Victoria R Milano, Bryce M Kayhart, Robert J Morgan, Daniel C DeSimone, Kristin C Mara, Jonathan G Leung
Objective: To compare the rate of hospitalizations for pneumonia in patients with a psychotic or bipolar disorder who were prescribed 1 of 4 second-generation antipsychotics prior to admission. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who were medically admitted for pneumonia to a 2,059-bed academic medical center or its associated health system hospital. Medical records of 872 admissions from November 1, 2016 to December 15, 2018, were included for all adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder prescribed clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone prior to admission...
August 6, 2020: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Taro Kishi, Tadashi Nosaka, Kenji Sakuma, Makoto Okuya, Nakao Iwata
INTRODUCTION: Considering that the efficacy results of the Japan lurasidone phase 3 trials for acute schizophrenia were inconsistent, we conducted a systematic review and a random-effect model network meta-analysis of those trials to examine whether lurasidone was beneficial for the treatment of Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHODS: The study included the double-blind, randomized trial in Japan that included patients with acute schizophrenia. Efficacy outcomes were improvement of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (PANSS-T, primary), positive (PANSS-P), negative (PANSS-N), and general (PANSS-G) subscale scores; and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) score and response rate...
August 7, 2020: Neuropsychopharmacology Reports
Sydnee Cohen, Jolene R Bostwick, Vincent D Marshall, Kathleen Kruse, Gregory W Dalack, Paresh Patel
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is a well-documented adverse effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Patients with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of potentially fatal cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. This elevated risk prompted the creation of a national guideline on metabolic monitoring for patients on SGAs in 2004. However, monitoring practices remained low at our clinic. To address this concern, a clinical decision support system was developed to alert providers of monitoring requirements...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Dandan Li, Wenjing Tang, Ting Yan, Nan Zhang, Jie Xiang, Yan Niu, Bin Wang
Hemispheric lateralization is a prominent feature of the human brain and is grounded into intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter (WM) connections. However, disruptions in hemispheric lateralization involving both intra- and inter-hemispheric WM connections in schizophrenia is still unclear. Hence, a quantitative measure of the hemispheric lateralization of intra- and inter-hemispheric WM connections could provide new insights into schizophrenia. This work performed diffusion tensor imaging on 50 patients and 58 matched healthy controls...
August 7, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dean F Salisbury, Yiming Wang, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Brian A Coffman
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity abnormalities between Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the putamen revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are related to auditory hallucinations (AH). In long-term schizophrenia, reduced white matter structural integrity revealed by diffusion imaging in left arcuate fasciculus (connecting Broca's and Wernicke's areas) is likely related to AH. The structural integrity of connections with putamen and their relation to AH are unknown...
August 7, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sonia Bansal, John M Gaspar, Benjamin M Robinson, Carly J Leonard, Britta Hahn, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
The antisaccade task is considered a test of cognitive control because it creates a conflict between the strong bottom-up signal produced by the cue and the top-down goal of shifting gaze to the opposite side of the display. Antisaccade deficits in schizophrenia are thought to reflect impaired top-down inhibition of the prepotent bottom-up response to the cue. However, the cue is also a highly task-relevant stimulus that must be covertly attended to determine where to shift gaze. We tested the hypothesis that difficulty in overcoming the attentional relevance of the cue, rather than its bottom-up salience, is key in producing impaired performance in people with schizophrenia (PSZ)...
August 7, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Wendy Singleton Christin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Xiaoying Tang, Guiwen Lyu, Minhua Chen, Weikai Huang, Yin Lin
In this study, we investigated and quantified the amygdalar and hippocampal morphometry abnormalities exerted by first-episode schizophrenia using a total of 92 patients and 106 healthy control participants. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based automated segmentation was conducted to obtain the amygdalar and hippocampal segmentations. Disease-versus-control volume differences of the bilateral amygdalas and hippocampi were quantified. In addition, deformation-based statistical shape analysis was employed to quantify the region-specific shape abnormalities of each structure of interest...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ute-Christiane Meier, Sreeram V Ramagopalan, Michael J Goldacre, Raph Goldacre
Background: The epidemiology of psychiatric comorbidity in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to determine the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in MS patients. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort analyses were performed using an all-England national linked Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) dataset (1999-2016) and to determine whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are more commonly diagnosed subsequently in people with MS (n=128,194), and whether MS is more commonly diagnosed subsequently in people with schizophrenia (n=384,188) or bipolar disorder (n=203,592), than would be expected when compared with a reference cohort (~15 million people) after adjusting for age and other factors...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Cemre Erkol, Talia Cohen, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Kathryn Eve Lewandowski, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
White matter (WM) abnormalities are commonly reported in schizophrenia but whether these arise from the axon or myelin compartments or both is not known. In addition, the relationship between WM abnormalities and cognitive function is not fully explored in this condition. We recruited 39 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 37 healthy comparison subjects. All participants underwent MRI scanning at 4 Tesla to collect data in the prefrontal white matter on magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) which provide information on myelin and axon compartments, respectively...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jean Claude Martel, Silvia Gatti McArthur
Dopamine receptors are widely distributed within the brain where they play critical modulator roles on motor functions, motivation and drive, as well as cognition. The identification of five genes coding for different dopamine receptor subtypes, pharmacologically grouped as D1- (D1 and D5) or D2-like (D2S, D2L, D3, and D4) has allowed the demonstration of differential receptor function in specific neurocircuits. Recent observation on dopamine receptor signaling point at dopamine-glutamate-NMDA neurobiology as the most relevant in schizophrenia and for the development of new therapies...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hyojin Kim, Noah C Berens, Nicole E Ochandarena, Benjamin D Philpot
Transcription factor 4 is a class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor regulating gene expression. Altered TCF4 gene expression has been linked to non-syndromic intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and a severe neurodevelopmental disorder known as Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. An understanding of the cell types expressing TCF4 protein in the mouse brain is needed to help identify potential pathophysiological mechanisms and targets for therapeutic delivery in TCF4-linked disorders. Here we developed a novel green fluorescent protein reporter mouse to visualize TCF4-expressing cells throughout the brain...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tomoyo Sawada, Thomas E Chater, Yohei Sasagawa, Mika Yoshimura, Noriko Fujimori-Tonou, Kaori Tanaka, Kynon J M Benjamin, Apuã C M Paquola, Jennifer A Erwin, Yukiko Goda, Itoshi Nikaido, Tadafumi Kato
Despite extensive genetic and neuroimaging studies, detailed cellular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and bipolar disorder remain poorly understood. Recent progress in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies enables identification of cell-type-specific pathophysiology. However, its application to psychiatric disorders is challenging because of methodological difficulties in analyzing human brains and the confounds due to a lifetime of illness. Brain organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of the patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes...
