Luke W Silver, Carolyn J Hogg, Katherine Belov
The major histocompatibility complex plays a vital role in the vertebrate immune system due to its role in infection, disease and autoimmunity, or recognition of "self". The marsupial MHC class II genes show divergence from eutherian MHC class II genes and are a unique taxon of therian mammals that give birth to altricial and immunologically naïve young providing an opportune study system for investigating evolution of the immune system. Additionally, the MHC in marsupials has been implicated in disease associations, including susceptibility to Chlamydia pecorum infection in koalas...
July 20, 2024: Genome Biology and Evolution
Richa Bhatnager, Kajal Gaba, Amita Suneja Dang
PROBLEM: The luteinizing hormone (LH), produced by gonadal and nongonadal cells in the anterior pituitary gland play a critical role in human sexual development and reproduction. It is required for the induction of ovulation in females and sex steroid hormone production in both males and females. It is also an important player in early pregnancy events in oviducts and in absence of LH signalling, the uterus cannot initiate pregnancy. LH works through its receptor LHCGR. Therefore, it is quite important to figure out those mutations that have the potential to affect the structure and function of both LH and LHR...
June 2024: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Yitian Zhang, Michelle T Delahanty, Stephanie M Engel, Stephen Marshall, T Michael O'Shea, Tanya Garcia, Laura A Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Julie L Daniels
BACKGROUND: An infant's presentation at delivery may be an early indicator of developmental differences. Non-vertex presentation (malpresentation) complicates delivery and often leads to caesarean section, which has been associated with neurodevelopmental delays, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, malpresentation could be an early sign of an existing developmental problem that is also an upstream factor from caesarean delivery. Little research has been done to investigate the association between malpresentation and ASD...
June 21, 2024: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Christina Wang, Christopher L R Barratt, Diana L Blithe
INTRODCTION: Human spermatogenesis is a complex process that transforms spermatogonial stem cells through mitosis and meiosis to spermatozoa. Testosterone is the key regulator of the terminal stages of meiosis, adherence of spermatids to Sertoli cells, and spermiation. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may be required for early spermatogenesis and is important for maintaining normal spermatogenesis in men. Hormonal contraception suppresses FSH, luteinizing hormone, and intratesticular testosterone concentration, resulting in marked suppression of sperm output...
July 19, 2024: Andrology
J Hu, Y Ma, M Sun, N Wan, B Liu, L Zheng, C Liu, C Qiao, J Wei, D Wen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the trimester-specific associations between maternal total physical activity level vs moderate-to-vigorous exercise and fetal growth disorders. METHODS: We analyzed 2062 mother-neonate pairs participating in the longitudinal China Medical University Birth Cohort Study. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity level of women during the three trimesters. A higher level of total physical activity was defined as meeting or exceeding the cohort-specific 75th percentile, and a higher level of exercise was defined according to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans...
July 19, 2024: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lauren Sayres, Roopjit K Sahi, Heather Straub, Emma Peek, John C Hobbins
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of oligohydramnios, brain sparing, and cardiac dysfunction among a cohort of fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: To assess the prevalence of oligohydramnios amongst a large sample of FGR fetuses, we screened a database of ultrasounds of FGR pregnancies from our maternal-fetal medicine clinics (clinical cohort) for diminished amniotic fluid volume. Using a threshold of a maximum vertical pocket (MVP) of <2 cm for "oligohydramnios," and 2 to 3 cm as a "reduced fluid" group, trends of Doppler values and cardiac parameters were assessed from pregnancies in an ongoing research study (comprehensive cohort)...
July 19, 2024: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Connor McPhail, Hannah Szewczyk, Ana McCarthy, Tayla Wark, Anupam Parange, Shilpanjali Jesudason
Potassium-wasting syndromes, including Gitelman or Bartter syndrome, require close medical and biochemical review during pregnancy to reduce potentially severe complications, morbidity and mortality. We report a case of severe potassium-wasting syndrome managed successfully in pregnancy with extremely high oral potassium intake.
