Atefeh Bamarinejad, Shidrokh Nasiri, Fatemeh Bamarinejad, Rezvan Salehidoost, Elahe Zare-Farashbandi
Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumors. Dopamine agonists is the most important drugs used in prolactinoma,have antagonistic effect with antipsychotic drugs used in schizophrenia. Conversely, dopamine antagonist drugs increase prolactin in patients with simultaneous schizophrenia. In the present case, we report a 29-year-old single male with schizophrenia who treated for 8 years with risperidone and presented with macroprolactinoma. Iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia is a well-known side effect of dopamine antagonist drugs for treatment in a patient with schizophrenia...
2020: Advanced Biomedical Research
Daichi Sone, Noriko Sato, Yoko Shigemoto, Yukio Kimura, Norihide Maikusa, Miho Ota, Jacqueline Foong, Matthias Koepp, Hiroshi Matsuda
Background: Despite the importance of psychosis as a comorbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to investigate abnormalities specific to psychosis in TLE, using diffusion MRI parameters and graph-theoretical network analysis. Material and Methods: We recruited 49 patients with TLE (20 with and 29 without interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis) and 42 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. We performed 3-tesla MRI scans including 3D T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in all participants...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Olivier Guillin
Antipsychotic drugs are one of the oldest drugs that can change the brain activity. These drugs are mainly used in schizophrenia and the first drug that was judged as efficacious in the treatment of psychosis has been chlorpromazine. This is a decade later that it has been shown that these drugs were antagonists at the dopamine transmission by blocking the dopamine D2/D3 receptors.Several other pharmacological targets have been tested during the last decades as glutamatergic, serotoninergic, cholinergic and neuropeptidergic agents but none has been shown to improve symptoms of schizophrenia...
October 13, 2020: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Abraham Goldring, Sophia Borne, Amanda Hefner, Amod Thanju, Anzalee Khan, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
BACKGROUND: Clinician-administered measures of negative symptoms may not capture patients' subjective experiences. The Self-Evaluation of Negative Symptoms (SNS) has shown good psychometric properties when used in outpatients with higher-level functioning schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SNS in low functioning participants with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). METHODS: Participants were assessed using the following measures at two time-points; time-point 1: SNS, Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th Edition Reading Subtest (WRAT-4), and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)...
October 15, 2020: Schizophrenia Research
Alice Egerton, Anthony A Grace, James Stone, Matthijs G Bossong, Michael Sand, Philip McGuire
Research into the neurobiological processes that may lead to the onset of schizophrenia places growing emphasis on the glutamatergic system and brain development. Preclinical studies have shown that neurodevelopmental, genetic, and environmental factors contribute to glutamatergic dysfunction and schizophrenia-related phenotypes. Clinical research has suggested that altered brain glutamate levels may be present before the onset of psychosis and relate to outcome in those at clinical high risk. After psychosis onset, glutamate dysfunction may also relate to the degree of antipsychotic response and clinical outcome...