August 7, 2020: Molecular Psychiatry
Ting-I Chiang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Schizophrenia patients are susceptible to lower bone mineral density (BMD). However, studies exploring the genetic effects are lacking. Genes that affect the activity of antipsychotics may be associated with BMD, particularly in patients receiving long-term antipsychotic treatment. We aimed to explore the relationship between the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene Taq1A (rs1800497) polymorphism and BMD in chronic schizophrenia patients. We recruited schizophrenia patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 39) from a medical center in Taiwan and collected data that may affect BMD...
August 6, 2020: Scientific Reports
Behnaz Khavari, Murray J Cairns
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with a complex array of signs and symptoms that causes very significant disability in young people. While schizophrenia has a strong genetic component, with heritability around 80%, there is also a very significant range of environmental exposures and stressors that have been implicated in disease development and neuropathology, such as maternal immune infection, obstetric complications, childhood trauma and cannabis exposure. It is postulated that epigenetic factors, as well as regulatory non-coding RNAs, mediate the effects of these environmental stressors...
August 5, 2020: Cells
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Frank E Pollick, Andreas J Fallgatter, Philippe Ryvlin, Karl J Friston, Marina A Pavlova
Adaptive social behavior and mental well-being depend on not only recognizing emotional expressions but also, inferring the absence of emotion. While the neurobiology underwriting the perception of emotions is well studied, the mechanisms for detecting a lack of emotional content in social signals remain largely unknown. Here, using cutting-edge analyses of effective brain connectivity, we uncover the brain networks differentiating neutral and emotional body language. The data indicate greater activation of the right amygdala and midline cerebellar vermis to nonemotional as opposed to emotional body language...
August 6, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ida-Marie Mølstrøm, Mads Gram Henriksen, Julie Nordgaard
In everyday clinical work, psychiatrists encounter patients who present with symptoms spanning several diagnostic categories, e.g., showing signs of a psychosis, depression, and anxiety. This raises the critical question of which symptoms hold precedence over other and, by extension, which diagnosis is the right diagnosis. ICD-10 and DSM-5 do not provide unambiguous answers to this question and therefore psychiatry remains exposed to diagnostic disagreement with consequences for treatment and research. We explored symptom distribution in a sample of 98 first-admission psychiatric patients...
July 13, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Amir Med Kezai, Cécile Lecoeur, David Hot, Mustapha Bounechada, Med Lamine Alouani, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasmosis has been previously associated with an increased risk of having schizophrenia in several epidemiological studies. The aim of this prospective study was to examine for the first time a possible association between positive serology to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and schizophrenia in the Algerian population. Seventy patients affected by schizophrenia according to DSM-5 criteria and seventy healthy controls were enrolled in the study. We found a significant association between schizophrenia and the infection status with a seroprevalence of 70% in patients with schizophrenia compared to 52...
July 12, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Maju Mathew Koola, Stephen W Looney, Houlin Hong, Anilkumar Pillai, Wei Hou
Cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Cholinergic system and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nACh) receptors are strongly implicated in the pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Galantamine is not only a reversible, competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase but also a type I positive allosteric modulator of α7nACh receptors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of galantamine for cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia...
July 10, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Rebecca G Fortgang, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
Individuals with schizophrenia are over three times more likely to have problem and pathological gambling (PPG) than the general population (Cunningham-Williams et al., 1998; Desai and Potenza, 2009), but little is known about this co-occurrence and how PPG relates to specific symptom dimensions of psychotic disorders. Although cognitive distortions in PPG have been linked to gambling motivations (e.g., distorted thoughts about odds of winning), how psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia or related disorders relate to gambling motivations have not been examined systematically to date...
July 5, 2020: Psychiatry Research
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