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Transient global

Thomas A M Pugh, Mats Lindeskog, Benjamin Smith, Benjamin Poulter, Almut Arneth, Vanessa Haverd, Leonardo Calle
Although the existence of a large carbon sink in terrestrial ecosystems is well-established, the drivers of this sink remain uncertain. It has been suggested that perturbations to forest demography caused by past land-use change, management, and natural disturbances may be causing a large component of current carbon uptake. Here we use a global compilation of forest age observations, combined with a terrestrial biosphere model with explicit modeling of forest regrowth, to partition the global forest carbon sink between old-growth and regrowth stands over the period 1981-2010...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hyeyoung Kim, Joon Ha Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Hyunjung Kim, Minah Song, Cheol Woo Park, Young Eun Park, Jae-Chul Lee, Sungwoo Ryoo, Young-Myeong Kim, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Soo Young Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Neuronal death and reactive gliosis are major features of brain tissue damage following transient global cerebral ischemia (tgCI). This study investigated long-term changes in neuronal death and astrogliosis in the gerbil hippocampus for 180 days after 5 min of tgCI. A massive loss of pyramidal neurons was found in the hippocampal CA1 area (CA1) area between 5 and 30 days after tgCI by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining, but pyramidal neurons in the CA2/3 area did not die...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tatyana Gavrilchenko, Eleni Katifori
The structure of flow networks determines their function under normal conditions as well as their response to perturbative damage. Brain vasculature often experiences transient or permanent occlusions in the finest vessels, but it is not clear how these microclots affect the large-scale blood flow or to what extent they decrease functionality. Motivated by this, we investigate how flow is rerouted after the occlusion of a single edge in networks with a hierarchy in edge conductances. We find that in two-dimensional networks, vessels formed by highly conductive edges serve as barriers to contain the displacement of flow due to a localized perturbation...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Vanessa Martinez, Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Gonzalo Grazioli, Bart H Bijnens, Jaume Trapé, Gloria Garcia, Pilar Corzan, Angels Clemente, Barbara González, Marta Sitges
PURPOSE: Endurance exercise competitions have shown a transient negative effect on global right ventricular (RV) performance. Most published studies are based on terrestrial sports. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiac effects after an open water swimming race. METHODS: We evaluated 33 healthy swimmers (mean age 40.9 ± 7.2) participating in a 9.5 km open water swimming race. All subjects underwent a standard transthoracic echocardiography including an evaluation of dimensions and myocardial ventricular deformation...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Rachel E Stephenson, Tomohito Higashi, Ivan S Erofeev, Torey R Arnold, Marcin Leda, Andrew B Goryachev, Ann L Miller
Tight junctions contribute to epithelial barrier function by selectively regulating the quantity and type of molecules that cross the paracellular barrier. Experimental approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of tight junctions are typically global, tissue-scale measures. Here, we introduce Zinc-based Ultrasensitive Microscopic Barrier Assay (ZnUMBA), which we used in Xenopus laevis embryos to visualize short-lived, local breaches in epithelial barrier function. These breaches, or leaks, occur as cell boundaries elongate, correspond to visible breaks in the tight junction, and are followed by transient localized Rho activation, or Rho flares...
February 11, 2019: Developmental Cell
Yasser Medlej, Houssein Salah, Lara Wadi, Sarah Saad, Bashir Bashir, Jad Allam, Zahraa Atoui, Nora Darwish, Nabil Karnib, Hala Darwish, Firas Kobeissy, Kevin K W Wang, Eva Hamade, Makram Obeid
Hypoxic encephalopathy of the newborn is a major cause of long-term neurological sequelae. We have previously shown that CEP-701 (lestaurtinib), a drug with an established safety profile in children, attenuates short-term hyperexcitability and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation in a well-established rat model of early life hypoxic seizures (HS). Here, we investigated the potential long-term neuroprotective effects of a post-HS transient CEP-701 treatment. Following exposure to global hypoxia, 10 day old male Sprague-Dawley pups received CEP-701 or its vehicle and were sequentially subjected to the light-dark box test (LDT), forced swim test (FST), open field test (OFT), Morris water maze (MWM), and the modified active avoidance (MAAV) test between postnatal days 24 and 44 (P24-44)...
