Jian Hou, Shaojie Huang, Yan Long, Jiaxing Huang, Song Yang, Jianping Yao, Guangxian Chen, Yuan Yue, Mengya Liang, Bo Mei, Jiawen Li, Zhongkai Wu
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. DACT2 is a novel and important mediator of signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of DACT2 expression in AF. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the DACT2 expression pattern in valvular disease patients. DACT2 was overexpressed in HL-1 cells and primary atrial fibroblasts. The expression levels of the potassium channel, the L-type calcium current channel, sodium ion channel proteins and collagen proteins were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 2020: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Duo Feng, DongZhu Xu, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Kazuko Tajiri, Rujie Qin, Saori Yonebayashi, Yuta Okabe, Siqi Li, Zixun Yuan, Kazutaka Aonuma, Masaki Ieda
Aging and obesity are the most prominent risk factors for onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) activity. Nampt and NAD are essential for maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis and modulation of cellular metabolism, and their expression levels decrease with aging and obesity. However, a role for Nampt in AF is unknown. The present study aims to test whether there is a role of Nampt/NAD axis in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced AF...
June 30, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuan Hung, Yao-Chang Chen, Shih-Yu Huang, Yen-Yu Lu, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Wei-Shiang Lin, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
AIMS: Klotho, a potential antiageing protein has remarkable cardiovascular effects, which is lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of atrial fibrillation, majorly triggered by pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. This study investigated whether klotho protein can modulate PV electrical activity and the underlying potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: A conventional microelectrode and whole-cell patch clamp were used to investigate the action potentials and ionic currents in isolated rabbit PV tissue preparations and single cardiomyocytes before and after klotho administration...
July 1, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Pei-Pei Zhang, Zhao-Fu Guo, Pei-Hua Zhang, Zhi-Pei Liu, Lv Song, Ze-Fu Zhang, Yu-Zhong Jia, Zhen-Zhen Cao, Ji-Hua Ma
Eleutheroside B (EB) is the main active constituent derived from the Chinese herb Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) that has been reported to possess cardioprotective effects. In this study we investigated the effects of EB on cardiac electrophysiology and its suppression on atrial fibrillation (AF). Whole-cell recording was conducted in isolated rabbit atrial myocytes. The intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) concentration was measured using calcium indicator Fura-2/AM fluorescence. Monophasic action potential (MAP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) synchronous recordings were conducted in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts using ECG signal sampling and analysis system...
July 1, 2020: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Clotilde Roy, Sibille Lejeune, Alisson Slimani, Christophe de Meester, Sylvie A Ahn As, Michel F Rousseau, Amzulescu Mihaela, Audrey Ginion, Benjamin Ferracin, Agnès Pasquet, David Vancraeynest, Christophe Beauloye, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Sandrine Horman, Damien Gruson, Bernhard L Gerber, Anne-Catherine Pouleur
AIMS: Besides regulating calcium-phosphate metabolism, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has been associated with incident heart failure (HF) and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, data about FGF-23 in HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remain limited. The aim of this study was to assess the association between FGF-23 levels, clinical and imaging characteristics, particularly diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and prognosis in HFpEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 143 consecutive HFpEF patients (78 ± 8 years, 61% female patients) and 31 controls of similar age and gender (75 ± 6 years, 61% female patients)...
June 24, 2020: ESC Heart Failure
Haikel Dridi, Alexander Kushnir, Ran Zalk, Qi Yuan, Zephan Melville, Andrew R Marks
Ca2+ is a fundamental second messenger in all cell types and is required for numerous essential cellular functions, including cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. The intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]) is regulated primarily by ion channels, pumps (ATPases), exchangers and Ca2+ -binding proteins. Defective regulation of [Ca2+ ] is found in a diverse spectrum of pathological states that affect all the major organs. In the heart, abnormalities in the regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+ ] occur in heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), two common forms of heart disease and leading contributors to morbidity and mortality...
June 18, 2020: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Yi Zhang, Ying Qi, Jing-Jing Li, Wen-Jin He, Xiao-Hang Gao, Yu Zhang, Xia Sun, Jie Tong, Jianbao Zhang, Xiu-Ling Deng, Xiao-Jun Du, Wenjun Xie
AIMS: Despite numerous reports documenting an important role of hypertension in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the detailed mechanism underlying the pathological process remains incompletely understood. Here, we aim to test the hypothesis that diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes, induced by mechanical stretch due to elevated pressure in the left atrium (LA), plays an essential role in the AF development in pressure-overloaded hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated mouse atrial myocytes subjected to acute axial stretch displayed an immediate elevation of SR Ca2+ leak...
