Ying Zhu, Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel Christian Ellwanger, Jocelyn F Krey, Dongseok Choi, Ryan T Kelly, Stefan Heller, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Hearing and balance rely on small sensory hair cells that reside in the inner ear. To explore dynamic changes in the abundant proteins present in differentiating hair cells, we used nanoliter-scale shotgun mass spectrometry of single cells, each ~1 picoliter, from utricles of embryonic day 15 chickens. We identified unique constellations of proteins or protein groups from presumptive hair cells and from progenitor cells. The single-cell proteomes enabled the de novo reconstruction of a developmental trajectory using protein expression levels, revealing proteins that greatly increased in expression during differentiation of hair cells (e...
November 4, 2019: ELife
Kevin Pineault, Ridwan Alam, Alexa Meyer, Michael H Johnson
Prostatic utricles are rare in the general population and are often otherwise unremarkable anatomic variants. These structures are contiguous with the prostatic urethra and are nevertheless susceptible to urothelial carcinoma. This case report discusses the first reported patient with Fanconi anemia with urothelial carcinoma within an enlarged prostatic utricle.
January 2020: Urology Case Reports
Paul F Smith
Many studies have demonstrated that vestibular sensory input is important for spatial learning and memory. However, it has been unclear what contributions the different parts of the vestibular system - the semi-circular canals and otoliths - make to these processes. The advent of mutant otolith-deficient mice has made it possible to isolate the relative contributions of the otoliths, the utricle and saccule. A number of studies have now indicated that the loss of otolithic function impairs normal spatial memory and also impairs the normal function of head direction cells in the thalamus and place cells in the hippocampus...
2019: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jingrong Lu, Lingxiang Hu, Bin Ye, Haixia Hu, Yong Tao, Yilai Shu, HaoChiang, Vikrant Borse, Mingliang Xiang, Hao Wu, Albert S B Edge, Fuxin Shi
The vestibular system of the inner ear contains Type I and Type II hair cells (HCs) generated from sensory progenitor cells; however, little is known about how the HC subtypes are formed. Sox2 (encoding SRY-box 2) is expressed in Type II, but not in Type I, HCs. The present study aimed to investigate the role of SOX2 in cell fate determination in Type I vs. Type II HCs. First, we confirmed that Type I HCs developed from Sox2-expressing cells through lineage tracing of Sox2-positive cells using a CAG-tdTomato reporter mouse crossed with a Sox2-CreER mouse...
October 30, 2019: Neuroscience
Dong-Gyun Han, Dong-Jun Kim
Human otoliths, primarily formed from salts of calcium and carbonate, are different from bones of the skeleton, which are composed of calcium phosphate. The echinoderms, which share the earliest common ancestor with us, began to protect the body by making an endoskeleton out of calcium and carbon dioxide dissolved in the sea. In subsequent vertebrates, aerobic respiration supported strong muscle activity, but an occasional shortage of oxygen led to low pH due to the accumulation of lactate produced by anaerobic respiration, increasing the risk of melting bones composed of calcium carbonate...
October 21, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Gail Ishiyama, Ivan A Lopez, Dora Acuna, Akira Ishiyama
The integrity and permeability of the blood labyrinthine barrier (BLB) in the inner ear is important to maintain adequate blood supply, and to control the passage of fluids, molecules and ions. Identifying the cellular and structural components of the BLB, the vascular endothelial cells (VECs), pericytes, and the perivascular basement membrane, is critical to understand the pathophysiology of the inner ear microvasculature and to design efficient delivery of therapeutics across the BLB. A recent study of the normal and pathological ultrastructural changes in the human macula utricle microvasculature demonstrated that the VECs are damaged in Meniere's disease (MD), and further studies identified oxidative stress markers (iNOS and nitrotyrosine) in the VECs...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nicholas R Lozier, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a nocturnal, seasonally breeding, intertidal-nesting teleost fish that produces social acoustic signals for intraspecific communication. Type I or "nesting" males produce agonistic and reproductive-related acoustic signals including a multiharmonic advertisement call during the summer breeding season. Previous work showed that type I male auditory sensitivity of the saccule, the primary midshipman auditory end organ, changes seasonally with reproductive state such that reproductive males become more sensitive and better suited than nonreproductive males to detect the dominant frequencies contained within type I vocalizations...