October 15, 2020: Schizophrenia Research
Chuanjun Zhuo, Min Chen, Yong Xu, Deguo Jiang, Ce Chen, Xiaoyan Ma, Ranli Li, Yun Sun, Qianchen Li, Chunhua Zhou, Xiaodong Lin
Schizophrenic patients often experience visual hallucinations (VHs) and auditory hallucinations (AHs); however, brain aberrations associated with combined VH and AH in schizophrenic patients remains poorly documented. Changes to the brain and cognition during the first episode of untreated schizophrenic patients (FUSCH) with both VHs and AHs (FUSCHVA) were evaluated. One-hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled that had FUSCH (1) with VHs but not AHs (FUSCHV), and (2) with AHs but not VHs (FUSCHA), plus FUSCHVA and healthy controls (n = 30)...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Sema Baykara, Pınar Gündoğan Bozdağ, Murat Baykara, Mustafa Nuray Namlı
The aim of this study was to evaluate arterial stiffness in schizophrenia patients. 28 male patients were included. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the vessels were taken using high-resolution ultrasonography system. The mean carotid IMT and the mean femoral IMT values of the study group were found to be statistically significantly higher than the values of the control group. As the duration of the disease increased, there was an increase in the carotid IMT, carotid elastic modulus and femoral IMT, whereas there was a decrease in carotid and femoral diastolic wall stress in patients...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Daniel Silva, Tess Maguire, Pamela McSherry, Katherine Newman-Taylor
BACKGROUND: Current psychological interventions for psychosis focus primarily on cognitive and behavioural management of delusions and hallucinations, with modest outcomes. Emotions are not usually targeted directly, despite evidence that people with psychosis have difficulty identifying, accepting and modifying affective states. AIMS: This study assessed the impact of emotion regulation skills practice on affect and paranoia in seven people who met criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
October 19, 2020: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Jim van Os, Lotta-Katrin Pries, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Philippe Delespaul, Maarten Bak, Gunter Kenis, Bochao D Lin, Jurjen J Luykx, Alexander L Richards, Berna Akdede, Tolga Binbay, Vesile Altınyazar, Berna Yalınçetin, Güvem Gümüş-Akay, Burçin Cihan, Haldun Soygür, Halis Ulaş, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Semra Ulusoy Kaymak, Marina M Mihaljevic, Sanja Andric Petrovic, Tijana Mirjanic, Miguel Bernardo, Gisela Mezquida, Silvia Amoretti, Julio Bobes, Pilar A Saiz, María Paz García-Portilla, Julio Sanjuan, Eduardo J Aguilar, José Luis Santos, Estela Jiménez-López, Manuel Arrojo, Angel Carracedo, Gonzalo López, Javier González-Peñas, Mara Parellada, Nadja P Maric, Cem Atbaşoğlu, Alp Ucok, Köksal Alptekin, Meram Can Saka, Celso Arango, Michael O'Donovan, Bart P F Rutten, Sinan Guloksuz
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation. METHODS: We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls...
October 19, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Marieke J Begemann, Bodyl A Brand, Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, André Aleman, Iris E Sommer
BACKGROUND: Cognition is commonly affected in brain disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) may have procognitive effects, with high tolerability. This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in improving cognition, in schizophrenia, depression, dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. METHODS: A PRISMA systematic search was conducted for randomized controlled trials...
October 19, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Gerwyn Morris, Basant K Puri, Lisa Olive, Andre Carvalho, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Lise Tuset Gustad, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Potential routes whereby systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may drive the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, even in an environment of low cholesterol, are examined. MAIN TEXT: Key molecular players involved in the regulation of endothelial cell function are described, including PECAM-1, VE-cadherin, VEGFRs, SFK, Rho GEF TRIO, RAC-1, ITAM, SHP-2, MAPK/ERK, STAT-3, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, eNOS, nitric oxide, miRNAs, KLF-4 and KLF-2...
October 19, 2020: BMC Medicine
Martin Brüne, Sarah Maria von Hein, Christian Claassen, Rainer Hoffmann, Carsten Saft
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable degenerative brain disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene with excessive repeats of the base triplet cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG), which codes for the aminoacid glutamine. HD is associated with a broad spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction, including deficits in social cognition. The appreciation of fairness rules and reciprocity has not been studied in HD. Based on theoretical considerations suggesting that brain regions known to be affected from HD are involved in economic decision-making, the present study sought to examine HD patients' performance in two neuroeconomic games...
October 18, 2020: Brain and Behavior
Harry Pantazopoulos, Pavel Katsel, Vahram Haroutunian, Gabriele Chelini, Torsten Klengel, Sabina Berretta
Growing evidence points to a critical involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Decreases of perineuronal nets and altered expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in glial cells have been identified in several brain regions. GWAS data have identified several SZ vulnerability variants of genes encoding for ECM molecules. Given the potential relevance of ECM functions to the pathophysiology of this disorder, it is necessary to understand the extent of ECM changes across brain regions, their region- and sex- specificity and which ECM components contribute to these changes...
