C Dorbeau, K Bourget, L Renard, C Calais, D Bakhos
Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) are commonly recorded in patients experiencing vertigo or chronic instability. This test evaluates the patient's otolith function and is often combined with both Videonystagmography and Video Head Impulse Test. VEMP is a simple, reproducible test, in the absence of any pre-existing conductive hearing loss. Cervical VEMP explore both saccular function and the inferior vestibular nerve, whereas ocular VEMP assess utricular function and the superior vestibular nerve...
January 19, 2021: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Henri Traboulsi, Michael Teixido
Objective: To develop a downloadable three-dimensional (3D) study tool of the membranous labyrinth in order to facilitate the study of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Background: The diagnosis and treatment of BPPV depend on an understanding of the anatomy of the vestibular labyrinth and its position relative to the head. To date, many illustrations have been made to explain principles of diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, but few have been based on anatomical studies of the membranous labyrinth...
January 2021: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Martin Hitier, Yan-Feng Zhang, Go Sato, Stephane Besnard, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
It has become well established that vestibular information is important for hippocampal function and spatial memory. However, as yet, relatively little is known about how different kinds of vestibular information are 'represented' in different parts of the hippocampus. This study used selective electrical stimulation of each of the 5 vestibular sensors (the horizontal (HC), anterior (AC) and posterior (PC) semi-circular canals, and the utricle and saccule) in the rat and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) across the hippocampus, using a 16 electrode microarray...
January 9, 2021: Hearing Research
Niraj Kumar Singh, Husna Firdose
PURPOSE: Ageing is process that brings about steady decline in most of the systems, and vestibular system is no different. Although the effects of advancing age on the functioning of the semicircular canals and saccule has been well explored, its impact on the utricle remains the least studied component. While some researchers have investigated the effect of advancing age on the utricular functioning by virtue of studying ocular-vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), the use of smaller sample sizes would hamper the generalization of their results...
January 16, 2021: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Swetha Pinninti, Jennifer Christy, Anwar Almutairi, Graham Cochrane, Karen B Fowler, Suresh Boppana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the leading nongenetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss and developmental disabilities. Because there are limited data from studies of vestibular involvement in select groups of children with cCMV, the true frequency of vestibular disorders in cCMV is likely underestimated. Our objective for this study is to determine the prevalence of vestibular, gaze, and balance disorders in a cohort of children with asymptomatic cCMV...
January 8, 2021: Pediatrics
Xin Hu, Jian-Zhong Lin, Hong-Fei Wu, Jiu-Ming Li, Wei-Li Wu, Hong-Bo Yu
Objective: To explore the diagnosis, classification and treatment of ectopic seminal tract opening in enlarged prostatic utricle (EPU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data on 22 cases of ectopic seminal tract opening in EPU confirmed by spermography, EPU open cannula angiography or intraoperative puncture of the vas deferens and treated by transurethral incision of EPU, cold-knife incision or electric incision of EPU, full drainage of the anteriorwal, and open or laparoscopic surgery from October 1985 to October 2017...
November 2020: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
A M Efremenkov, O Yu Kolmakov, V I Efimova, O V Koroleva, I A Shishkin, A A Gorina, M N Shatokhin
The article present the clinical observation of 4 year old boy with scrotal hypospadias. Previous surgery management had unsatisfactory results due to complications of the cyst of the prostatic utricle. Laparoscopic removal of the cyst of the prostatic utricle was performed. The next step was urethral plastic. The results of the operation were satisfactory. A brief review of the literature is provided.
December 2020: Urologii︠a︡
Xiaoqing Qian, Ziyu He, Yanmei Wang, Binjun Chen, Alisa Hetrick, Chunfu Dai, Fanglu Chi, Hongzhe Li, Dongdong Ren
Intratympanic injection of gentamicin has proven to be an effective therapy for intractable vestibular dysfunction. However, most studies to date have focused on the cochlea, so little is known about the distribution and uptake of gentamicin by the counterpart of the auditory system, specifically vestibular hair cells (HCs). Here, with a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we used a gentamicin-Texas Red (GTTR) conjugate to investigate the mechanisms of gentamicin vestibulotoxicity in the developing mammalian utricular HCs...
