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Disseminated coccidioidomycosis

Nichole Arbona, Christine D Butkiewicz, Minta Keyes, Lisa F Shubitz
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidomycosis in cats residing in a region endemic for Coccidioides species. METHODS: A retrospective review of records was performed at both primary and tertiary care veterinary practices in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: Fifty-one feline cases were identified from six veterinary hospitals...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Chiung-Yu Hung, Amy P Hsu, Steven M Holland, Joshua Fierer
Coccidioidomycosis is a human fungal disease cause by inhalation of aerosol spores produced by Coccidioides posadasii or Coccidioides immitis. This disease is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the Southwestern United States. It also can present as a life-threatening disease as the fungal cells disseminate to skin, bone, and central nervous system. The outcome of coccidioidomycosis is largely determined by the nature of host immune response to the infection. Escalation of symptomatic infections and increased cost of long-term antifungal treatment warrant a concerted effort to better understand the innate and adaptive immune responses and the genetics associated with coccidioidomycosis susceptibility...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Autumn P Davidson, Lisa F Shubitz, Cody J Alcott, Jane E Sykes
Canine coccidioidomycosis, a systemic fungal infection endemic to arid and semiarid regions of North, Central, and South America, is commonly diagnosed in dogs living in or traveling through lower Sonoran life zones in the states of California and Arizona. Canine and human cases have geographic overlap. Similarities between clinical coccidioidomycosis in dogs and humans include asymptomatic infection, primary respiratory disease and disseminated disease. Differences include a high rate of dissemination in dogs, differences in predilection of dissemination sites, and a granulomatous or diffuse meningoencephalopathic form in the canine central nervous system (CNS) without the obstructive component seen in humans...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Eduardo G Arathoon, Cristina Canteros, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Adrián Rendon
Coccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America and has been reported (human and zoonotic cases) in México, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America is unknown due to lack of clinical awareness and limited access to laboratory diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis is as prevalent in Mexico as in the endemic regions of the United States. The number of cases reported in Brazil and Argentina has progressively increased during the last decade, including areas that were not considered as endemic...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Matthew R Davis, Minh-Vu H Nguyen, Monica A Donnelley, George R Thompson Iii
Background: Fluconazole is a commonly prescribed first-generation triazole antifungal. Although the toxicity profile of fluconazole has been evaluated in clinical trials, there are scant data regarding its tolerability with long-term therapy. Treatment guidelines for coccidioidomycosis recommend fluconazole therapy and severe or disseminated infections can require lifelong treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of long-term fluconazole adverse effects, their consequences for antifungal therapy, time to adverse effects and the association between dosing regimen or fluconazole serum level and adverse effect status...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Christine D Butkiewicz, Lisa F Shubitz
An anonymous web-based survey of alpaca owners was used to learn more about the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of coccidioidomycosis in alpacas in the United States. Thirty-seven owners, with 1,117 alpacas, completed the survey. Over 4% of alpacas included in the study were diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis between 2005 and 2016 (5 post mortem, 46 clinically). Immunodiffusion titers ranged from 1:4 to ≥ 1:256 in sick animals. Alpacas residing in Arizona counties with a high incidence of human disease were 5...
December 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Suganya Viriyakosol, Mili Kapoor, Sharon Okamoto, Jonathan Covel, Quinlyn A Soltow, Michael Trzoss, Karen Joy Shaw, Joshua Fierer
Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by the inhalation of the arthroconidia of either of two closely related dimorphic fungi, Coccidioides immitis , and C. posadasii that are endemic in the southwestern US and other areas in the Western Hemisphere. Chronic cavitary pulmonary infections and extra-pulmonary sites of infection are very difficult to treat and often require life-long azole therapy. APX001A is the first in a new class of broad spectrum antifungal agents which inhibit Gwt1, an enzyme which is required for localization of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored mannoproteins in fungi...
