Francesca Favieri, Eunice Chen, Maria Casagrande
Recently, researchers have focused their attention on the role of cognitive processes on eating habits and body weight changes. Few studies have examined the relationship between the first stages of overweight and executive functions (EFs), excluding obesity conditions. This study is aimed to detect the involvement of the EFs and their predictive role on body mass index (BMI) in a sample of healthy individuals from childhood to young adulthood with a cross-sectional design. One-hundred and sixty-six healthy students were recruited from different Italian public schools: 46 children (age range: 7-11), 50 adolescents (age range: 15-18), 70 young adults (age range: 19-30)...
April 2, 2021: Nutrients
Mora A Reinka, Diane M Quinn, Rebecca M Puhl
Body weight is often viewed as personally controllable. This belief, however, ignores the complex etiology of body weight. While such attributions of personal willpower may help some individuals regulate their eating patterns, they have also been associated with increased internalized weight stigma which, itself, is associated with more disinhibited eating. The current investigation aimed to examine how internalized weight stigma, along with BMI, may explain the effect of weight controllability beliefs on disparate dietary behaviors...
April 14, 2021: Appetite
Jennalee S Wooldridge, Brian H Blanco, Cara Dochat, Matthew S Herbert, Kathryn M Godfrey, Jennifer Salamat, Niloofar Afari
BACKGROUND: Interventions targeting weight-related experiential avoidance (EA) and disinhibited eating (DE) may also improve diet quality. Participants with overweight/obesity and DE who recently completed a behavioral weight-loss program were randomized to receive acceptance and commitment therapy or continued behavioral weight-loss treatment. In this secondary analysis, we explored (1) change in diet quality from baseline to 6-month follow-up (FU) and (2) whether weight-related EA at baseline and (3) change in weight-related EA during treatment were related to change in diet quality from baseline to FU...
April 17, 2021: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Margaret L Westwater, Flavia Mancini, Adam X Gorka, Jane Shapleske, Jaco Serfontein, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst, Hisham Ziauddeen, Paul C Fletcher
Binge-eating is a distressing, transdiagnostic eating disorder symptom associated with impulsivity, particularly in negative mood states. Neuroimaging studies of bulimia nervosa (BN) report reduced activity in fronto-striatal regions implicated in self-regulatory control, and an influential theory posits that binge-eating results from self-regulation failures under stress. However, there is no direct evidence that psychological stress impairs self-regulation in binge-eating disorders, or that any such self-regulatory deficits generalize to binge-eating in underweight individuals (i...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Neuroscience
Alex G Rubin, Natasha A Schvey, Lisa M Shank, Deborah R Altman, Taylor N Swanson, Eliana Ramirez, Nia A Moore, Manuela Jaramillo, Sophie Ramirez, Elisabeth K Davis, Miranda M Broadney, Sarah LeMay-Russell, Meghan E Byrne, Megan K Parker, Sheila M Brady, Nichole R Kelly, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski
Weight-based teasing (WBT) is commonly reported among youth and is associated with disinhibited and disordered eating. Specifically, youth who experience WBT may engage in disordered eating behaviors to cope with the resultant negative affect. Therefore, we examined associations between WBT and disordered eating behaviors among youth and assessed whether negative affect mediated these relationships. Two hundred one non-treatment seeking youth (8-17y) completed questionnaires assessing WBT, disinhibited eating, depression, and anxiety...
March 29, 2021: Eating Behaviors
Rocío Barragán, Faris M Zuraikat, Victoria Tam, Samantha Scaccia, Justin Cochran, Si Li, Bin Cheng, Marie-Pierre St-Onge
Poor sleep is a determinant of obesity, with overconsumption of energy contributing to this relationship. Eating behavior characteristics are predictive of energy intake and weight change and may underlie observed associations of sleep with weight status and obesity risk factors. However, relationships between sleep and dimensions of eating behavior, as well as possible individual differences in these relations, are not well characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep behaviors, including duration, timing, quality, and regularity relate to dietary restraint, disinhibition, and tendency towards hunger and to explore whether these associations differ by sex...
