animal and human cases being reported in the resourcelimited countries of Africa and Asia, with thousands of human rabies deaths being recorded annually. It is likely, however, that the global figure of approximately 59,000 annual human rabies fatalities is an underestimate...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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