September 27, 2019: Hearing Research
Ryohei Oya, Takao Imai, Yukinori Takenaka, Takashi Sato, Kazuo Oshima, Yumi Ohta, Hidenori Inohara
PURPOSE: As the pathological cause of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the dislocation or degeneration of otoconia in the utricle and saccule is suggested. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) could reflect otolithic dysfunction due to these etiologies of BPPV. The aim of this study was to validate the clinical significance of cervical (c) and ocular (o) VEMP in BPPV by a meta-analysis of previous articles. METHODS: Articles related to BPPV with data on cVEMP and oVEMP were collected...
October 11, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Katja P Wolffenbuttel, Gundela Holmdahl
INTRODUCTION: An enlarged utricle in patients with proximal hypospadias or disorders of sex development (DSD) is common. The utricle orifice is usually in the posterior urethra near the verumontanum, but in exceptional cases located on the perineum. Concurrence of a perineal hypospadias and perineal utricle or vagina is also known as male vagina, pseudovagina, or blind vaginal pouch. The utricle in such cases is usually excised either before or concomitant with hypospadias repair. The authors developed an alternative approach in which the vagina or perineal utricle is retained during hypospadias repair and report on the results in four patients...
September 10, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Bernardo Faria Ramos, Renato Cal, Camila Martins Brock, Pedro Luiz Mangabeira Albernaz, Francisco Zuma E Maia
The apogeotropic variant of horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is attributed to free floating particles in the anterior arm of the lateral semicircular canal - particles attached to the cupula facing the canal or particles attached to the cupula facing the utricle. Zuma e Maia described a new treatment for both canalithiasis of the anterior arm of the horizontal semicircular canal (HC) and cupulolithiasis of the HC. Seventeen patients with apogeotropic HC-BPPV were enrolled and treated with Zuma's Maneuver...
September 2, 2019: Audiology Research
J Dlugaiczyk
BACKGROUND: Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are increasingly being used for testing otolith organ function. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the anatomical, biomechanical and neurophysiological principles of an evidence-based clinical application of ocular and cervical VEMPs (oVEMPs and cVEMPs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic literature search in PubMed until April 2019. RESULTS: Sound and vibration at a frequency of 500 Hz represent selective vestibular stimuli for the otolith organs...
October 2, 2019: HNO
Pascal Senn, Amir Mina, Stefan Volkenstein, Veronika Kranebitter, Kazuo Oshima, Stefan Heller
Loss of inner ear hair cells leads to incurable balance and hearing disorders because these sensory cells do not effectively regenerate in humans. A potential starting point for therapy would be the stimulation of quiescent progenitor cells within the damaged inner ear. Inner ear progenitor/stem cells, which have been described in rodent inner ears, would be principal candidates for such an approach. Despite the identification of progenitor cell populations in the human fetal cochlea and in the adult human spiral ganglion, no proliferative cell populations with the capacity to generate hair cells have been reported in vestibular and cochlear tissues of adult humans...
September 5, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sarath Vijayakumar, Sherri M Jones, Timothy A Jones, Cong Tian, Kenneth R Johnson
The cupula is a gelatinous membrane overlying the crista ampullaris of the semicircular canal, important for sensing rotation of the head and critical for normal balance. Recently the zona pellucida like domain containing 1 protein (ZPLD1, also known as cupulin) was identified in the cupula of fish. Here, we describe two new spontaneous mutations in the mouse Zpld1 gene, which were discovered by the circling behavior of mutant mice, an indicator of balance dysfunction. The Zpld1 mutant mice exhibited normal hearing function as assessed by auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements, and their otolithic organs appeared normal...