June 12, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
Funsho E Fakuade, Vanessa Steckmeister, Fitzwilliam Seibertz, Judith Gronwald, Stefanie Kestel, Julia Menzel, Julius Ryan D Pronto, Karim Taha, Fereshteh Haghighi, George Kensah, Charles M Pearman, Felix Wiedmann, Arco J Teske, Constanze Schmidt, Katharine M Dibb, Aschraf El-Essawi, Bernhard C Danner, Hassina Baraki, Blanche Schwappach, Ingo Kutschka, Fleur E Mason, Niels Voigt
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation is a commonly occurring arrhythmia after cardiac surgery (postoperative AF, poAF) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Considering that reduced atrial contractile function is a predictor of poAF and that Ca2+ plays an important role in both excitation-contraction coupling and atrial arrhythmogenesis, this study aims to test whether alterations of intracellular Ca2+ handling contribute to impaired atrial contractility and to the arrhythmogenic substrate predisposing patients to poAF...
June 10, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
Yiyan Yu, Dan Luo, Zhiyi Li, Juan Zhang, Fang Li, Jie Qiao, Fengxu Yu, Miaoling Li
BACKGROUND Dysfunction of small conductance calcium activated potassium (SK) channels plays a vital role in atrial arrhythmogenesis. Amiodarone and dronedarone are the most effective class III antiarrhythmic drugs. It is unclear whether the antiarrhythmic effect of amiodarone and dronedarone is related to SK channel inhibition. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tissue samples were obtained from the right atria of 46 patients with normal sinus rhythm and 39 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Isolated atrial myocytes were obtained by enzymatic dissociation...
May 29, 2020: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Alexander Burashnikov, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Dan Hu, Victoria M Robinson, Morten Grunnet, Charles Antzelevitch
The mechanisms underlying atrial-selective prolongation of effective refractory period (ERP) and suppression of atrial fibrillation (AF) by NS8593 and UCL1684, small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel blockers, are poorly defined. The purpose of the study was to confirm the effectiveness of these agents to suppress AF and to probe the underlying mechanisms. Transmembrane action potentials and pseudo-ECGs were recorded from canine isolated coronary-perfused canine atrial and ventricular wedge preparations...
May 20, 2020: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Alvaro Alonso, Mary R Rooney, Lin Y Chen, Faye L Norby, Amy K Saenger, Elsayed Z Soliman, Wesley T O'Neal, Katie C Hootman, Elizabeth Selvin, Pamela L Lutsey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evaluating associations of circulating electrolytes with atrial fibrillation (AF) and burden of supraventricular arrhythmias can give insights into arrhythmia pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 6398 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, ages 71-90, with data on serum electrolytes (magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride, sodium). Prevalence of AF was determined from electrocardiograms and history of AF hospitalizations...
June 25, 2020: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Shuroug A Alowais, Bryan D Hayes, Susan R Wilcox, Jennifer Le, Jennifer L Koehl, Lanting Fuh
BACKGROUND: Patients who present with atrial fibrillation (AF) or flutter with rapid ventricular response (RVR) and hemodynamic stability may be managed with either an intravenous (IV) nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a beta-blocker (BB). Patients without improved heart rates may need to switch to, or add, a second AV nodal blocker. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of rate control achievement and bradycardia in patients in AF or atrial flutter with RVR who receive both an intravenous CCB and a BB...
May 8, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kelvin Wei Zhern Loh, Mui Cheng Liang, Tuck Wah Soong, Zhenyu Hu
Voltage-gated calcium channels are the major pathway for Ca2+ influx to initiate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Alterations of calcium channel function have been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and long QT syndrome. Post-translational modifications do expand cardiovascular calcium channel structure and function to affect processes such as channel trafficking or polyubiquitination by two E3 ubiquitin ligases, Ret finger protein 2 (Rfp2) or murine double minute 2 protein (Mdm2)...