November 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sammy G Nakhla
Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley Fever or Valley Fever, is mostly a pulmonary infection caused by inhalation of spores in an endemic region. Dissemination to bone, joints, meninges, and skin occurs less than one percent of the time. Skeletal involvement accounts for approximately half of the disseminated coccidioidomycosis with the vertebrae as the most common skeletal region. We present a very rare case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with osteomyelitis and compression fracture of the lumbar vertebral body...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Daniel Elad
This review focuses on aspects of antimycotic therapy specific to veterinary medicine. In the first part, drug availability, limited mostly by economic consideration but also by clinical applicability and specific adverse effects, is described for polyenes, 5 fluorocytosine, azoles, echinocandins and terbinafine. In the second part, current knowledge and experience in the treatment of selected fungal infections are overviewed. These mycoses include disseminated mold infections in small animals (dogs and cats) and avian species, upper respiratory tract infections of small animals (sino-nasal and sino-orbital aspergillosis) and horses (guttural pouch mycosis), eumycetoma, infections caused by dimorphic fungi, (blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and sporothrichosis) and by yeasts and yeast-like microorganism ( Cryptococcus spp...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Ian H McHardy, Bao-Tran N Dinh, Sarah Waldman, Ethan Stewart, Derek Bays, Demosthenes Pappagianis, George R Thompson
Coccidioidomycosis is associated with a broad spectrum of illness severity, ranging from asymptomatic or self-limited pulmonary infection to life-threatening manifestations of disseminated disease. Serologic studies before the widespread availability of antifungals established current understanding of serologic kinetics and dynamics. Chart histories and complement fixation (CF) titer trends were analyzed for 434 antifungal-treated coccidioidomycosis patients, who were classified by three infectious disease physicians as having either pulmonary uncomplicated coccidioidomycosis (PUC) ( n = 248), pulmonary chronic coccidioidomycosis (PCC) ( n = 64), disseminated coccidioidomycosis (DC) not including meningitis ( n = 86), or coccidioidal meningitis (CM) ( n = 36)...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Rebecca L Laws, Gail Sondermeyer Cooksey, Seema Jain, Jason Wilken, Jennifer McNary, Edward Moreno, Kristy Michie, Christy Mulkerin, Ann McDowell, Duc Vugia, Barbara Materna
In January 2017, two local health departments notified the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) of three cases of coccidioidomycosis among workers constructing a solar power installation (solar farm) in southeastern Monterey County. Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley fever, is an infection caused by inhalation of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides, which is endemic in the southwestern United States, including California. After a 1-3 week incubation period, coccidioidomycosis most often causes influenza-like symptoms or pneumonia, but rarely can lead to severe disseminated disease or death (1)...
August 24, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Keith Koistinen, Lisa Mullaney, Todd Bell, Sherif Zaki, Aysegul Nalca, Ondraya Frick, Virginia Livingston, Camenzind G Robinson, J Scot Estep, K Lance Batey, Edward J Dick, Michael A Owston
Coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates has been sporadically reported in the literature. This study describes 22 cases of coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates within an endemic region, and 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis from the veterinary literature are also reviewed. The 22 cases included baboons ( n = 10), macaques ( n = 9), and chimpanzees ( n = 3). The majority died or were euthanized following episodes of dyspnea, lethargy, or neurologic and locomotion abnormalities. The lungs were most frequently involved followed by the vertebral column and abdominal organs...
November 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sarah J Coates, Lindy P Fox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: JAAD Case Reports
Sonya A Trinh, Ignacio A Echenique, Sudhir Penugonda, Michael P Angarone
BACKGROUND: Although the research is limited, treatment guidelines recommend lifelong suppressive azole therapy for disseminated endemic fungal infection (EFI) after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Suppressive azole therapy may prevent EFI recurrence at the risk of hepatotoxicity and drug interactions. We present real-world safety and effectiveness data of chronic suppressive azole therapy for EFI in SOT recipients over a 10-year period at a single comprehensive transplant center. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of SOT recipients diagnosed with EFI from January 1, 2005, to May 1, 2015...
July 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Teresa Fox, Robin Solomon, Anjum Kaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Chantel Raghu, Christopher Reagh
A dog with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the vertebral, cutaneous, and pulmonary systems was treated successfully with voriconazole after failing traditional therapy with fluconazole and terbinafine. This report is the first to describe the successful management of refractory coccidioidomycosis with voriconazole in a dog.
2018: Case reports in veterinary medicine
Helmut J F Salzer, Gerd Burchard, Oliver A Cornely, Christoph Lange, Thierry Rolling, Stefan Schmiedel, Michael Libman, Domenico Capone, Thuy Le, Margareth P Dalcolmo, Jan Heyckendorf
Systemic endemic mycoses cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in certain regions of the world and the real impact on global health is not well understood. Diagnosis and management remain challenging, especially in low-prevalence settings, where disease awareness is lacking. The main challenges include the variability of clinical presentation, the fastidious and slow-growing nature of the fungal pathogens, the paucity of diagnostic tests, and the lack of options and toxicity of antifungal drugs. Coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are restricted to the Americas only, and while histoplasmosis and blastomycosis also occur predominantly in the Americas, these mycoses have also been reported on other continents, especially in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Shih-Ming Tsai, Tyler Goshia, Yen-Chang Chen, Agnes Kagiri, Angelo Sibal, Meng-Hsuen Chiu, Anand Gadre, Vincent Tung, Wei-Chun Chin
The highly prevalent and virulent disease in the Western Hemisphere Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, can cause serious illness such as severe pneumonia with respiratory failure. It can also take on a disseminated form where the infection spreads throughout the body. Thus, a serious impetus exists to develop effective detection of the disease that can also operate in a rapid and high-throughput fashion. Here, we report the assembly of a highly sensitive biosensor using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with Coccidioides(cocci) antibodies as the target analytes...
October 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Tetyana Vaysman, Sean Villaflores, Carlyn Estrella, Suman Radhakrishna, Antonio Liu
Myelitis of the spinal cord is an uncommon presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Most infected patients present subclinically, but patients, especially those who are immunocompromised, may progress to disseminated disease. We present a 50-year-old immunocompetent patient with no significant past medical history exhibiting symptoms of altered mental status, dizziness, headache, nausea, and quadriplegia. Upon investigation with lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, and coccidioidal antibody studies, the patient was found to have acute coccidioidomycosis...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Marie A Manning, Phillip H Kuo, Andrew M Yeager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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