February 12, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yun Zhang, Xiaohang Su, Zhi Liu, C L Philip Chen
This paper investigates an event-triggered adaptive tracking control problem of multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) triangular structure nonlinear systems with nonparametric uncertainties. The implementation of this paper can be roughly classified into two steps: 1) solving the existing rate-limited communication constraints and 2) guaranteeing perfect tracking control performance. By using the relative threshold event-triggered strategy, the communication resource constraint is availably resolved, while the Zeno behavior can be avoided...
February 12, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Lucas Alessandro, Ismael L Calandri, Marcos Fernández Suarez, María L Heredia, Hernán Chaves, Ricardo F Allegri, Mauricio F Farez
OBJECTIVE: The risk of recurrence of new amnesia events in patients having previously experienced transient global amnesia (TGA) ranges between 2.9-23.8%. Our objective was to search for recurrence predictors in TGA patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis to identify recurrence predictors in a cohort of 203 TGA patients from a single center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2017 Clinical features and complementary studies (laboratory results, jugular vein Doppler ultrasound and brain MRI) were analyzed...
January 2019: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Leonardo Pantoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Stéphanie Bedhomme, Dolors Amorós-Moya, Luz M Valero, Nùria Bonifaci, Miquel-Àngel Pujana, Ignacio G Bravo
Genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may provide the recipient organism with potentially new functions, but proper expression level and integration of the transferred genes in the novel environment are not granted. Notably, transferred genes can differ from the receiving genome in codon usage preferences (CUP), leading to impaired translation and reduced functionality.Here, we characterise the genomic and proteomic changes undergone during experimental evolution of Escherichia coli after HGT of three synonymous versions, presenting very different CUP, of an antibiotic resistance gene...
February 11, 2019: Genome Biology and Evolution
S Claiborne Johnston, Pierre Amarenco, Hans Denison, Scott R Evans, Anders Himmelmann, Stefan James, Mikael Knutsson, Per Ladenvall, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang
RATIONALE: In patients with acute cerebral ischemia, the rate of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during 90 days was reported to be non-significantly lower with ticagrelor compared with aspirin, with no increase in major hemorrhage. Dual antiplatelet therapy may be more effective in this setting. AIM: To investigate whether ticagrelor combined with aspirin are superior to aspirin alone in preventing stroke or death in patients with non-severe, non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Nicholas B Tito, Costantino Creton, Cornelis Storm, Wouter G Ellenbroek
Reversible crosslinking is a design paradigm for polymeric materials, wherein they are microscopically reinforced with chemical species that form transient crosslinks between the polymer chains. Besides the potential for self-healing, recent experimental work suggests that freely diffusing reversible crosslinks in polymer networks, such as gels, can enhance the toughness of the material without substantial change in elasticity. This presents the opportunity for making highly elastic materials that can be strained to a large extent before rupturing...
February 12, 2019: Soft Matter
Xi-Ming Yang, Sushee Gadde, Jonathon P Audia, Diego F Alvarez, James M Downey, Michael V Cohen
P2Y12 receptor-blocking drugs given at reperfusion offer protection against myocardial infarction in animal models of transient coronary occlusion. Two recent reports concluded that ticagrelor was more cardioprotective than clopidogrel and attributed this to ticagrelor's unique ability to raise tissue adenosine by blocking the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. Indeed, an adenosine receptor blocker attenuated ticagrelor's protection. The related P2Y12 inhibitor cangrelor, which does not block the transporter, protects hearts only when platelets are in the perfusate, while adenosine is known to protect equally in situ blood-perfused and crystalloid-perfused isolated hearts...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Frederick van der Ploeg, Armon Rezai
A simple integrated assessment framework that gives rules for the optimal carbon price, transition to the carbon-free era and stranded carbon assets is presented, which highlights the ethical, economic, geophysical and political drivers of optimal climate policy. For the ethics we discuss the role of intergenerational inequality aversion and the discount rate, where we show the importance of lower discount rates for appraisal of longer run benefit and of policy makers using lower discount rates than private agents...