December 23, 2020: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yi Li, Huizhan Liu, Xiaochang Zhao, David Z He
The mammalian inner ear has two major parts, the cochlea is responsible for hearing and the vestibular organ is responsible for balance. The cochlea and vestibular organs are connected by a series of canals in the temporal bone and two distinct extracellular fluids, endolymph and perilymph, fill different compartments of the inner ear. Stereocilia of mechanosensitive hair cells in the cochlea and vestibular end organs are bathed in the endolymph, which contains high K+ ions and possesses a positive potential termed endolymphatic potential (ELP)...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Courtney Elaine Stewart, Avril Genene Holt, Richard A Altschuler, Anthony Thomas Cacace, Courtney D Hall, Owen D Murnane, W Michael King, Faith W Akin
Despite our understanding of the impact of noise-induced damage to the auditory system, much less is known about the impact of noise exposure on the vestibular system. In this article, we review the anatomical, physiological, and functional evidence for noise-induced damage to peripheral and central vestibular structures. Morphological studies in several animal models have demonstrated cellular damage throughout the peripheral vestibular system and particularly in the otolith organs; however, there is a paucity of data on the effect of noise exposure on human vestibular end organs...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Lin Ping, Zhou Yi-Fei, Wu Shu-Zhi, Zheng Yan-Yan, Yang Xiao-Kai
INTRODUCTION: The Epley maneuver is useful for the otoconia to return from the long arm of the posterior semicircular canal into the utricle. To move otoconia out of the posterior semicircular canal short arm and into the utricle, we need different maneuvers. OBJECTIVE: To diagnose the short-arm type BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal and treat them with bow-and-yaw maneuver. METHODS: 171 cases were diagnosed as BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal based on a positive Dix-Hallpike maneuver...
November 23, 2020: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Dalian Ding, Haiyan Jiang, Richard Salvi
Because cyclodextrins are capable of removing cholesterol from cell membranes, there is growing interest in using these compounds to treat diseases linked to aberrant cholesterol metabolism. One compound, 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), is currently being evaluated as a treatment for Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease, a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by the buildup of lipids in endosomes and lysosomes. HPβCD can reduce some debilitating symptoms and extend life span, but the therapeutic doses used to treat the disease cause hearing loss...
November 27, 2020: Hearing Research
Xiaoqing Qian, Rui Ma, Xinwei Wang, Xinda Xu, Juanmei Yang, Fanglu Chi, Dongdong Ren
Loss of hair cells from vestibular epithelium results in balance dysfunction. The current therapeutic regimen for vestibular diseases is limited. Upon injury or Atoh1 overexpression, hair cell replacement occurs rapidly in the mammalian utricle, suggesting a promising approach to induce vestibular hair cell regeneration. In this study, we applied simultaneous gentamicin-mediated hair cell ablation and Atoh1 overexpression to induce neonatal utricular hair cell formation in vitro. We confirmed that type I hair cells were the primary targets of gentamicin...
December 3, 2020: Experimental Cell Research
Jason Wu, Paola Solanes, Carl Nist-Lund, Sofia Spataro, Olga Shubina-Oleinik, Irina Marcovich, Hannah Goldberg, Bernard L Schneider, Jeffrey R Holt
AAV-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach for treating genetic hearing loss. Replacement or editing of the Tmc1 gene, encoding hair cell mechanosensory ion channels, is effective for hearing restoration in mice with some limitations. Efficient rescue of outer hair cell function, as well as lack of hearing recovery with later stage treatment, remain issues to be solved. Exogenous genes delivered with the AAV9-PHP.B capsid via the utricle transduce both inner and outer hair cells of the mouse cochlea with high efficacy...