March 5, 2021: Nutrients
Sarah Epperlein, Claudia Gebhardt, Kerstin Rohde, Rima Chakaroun, Marie Patt, Imke Schamarek, Susan Kralisch, John T Heiker, Markus Scholz, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs, Jana Breitfeld, Anke Tönjes
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of addictive behavior. Increasing evidence suggests an impact of FGF21 on eating behavior, food and drug cravings and on other adipokines like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or adiponectin. We investigated the association of serum FGF21 and genetic variants with aspects of food and drug craving and obesity related metabolic parameters including serum adipokine levels. Standardized questionnaires, blood samples and anthropometric data of the Sorbs cohort ( n = 1046) were analyzed using SPSS...
March 29, 2021: Biomedicines
Michael R Lowe
This paper is a commentary on Polivy, Herman and Mills' (2020) article, entitled "What is restrained eating and how do we identify it?". Polivy et al.'s paper makes a useful contribution by providing guidelines to researchers for choosing the most appropriate measure of restraint for their research questions. However, the authors assume that restrained eating can be appropriately conceptualized as a trait, an assumption I question. They also assume that restrained eating has a causal influence on the outcomes (e...
March 19, 2021: Appetite
Mette Svendsen, Eli Heggen, Tor Ole Klemsdal, Serena Tonstad
Because trying to quit smoking and not gain weight requires changes in two major behaviours simultaneously we explored eating behaviour in smokers with overweight/obesity making a quit attempt using guideline-based treatment. Participants were randomized to a carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diet. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and Binge Eating Scale were completed by 48 of 64 participants in the low-carbohydrate and 47 of 58 in the fat-reduced group at randomization, after 6 and 14 weeks. At 6 weeks, no between group differences were seen in eating behaviour scores thus, we combined the sample for further analyses...
March 9, 2021: Clinical Obesity
Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Guilherme Prado Mattar, Glenda Guerra Haddad, Burduli Ekaterina, Sterling M McPherson, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Mônica Sanches Yassuda, Geraldo Filho Busatto, Cassio Machado de Campos Bottino, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Naomi Sage Chaytor
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are non-cognitive manifestations common to dementia and other medical conditions, with important consequences for the patient, caregivers, and society. Studies investigating NPS in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and dementia are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Characterize NPS and caregiver distress among adults with DS using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). METHODS: We evaluated 92 individuals with DS (≥30 years of age), divided by clinical diagnosis: stable cognition, prodromal dementia, and AD...
March 16, 2021: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Suzana Stojiljkovic-Drobnjak, Susanne Fischer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Ulrike Kuebler, Ulrike Ehlert
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is common as women approach mid-life. Reduced levels of leptin, an anorexigenic hormone, may facilitate this. Studies in middle-aged women with obesity have shown that dysfunctional eating behaviour, such as restrained eating, is linked to lower leptin. Furthermore, states of low oestradiol signalling, as are found in post-menopause or anorexia nervosa, have been found to impact leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, how different aspects of dysfunctional eating, menopausal status, and a history of anorexia nervosa relate to leptin levels in normal-weight middle-aged women...
March 15, 2021: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Misha J Oey, Albert Postma, Sarah Hoes, Erik Oudman
Korsakoff Syndrome (KS) is commonly associated with behavioural symptoms such as agitation, apathy, and disinhibition. People with KS often reside in long-term care facilities, which reduces their exposure to natural light. Little is known regarding positive effects of light intervention in KS. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of a dawn simulation therapy on behavioural symptoms in KS. 38 patients residing in a 24-hour care facility were exposed for 6 weeks to a dawn simulation system in their bedrooms, which gradually increased from 0 lux to 290 lux...
March 8, 2021: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Bokyoung Kim, Gie Ok Noh, Kyunghee Kim
BACKGROUND: Studies reported the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), cognitive function, caregiver burden, and therapeutic effects. However, the causal relationship between BPSD in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and caregiver burden is yet to be established. This study aimed to classify BPSD in patients with AD and identify the relationship between BPSD and the factors affecting family caregiver burden. METHODS: Path analysis was conducted at a neurology outpatient clinic of a tertiary general hospital in South Korea...
March 5, 2021: BMC Geriatrics
Dimitrios I Athanasiadis, Anna Martin, Panagiotis Kapsampelis, Sara Monfared, Dimitrios Stefanidis
INTRODUCTION: To systematically review the literature to assess the incidence and risk factors of weight regain (WR) after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for sustained weight loss of morbidly obese patients, but WR remains a concern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PRISMA compliant systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed database, Embase and the Cochrane Library in July of 2019. Studies that reported ≥ 10% WR after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were included...