2019: Environmental & Resource Economics
Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, Shiu Lun Au Yeung, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency affects 6.0% of the global population. G6PD deficiency has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and higher risk of diabetes, which could be etiologically informative, but these relations are uncertain. To clarify, we assessed the associations of G6PD deficiency with serum metabolite profiles in late adolescence. METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 50 G6PD-deficient late adolescents (~17...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Huyen A Tran, Harry Gibbs, Eileen Merriman, Jennifer L Curnow, Laura Young, Ashwini Bennett, Tan Chee Wee, Sanjeev D Chunilal, Chris M Ward, Ross Baker, Harshal Nandurkar
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the third most common cardiovascular disease and, globally, more than an estimated 10 million people have it yearly. It is a chronic and recurrent disease. The symptoms of VTE are non-specific and the diagnosis should actively be sought once considered. The mainstay of VTE treatment is anticoagulation, with few patients requiring additional intervention. A working group of experts in the area recently completed an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis and management of DVT and PE on behalf of the Thrombosis and Haemostasis Society of Australia and New Zealand (www...
February 10, 2019: Medical Journal of Australia
Mansi Verma, Shradha Bhatnagar, Kavita Kumari, Nidhi Mittal, Shivani Sukhralia, Shruthi Gopirajan At, P S Dhanaraj, Rup Lal
Dengue is a severe emerging arthropod borne viral disease occurring globally. Around two fifths of the world's population, or up to 3.9 billion people, are at a risk of dengue infection. Infection induces a life-long protective immunity to the homologous serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection caused by other serotypes. Thus, there is a need for a vaccine which is capable of providing a life- long protection against all the serotypes of dengue virus. In our study, comparative genomics of Dengue virus (DENV) was conducted to explore potential candidates for novel vaccine targets...
February 7, 2019: Gene
Dan Fai Au, Dmitry Ostrovsky, Riqiang Fu, Liliya Vugmeyster
Amyloid fibril deposits observed in Alzheimer's disease comprise amyloid-β (Aβ) protein possessing a structured hydrophobic core and a disordered N-terminal domain (residues 1-16). The internal flexibility of the disordered domain is likely essential for Aβ aggregation. Here, we used 2 H static solid-state NMR methods to probe the dynamics of selected side chains of the N-terminal domain of Aβ(1-40) fibrils. Line shape and relaxation data suggested a two-state model, in which the domain's free state undergoes a diffusive motion that is quenched in the bound state, likely because of transient interactions with the structured C-terminal domain...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
G Elhalel, C Price, D Fixler, A Shainberg
The Schumann Resonances (ScR) are Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity excited by global lightning discharges. This natural electromagnetic noise has likely existed on the Earth ever since the Earth had an atmosphere and an ionosphere, hence surrounding us throughout our evolutionary history. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of extremely weak magnetic fields in the ScR first mode frequency range on the spontaneous contractions, calcium transients and Creatine Kinase (CK) release of rat cardiac cell cultures...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Olivia Nonn, Jacqueline Güttler, Désirée Forstner, Sabine Maninger, Julianna Zadora, András Balogh, Alina Frolova, Andreas Glasner, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
CX3CL1, which is a chemokine involved in many aspects of human pregnancy, is a membrane-bound chemokine shed into circulation as a soluble isoform. Placental CX3CL1 is induced by inflammatory cytokines and is upregulated in severe early-onset preeclampsia. In this study, the hypothesis was addressed whether angiotensin II can deregulate placental CX3CL1 expression, and whether CX3CL1 can promote a pro-inflammatory status of monocytes. qPCR analysis of human placenta samples ( n = 45) showed stable expression of CX3CL1 and the angiotensin II receptor AGTR1 throughout the first trimester, but did not show a correlation between both or any influence of maternal age, BMI, and gestational age...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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