July 19, 2024: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Jing Wu, Xiaoyan Yang, Yun Liu, Fang Xi, Ping Lei
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs is a venous reflux disorder caused by abnormal coagulation of blood components, primarily characterised by swelling and pain in the lower limbs. Key risk factors include prolonged immobility due to bed rest, pregnancy, postpartum or postoperative states, traumas, malignant tumours and long-term contraceptive use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) in diagnosing lower-limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT)...
July 5, 2024: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Zhaoxi Li, Xiaohui Guo, Wei Shi, Rongxia He, Hua Zhong
BACKGROUND: Electronic foetal monitoring (EFM), a method to monitor foetal intrauterine conditions and foetal reserve capacity, is the most extensively used intrauterine monitoring technology in obstetrics. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the Thoth wearable foetal electrocardiogram (foetal ECG [FECG]) monitoring system with a traditional Doppler foetal heart monitoring system before labour to investigate their respective values in clinical application. METHODS: A total of 393 pregnant women admitted to our hospital between 2020 and 2022 participated in this study...
July 4, 2024: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Kaat Beunen, Frederik Van den Abbeele, Paul Van Crombrugge, Johan Verhaeghe, Sofie Vandeginste, Hilde Verlaenen, Toon Maes, Els Dufraimont, Nele Roggen, Christophe De Block, Yves Jacquemyn, Farah Mekahli, Katrien De Clippel, Annick Van den Bruel, Anne Loccufier, Annouschka Laenen, Roland Devlieger, Chantal Mathieu, Katrien Benhalima
AIMS: To monitor fetal size and identify predictors for birthweight in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Cohort study of 1843 women universally screened for GDM, with routine ultrasounds each trimester. Women with GDM and NGT were categorized in subgroups by birthweight centile. RESULTS: Of the total cohort, 231 (12.5%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Fetal size, incidence of large-for-gestational age (LGA: 12...
July 20, 2024: Acta Diabetologica
Wondimu Gudu, Abdulfatah Abdulkadir, Mekitie Wondafrash
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe the magnitude and pattern of congenital anomalies on routine second-trimester ultrasound and its practical implication in the management of pregnant women with fetal anomalies at a novice center in East Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2021 to May 2022 among women who had second-trimester anatomic scanning. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23...
July 19, 2024: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Seda Yakıt Yeşilyurt, Tansu Birinci Olgun, Seda Ayaz Taş, Gökhan Tosun, Mehmet Özer, Nuriye Özengin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of motor imagery-based physical activity on maternal well-being, maternal blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, fetal heart rate, and uterine contractions in women with high-risk pregnancies. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Izmir Tepecik Education and Research Hospital from August 2023 to January 2024. Seventy-six women with high-risk pregnancies were randomized into two groups: a motor imagery group (n = 38, diaphragmatic-breathing exercise and motor imagery-based physical activity) and a control group (n = 38, diaphragmatic-breathing exercise)...
July 19, 2024: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Xiali Jiang, Bin Liang, Shuqiong He, Xiaoqing Wu, Wantong Zhao, Huili Xue, Yan Wang, Na Lin, Hailong Huang, Liangpu Xu
BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome exhibit a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity and incomplete penetrance, making prenatal diagnosis challenging due to phenotypic variability. This report aims to raise awareness among prenatal diagnostic practitioners regarding the variant's complexity, providing a basis for prenatal genetic counseling. METHODS: Family and clinical data of 31 fetuses with 22q11.2 microduplications confirmed by chromosomal microarray between June 2017 and June 2023 were considered...
July 2024: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Laetitia Gay, Sandra Madariaga Zarza, Perla Abou Atmeh, Marie-Sarah Rouvière, Jonatane Andrieu, Manon Richaud, Asma Boumaza, Laura Miquel, Aïssatou Bailo Diallo, Yassina Bechah, Myriem Otmani Idrissi, Bernard La Scola, Daniel Olive, Noémie Resseguier, Florence Bretelle, Soraya Mezouar, Jean-Louis Mege
Pregnant women represent a high-risk population for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in placenta from infected pregnant women, but whether the virus influences placenta immune response remains unclear. We investigated the properties of maternal-fetal interface macrophages (MFMs) in a cohort of unvaccinated women who contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their pregnancy. We reported an infiltration of CD163+ macrophages in placenta from COVID-19 women 19 whereas lymphoid compartment was not affected...