August 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kristel Ferong, Mieke Waterschoot, Céline Sinatti, Erik Van Laecke, Martine Cools, Piet Hoebeke, Anne-Françoise Spinoit
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Differences of sexual development (DSD) affect the development of internal reproductive organs and external genitalia. Ectopic kidney is a rare and challenging pathology causing amongst others incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infections. Those pathologies may in certain cases be an indication for surgery. This manuscript aims to evaluate the role of robot-assisted laparoscopy in the surgical treatment of patients with ectopic kidneys or DSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database is maintained in a tertiary referral center with all robotic surgeries performed in children...
August 22, 2019: World Journal of Urology
Vladimir Tsuprun, Nevra Keskin, Mark R Schleiss, Pat Schachern, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: Publications on histopathology of human temporal bones with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are limited. We aim to determine histopathology of the inner ears and the middle ears in human temporal bones with congenital and acquired CMV infections. METHODS: Temporal bones from 2 infants with congenital and 2 adults with acquired CMV infection were evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Two infants with congenital CMV infection showed striking pathological changes in the inner ear...
August 2, 2019: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Jose A Lopez-Escamez, Arnaud Attyé
The diagnostic criteria for Meniere Disease (MD) are clinical and include two categories: definite MD and probable MD, based on clinical examination and without the necessity of advanced vestibular or audiological testing. The condition is a heterogeneous disorder and it is associated with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), an accumulation of endolymph in the inner ear that causes damage to the ganglion cells. Patients with suspected EH can be examined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), offering new insights into these inner ear disorders...
2019: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Tadao Okayasu, Jennifer T O'Malley, Joseph B Nadol
HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear implantation may result in an increase in the density of macrophages in vestibular endorgans in the human. BACKGROUND: Vestibular symptoms are a common complication of cochlear implantation. In a previous study, we demonstrated histological evidence of a foreign-body response caused by silicon and platinum in the human cochlea following cochlear implantation. The objective of the current study was to seek evidence of a possible immune response in vestibular endorgans after cochlear implantation...
July 22, 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Vanessa Martins-Lopes, Anna Bellmunt, Erin A Greguske, Alberto F Maroto, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Jordi Llorens
The tail-lift reflex and the air-righting reflex are anti-gravity reflexes in rats that depend on vestibular function. To obtain objective and quantitative measures of performance, we recorded these reflexes with slow-motion video in two experiments. In the first experiment, vestibular dysfunction was elicited by acute exposure to 0 (control), 400, 600, or 1000 mg/kg of 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), which causes dose-dependent hair cell degeneration. In the second, rats were exposed to sub-chronic IDPN in the drinking water for 0 (control), 4, or 8 weeks; this causes reversible or irreversible loss of vestibular function depending on exposure time...
July 11, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Guoqiang Wan, Lingchao Ji, Thomas Schrepfer, Sihao Gong, Guo-Peng Wang, Gabriel Corfas
Age-related decline of inner ear function contributes to both hearing loss and balance disorders, which lead to impaired quality of life and falls that can result in injury and even death. The cellular mechanisms responsible for the ear's functional decline have been controversial, but hair cell loss has been considered the key cause for a long time. However, recent studies showed that in the cochlea, loss of inner hair cell (IHC) synapses precedes hair cell or neuronal loss, and this synaptopathy is an early step in the functional decline...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zahra N Sayyid, Tian Wang, Leon Chen, Sherri M Jones, Alan G Cheng
Utricular hair cells (HCs) are mechanoreceptors required for vestibular function. After damage, regeneration of mammalian utricular HCs is limited and regenerated HCs appear immature. Thus, loss of vestibular function is presumed irreversible. Here, we found partial HC replacement and functional recovery in the mature mouse utricle, both enhanced by overexpressing the transcription factor Atoh1. Following damage, long-term fate mapping revealed that support cells non-mitotically and modestly regenerated HCs displaying no or immature bundles...
July 9, 2019: Cell Reports
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