March 1, 2021: Surgical Endoscopy
Alan Russell, Catherine G Russell
This narrative review discusses the origins and development of appetite self-regulation (ASR) in childhood (from infancy to age 6 or 7 years). The origins, or foundations, are the biological infrastructure associated with appetite regulation and appetite self-regulation. Homeostatic regulation in infancy is examined and then evidence about developmental change in components of ASR. The main ASR-related components covered are: delay-of-gratification, caloric compensation, eating in the absence of hunger, food responsiveness/hedonics and fussy eating...
February 24, 2021: Appetite
Kelly A Romano, Kristin E Heron, James M Henson
The present study aimed to expand weight stigma theoretical models by accounting for central tenets of prominent eating disorder (ED) theories and increasing the generalizability of existing models for individuals across the weight spectrum. College students (Sample 1: N = 1228; Sample 2: N = 1368) completed online surveys assessing stigma and ED symptoms. In each sample, separately, multi-group path analyses tested whether body mass index (BMI) classification (underweight/average weight, overweight, obese) moderated a model wherein weight stigma experiences were sequentially associated with weight bias internalization, body dissatisfaction, and five ED symptoms: binge eating, purging, restricting, excessive exercise, muscle building behaviors...
February 5, 2021: Body Image
Zachary A Soulliard, Cassie Brode, Lawrence E Tabone, Salim Abunnaja, Nova Szoka, Stephanie Cox
BACKGROUND: Body appreciation and internalized weight bias have consistently been associated with eating behaviors. However, research has yet to examine the role of these variables among presurgical bariatric patients. OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to assess the relationships between body appreciation and weight bias internalization, binge eating, disinhibited eating, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among a sample of presurgical bariatric patients...
December 30, 2020: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Meghan E Byrne, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jason M Lavender, Megan N Parker, Lisa M Shank, Taylor N Swanson, Eliana Ramirez, Sarah LeMay-Russell, Shanna B Yang, Sheila M Brady, Anna Zenno, Krishna Karthik Chivukula, Nichole R Kelly, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Poorer executive function (EF) has been linked to disinhibited eating in youth, suggesting poor EF predisposes toward obesity, yet the specific nature and extent of interconnections between facets of these domains is unclear. Network analysis provides a promising framework for elucidating the relationship between poor EF and disinhibited eating, and offers insights into potential maintenance processes. METHOD: Among youth ages 8-17 years, a regularized partial correlation network of EF and disinhibited eating facets was estimated to examine expected influence centrality and bridge expected influence...
January 27, 2021: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Melania Melis, Stefano Pintus, Mariano Mastinu, Giovanni Fantola, Roberto Moroni, Marta Yanina Pepino, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for severe obesity and related comorbidities. Although patients who underwent bariatric surgery report changes of taste and smell perception, results from sensory studies are discrepant and limited. Here, we assessed taste and smell functions in 51 patients before, one month, and six months after undergoing bariatric surgery. We used taste strip tests to assess gustatory function (including sweetness, saltiness, sourness, umaminess, bitterness and oleic acid, a fatty stimulus), the "Sniffin' Sticks" test to assess olfactory identification and the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire to assess eating behavior...
January 16, 2021: Nutrients
Eric J Brunner, Koutatsu Maruyama, Martin Shipley, Noriko Cable, Hiroyasu Iso, Ayako Hiyoshi, Daryth Stallone, Meena Kumari, Adam Tabak, Archana Singh-Manoux, John Wilson, Claudia Langenberg, Nick Wareham, David Boniface, Aroon Hingorani, Mika Kivimäki, Clare Llewellyn
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The mediating role of eating behaviors in genetic susceptibility to weight gain during mid-adult life is not fully understood. This longitudinal study aims to help us understand contributions of genetic susceptibility and appetite to weight gain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We followed the body-mass index (BMI) trajectories of 2464 adults from 45 to 65 years of age by measuring weight and height on four occasions at 5-year intervals. Genetic risk of obesity (gene risk score: GRS) was ascertained, comprising 92 BMI-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and split at a median (=high and low risk)...
January 14, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
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