November 16, 2020: Molecular Therapy
Gang Chen, Xiaoyan Dai, Xiuping Ren, Naifen Lin, Min Zhang, Zhaolin Du, Endong Zhang
Objective: To compare utricular dysfunction with saccular dysfunction in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), based on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP), respectively. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature search exploring utricular and saccular dysfunction in BPPV patients through June 2020 using oVEMP and cVEMP, respectively. The databases included Pubmed, Embase, CENTRAL, CNKI, Wan Fang Data, and CBM. The literatures were limited to Chinese and English...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Isabel Gebhart, Carina Götting, Sara-Lynn Hool, Miranda Morrison, Athanasia Korda, Marco Caversaccio, Dominik Obrist, Georgios Mantokoudis
HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate the effect of the head excursion angle on the success of the Sémont Maneuver (SM). BACKGROUND: SM is performed with the head turned by 45 degrees toward the unaffected ear. In clinical routine, it is unlikely that physicians can turn the head to a position of exactly 45 degrees. Moreover, it is unclear how possible deviations from 45 degrees would affect the outcome with SM. METHODS: We used an in vitro model (upscaled by ×5) of a posterior semicircular canal with canalithiasis to study head excursion angles (0-75 degrees) and minimum waiting times in SM...
November 6, 2020: Otology & Neurotology
Chisato Fujimoto, Takuya Kawahara, Masato Yagi, Toshihisa Murofushi
BACKGROUND: The association between vestibular function and findings of horizontal head-shaking nystagmus (HHSN) and vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) tests is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between function in the five distinct vestibular end organs and findings of these nystagmus tests. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients with vestibular diseases who underwent HHSN testing, VIN testing, video head impulse testing (vHIT), cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing to air-conducted sound (ACS cVEMP) and ocular VEMP testing to ACS (ACS oVEMP)...
2020: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Yuan Zhang, Shasha Zhang, Zhonghong Zhang, Ying Dong, Xiangyu Ma, Ruiying Qiang, Yin Chen, Xia Gao, Chunjie Zhao, Fangyi Chen, Shuangba He, Renjie Chai
Foxg1 plays important roles in regeneration of hair cell (HC) in the cochlea of neonatal mouse. Here, we used Sox9-CreER to knock down Foxg1 in supporting cells (SCs) in the utricle in order to investigate the role of Foxg1 in HC regeneration in the utricle. We found Sox9 an ideal marker of utricle SCs and bred Sox9CreER/+ Foxg1loxp/loxp mice to conditionally knock down Foxg1 in utricular SCs. Conditional knockdown (cKD) of Foxg1 in SCs at postnatal day one (P01) led to increased number of HCs at P08. These regenerated HCs had normal characteristics, and could survive to at least P30...
October 24, 2020: Aging
Edward S A van Beelen, Wouter H van der Valk, John C M J de Groot, Erik F Hensen, Heiko Locher, Peter Paul G van Benthem
Melanocytes are present in various parts of the inner ear, including the stria vascularis in the cochlea and the dark cell areas in the vestibular organs, where they contribute to endolymph homeostasis. Developmental studies describing the distribution of vestibular melanocytes are scarce, especially in humans. In this study, we investigated the distribution and maturation of the vestibular melanocytes in relation to the developing dark cell epithelium in inner ear specimens from week 5 to week 14 of development and in surgical specimens of the adult ampulla...
October 19, 2020: Developmental Neurobiology
Evan M Ratzan, Anne M Moon, Michael R Deans
FGF8 signaling plays diverse roles in inner ear development, acting at multiple stages from otic placode induction to cellular differentiation in the organ of Corti. As a secreted morphogen with diverse functions, Fgf8 expression is likely to be spatially restricted and temporally dynamic throughout inner ear development. We evaluated these characteristics using genetic labeling mediated by Fgf8 mcm gene-targeted mice and determined that Fgf8 expression is a specific and early marker of Type-I vestibular hair cell identity...
October 12, 2020: Development
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