May 20, 2020: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mei Yang, Youcheng Wang, Xiaoxing Xiong, Baojun Xie, Jia Liu, Junkui Yin, Liuliu Zi, Xi Wang, Yanhong Tang, Congxin Huang, Qingyan Zhao
Background: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with acute stroke (AS). Studies have shown that intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel channels (SK4) play an important role in cardiomyocyte automaticity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SK4 on AF vulnerability in dogs with AS. Experimental: Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into a control group, AS group and left stellate ganglion ablation (LSGA) group...
May 2020: Heliyon
Steffen Pabel, Julian Mustroph, Thea Stehle, Simon Lebek, Nataliya Dybkova, Andreas Keyser, Leopold Rupprecht, Stefan Wagner, Stefan Neef, Lars S Maier, Samuel Sossalla
AIMS: In atrial fibrillation (AF), an increased diastolic Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) mediated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinaseIIδC (CaMKII) can serve as a substrate for arrhythmia induction and persistence. Dantrolene has been shown to stabilize the cardiac ryanodine-receptor. This study investigated the effects of dantrolene on arrhythmogenesis in human and mouse atria with enhanced CaMKII activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human atrial cardiomyocytes (CMs) were isolated from patients with AF...
May 15, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Raffaele Coppini, Lorenzo Santini, Iacopo Olivotto, Michael J Ackerman, Elisabetta Cerbai
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited monogenic disease with a prevalence of 1/500 in the general population, representing an important cause of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD), heart failure, and atrial fibrillation in the young. HCM is a global condition, diagnosed in >50 countries and in all continents. HCM affects people of both sexes and various ethnic and racial origins, with similar clinical course and phenotypic expression. The most unpredictable and devastating consequence of HCM is represented by arrhythmic SCD, most commonly caused by sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation...
July 15, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
Fay M A Nous, Ricardo P J Budde, Eva D van Dijkman, Paul J Musters, Koen Nieman, Tjebbe W Galema
Identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients improves risk stratification and defines clinical management. However, the value of screening for subclinical CAD with cardiac CT in AF patients is unknown. Between 2011 and 2015, 94 consecutive patients without known or suspected CAD (66 (57-73) years, 68% male), who were referred for AF evaluation, underwent a noncontrast-enhanced coronary calcium scan and a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at our center. We retrospectively evaluated the coronary calcium score, the prevalence of obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) determined by CCTA, compared clinical management and 5-year outcome in patients with and without obstructive CAD on CCTA, and examined the potential impact of a coronary calcium score and obstructive CAD on CCTA as a manifestation of vascular disease on the CHA2Ds2VASc score and for the cardiovascular risk stratification of AF patients...
April 7, 2020: American Journal of Cardiology
Raman Sohal, Tanya George
BACKGROUND Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare and incredibly painful cutaneous disorder secondary to microvascular involvement in which calcium dysregulation leads to stenosis of medium sized arterial blood vessels along with endothelial dysregulation and thrombosis. Ultimately, these patients are at high risk for non-healing wounds with risk of death from sepsis and multi-organ failure. It is a poorly understood condition with limited therapies that do not offer mortality benefit. Prevalence is about 4% in hemodialysis patients...
April 27, 2020: American Journal of Case Reports
Lu Qi Chen, Eleana Tsiamtsiouris, Harjot Singh, Kathy Rapelje, Jonathan Weber, Damini Dey, Ioanna Kosmidou, Joseph Levine, J Jane Cao
The burden of coronary artery atherosclerosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We aimed to assess the coronary artery calcium (CAC) in AF patients. We retrospectively analyzed 324 consecutive patients with AF who had CT angiogram before AF ablation and their cardiovascular risk were prospectively collected. Mean age of the cohort was 66 years and 71% were male. The previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD) was present in 19% (n = 63) and CAC was positive in all. In patients without known CAD (n = 261), CAC was present in 70% (n = 182) with a comparable prevalence between men and women, which raised the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis to 76% (n = 245) for the entire cohort...
June 15, 2020: American Journal of Cardiology
Shaun Giancaterino, Marcus A Urey, Douglas Darden, Jonathan C Hsu
Cardiac amyloidosis is characterized by extracellular protein fibril deposition in the myocardium leading to restrictive heart failure. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, along with conduction disease, are common in cardiac amyloidosis, and are often highly symptomatic and poorly tolerated. Many commonly used therapeutics such as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and digoxin may be poorly tolerated and lead to clinical decompensation in this population, adding complexity to the co-management of these conditions...
April 2020: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
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