October 18, 2020: European Journal of Neuroscience
Changguo Ma, Yifan Li, Xiaoyan Li, Jiewei Liu, Xiong-Jian Luo
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple schizophrenia-associated risk loci. However, the potential functional (or causal) variant remains largely unknown for each of the identified risk locus. In this study, we utilized different functional annotation approaches (i.e., CADD, Eigen, GWAVA, RegulomeDB and LINSIGHT) to prioritize the most possible functional variant at schizophrenia risk locus 12q24.31, a risk locus that showed genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia...
September 30, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Helen M Spencer, Robert Dudley, Mark H Freeston, Douglas Turkington
Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A case conceptualization (CC) (or case formulation) is seen as the keystone of CBT in terms of making sense of a patient's difficulties, to guide and inform such treatment. Despite the importance placed on CC there is no known consensus amongst experts as to the essential ingredients involved in this fundamental process. This study used the Delphi method to establish expert consensus for the essential components of a CC when working to treat auditory hallucinations (voices), and persecutory delusions...
October 14, 2020: Schizophrenia Research
Erik Johnsen, Rune A Kroken, Else-Marie Løberg, Maria Rettenbacher, Inge Joa, Tor Ketil Larsen, Solveig Klæbo Reitan, Berit Walla, Renata Alisauskiene, Liss Gøril Anda, Christoffer Bartz-Johannessen, Jan Øystein Berle, Jill Bjarke, Farivar Fathian, Kenneth Hugdahl, Eirik Kjelby, Igne Sinkeviciute, Silje Skrede, Lena Stabell, Vidar M Steen, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and olanzapine are first-line atypical antipsychotics that have not previously been compared head-to-head in a pragmatic trial. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of these agents in a controlled trial. METHODS: This pragmatic, rater-blind, randomised controlled trial was done in three academic centres of psychiatry in Norway, and one in Austria. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (F20-29), and had symptoms of active psychosis...
November 2020: Lancet Psychiatry
L Simoila, E IsometsÃ, M Gissler, J Suvisaari, E Sailas, Erja Halmesmà Ki, Nina Lindberg
As part of anational Finnish study on reproductive health of women with severe mental disorders, we compared pregnancy- and delivery-, and postpartum-related outcomes between women with schizophrenia (n = 3444) and those with schizoaffective disorder (n = 985), focusing on their singleton pregnancies after illness onset (n = 708 and n = 242, respectively). For comparison, data also included 22,101 controls with 3668 pregnancies. The Finnish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations and the Child Welfare Register were used...
October 10, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 7th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This series focuses on personal behavior patterns, including substance use disorders, physical inactivity/obesity, and non-adherence with medical regimens, which are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and premature death. This 7th issue includes 17 commentaries, reviews, and original empirical studies, 16 of which are devoted to current tobacco control and regulatory science research and policy, topics critically important to protecting the public health from the longstanding and devastating harms of tobacco use...
October 14, 2020: Preventive Medicine
Thomas Samuel Whitehurst, Martin Osugo, Leigh Townsend, Ekaterina Shatalina, Robert Vava, Ellis Chika Onwordi, Oliver Howes
N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is a readily measured marker of neuronal metabolism. Previous analyses in schizophrenia have shown NAA levels are low in frontal, temporal and thalamic regions, but may be underpowered to detect effects in some regions, high-risk of psychosis and between illness stages. We searched for magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies comparing NAA in chronic schizophrenia, first episode psychosis and high risk of psychosis to controls. 182 studies were included and meta-analysed using a random-effects model for each region and illness stage...
October 14, 2020: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ashleigh Willis, Judith A Pratt, Brian J Morris
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the strongest genetic risk variants is duplication (DUP) of chr.16p11.2. SZ is characterized by cortical gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuron dysfunction and disruption to surrounding extracellular matrix structures, perineuronal nets (PNNs). Developmental maturation of GABAergic interneurons, and also the resulting closure of the critical period of cortical plasticity, is regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), although the mechanisms involved are unknown...
October 17, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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