July 2024: Journal of Medical Virology
Klaus Rieneck
A central issue in immunology is the immunological response against nonself. The prerequisite for a specific immunological response is the exposure to the immune system of a nonself antigen. Mathematical equations are presented, which define the fraction of all outcomes with a nonself allele in biallelic systems at the population level in pregnancy and transfusion/transplantation medicine. When designing assays, the mathematical descriptions can be used for estimating the number of genetic markers necessary to obtain a predetermined probability level in detecting nonself alleles of a given frequency...
July 19, 2024: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Anaëlle Monfort, Evelina Cardoso, Chin B Eap, Nicolas Ansermot, Severine Crettol, Céline J Fischer Fumeaux, Myriam Bickle Graz, Mathilde Morisod Harari, Etienne Weisskopf, Peggy Gandia, Karel Allegaert, Pieter Annaert, Hedvig Nordeng, Jean-Michel Hascoët, Olivier Claris, Manuella Epiney, Ema Ferreira, Grégoire Leclair, Chantal Csajka, Alice Panchaud, Monia Guidi
AIMS: Sertraline is frequently prescribed for mental health conditions in both pregnant and breastfeeding women. According to the limited available data, only small amounts of sertraline are transferred into human milk, yet with a large amount of unexplained interindividual variability. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to describe the pharmacokinetics of sertraline during the perinatal period and explain interindividual variability. METHODS: Pregnant women treated with sertraline were enrolled in the multicenter prospective cohort SSRI-Breast Milk study...
July 19, 2024: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lydia Coxon, Celia Lugt, Andrew W Horne, Emma Evans, Pedro Abreu-Mendes, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Qasim Aziz, Christian M Becker, Judy Birch, Ana Charrua, Lysia Demetriou, Joana Ferreira-Gomes, Anja Hoffman, Lone Hummelshoj, Michal Krassowski, Claire E Lunde, Jane Meijlink, Stacey A Missmer, Danielle Perro, Krina T Zondervan, Christine B Sieberg, Francisco Cruz, Jens Nagel, Katy Vincent
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the variation, triggers and impact on quality of life of symptom flares in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire within the Translational Research in Pelvic Pain clinical cohort study. SETTING: Women with CPP, with subgroups of women with endometriosis (EAP), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS), comorbid endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (EABP), and those with pelvic pain without endometriosis or interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (PP)...
July 18, 2024: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kathrine Fodstad, Katariina Laine, Sari Räisänen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and secular trends of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in vacuum and forceps deliveries in Norway, both with and without episiotomy. DESIGN: Population-based real-world data collected during 2001-2018. SETTING: Medical Birth Registry Norway. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Nulliparous women with singleton foetuses in a cephalic presentation delivered by either vacuum or forceps (n = 70 783)...
July 18, 2024: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Clay Mash, Kimberly A McAllister, Sundania Wonnum, Ashley J Vargas, Gaya Dowling, S Sonia Arteaga, Carol J Blaisdell, Kristina K Hardy, Irene Prabhu Das, Tonse N K Raju, Matthew W Gillman
Investigators conducting human subject research have typically conveyed only clinically actionable results back to individual participants. Shifting scientific culture around viewing participants as partners in research, however, is prompting investigators to consider returning as much data or results as the participant would like, even if they are not clearly actionable. Expanding return of individual results may add value for individual participants and their communities, refine future research questions and methods, build trust, and enhance retention of participants...
July 19, 2024: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ammanie Abdul-Fatah, Michelle Bezanson, Sebastian Lopez Steven, Emily Tippins, Sarah Jones, Heather MacDonald, Renate Ysseldyk
Public health restrictions to protect physical health during the COVID-19 pandemic had unintended effects on mental health, which may have disproportionately affected some potentially vulnerable groups. This scoping review of qualitative research provides a narrative synthesis of new mothers' perspectives on their mental health during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions through pregnancy to the postpartum period. Database searches in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO sought primary research studies published until February 2023, which focused on new mothers' self-perceived mental health during the pandemic ( N = 55)...
July 20, 2024: Qualitative Health Research
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