Dmitry Sychev, Karin Mirzaev, Marina Cherniaeva, Maria Kulikova, Pavel Bochkov, Roman Shevchenko, Svetlana Gorbatenkova, Olga Golovina, Olga Ostroumova, Damirya Bahteeva, Eric Rytkin
Objectives For revealing the peculiarities of the drug-drug interaction of rivaroxaban (substrate CYP3A4 and P-gp) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (verapamil - inhibitor CYP3A4 and P-gp and amlodipine - substrate CYP3A4) in patients 80 years and older with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NAF) we studied 128 patients. Methods All patients were divided into groups depending on the therapy taken: the 1st - rivaroxaban + amlodipine (n=51), the 2nd - rivaroxaban + verapamil (n=30), the control group - rivaroxaban without CCBs (n=47)...
September 4, 2020: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Yuriana Oropeza-Almazan, Lothar A Blatter
Cardiac alternans, defined as beat-to-beat alternations in action potential duration, cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude and cardiac contraction, is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and sudden cardiac death. At the cellular level, cardiac alternans is linked to abnormal intracellular calcium handling during excitation-contraction coupling. We investigated how pharmacological activation or inhibition of cytosolic Ca sequestration via mitochondrial Ca uptake and mitochondrial Ca retention affects the occurrence of pacing-induced CaT alternans in isolated rabbit atrial myocytes...
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Xiaodong Peng, Linling Li, Mengxia Zhang, Qianqian Zhao, Kui Wu, Rong Bai, Yanfei Ruan, Nian Liu
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel class of glucose-lowering agents that significantly improve the prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure. SGLT2i has recently been implicated in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) with clinical data demonstrating that these agents decrease the incidence of AF events in patients with T2D. Fundamental findings have suggested that SGLT2i may alleviate atrial electrical and structural remodeling. The underlying mechanisms of SGLT2i are likely associated with balancing the sodium and calcium handling disorders and mitigating the mitochondrial dysfunction in atrial myocytes...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Yen-Yu Lu, Yao-Chang Chen, Yung-Kuo Lin, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Mechanoelectrical feedback is an important factor in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Ectopic electrical activity originating from pulmonary vein (PV) myocardial sleeves has been found to trigger and maintain paroxysmal AF. Dilated PVs by high stretching force may activate mechanoelectrical feedback, which induces calcium overload and produces afterdepolarization. These results, in turn, increase PV arrhythmogenesis and contribute to initiation of AF. Paracrine factors, effectors of the renin-angiotensin system, membranous channels, or cytoskeleton of PV myocytes may modulate PV arrhythmogenesis directly through mechanoelectrical feedback or indirectly through endocardial/myocardial cross-talk...
August 2020: Journal of Arrhythmia
Seung Don Baek, Soomin Jeung, Jae-Young Kang, Ki Hyun Jeon
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in end-stage renal disease patients. Besides the traditional risk factors, we aimed to find dialysis-specific factors for developing incident AF. METHODS: From March 2017 to August 2018, we retrospectively reviewed all outpatient-based prevalent hemodialysis patients in our artificial kidney room, and they were followed up until August 2019. Dialysate calcium concentration (3 versus 2.5 mEq/L), time length (4 versus 3...
November 2020: Renal Failure
Marinela Couselo-Seijas, José N Lopez-Canoa, Ángel L Fernandez, Laila González-Melchor, Luisa M Seoane, Darío Duran-Muñoz, Adriana Rozados-Luis, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero, Sonia Eiras
The modulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat diminishes atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. These results suggest an interaction between autonomic imbalance and epicardial fat as risk factors of AF. Our aim was to study the inflammatory, lipidic and fibroblastic profile of epicardial stroma from patients who underwent open-heart surgery, their regulation by cholinergic activity and its association with AF. We performed in vitro and ex vivo assays from paired subcutaneous and epicardial stromal cells or explants from 33 patients...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
David Sergeevichev, Vladislav Fomenko, Artem Strelnikov, Anna Dokuchaeva, Maria Vasilieva, Elena Chepeleva, Yanina Rusakova, Sergey Artemenko, Alexander Romanov, Nariman Salakhutdinov, Alexander Chernyavskiy
Several experimental studies have recently demonstrated that temporary autonomic block using botulinum toxin (BoNT/A1) might be a novel option for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, the assessment of antiarrhythmic properties of BoNT has so far been limited, relying exclusively on vagal stimulation and rapid atrial pacing models. The present study examined the antiarrhythmic effect of specially formulated BoNT/A1-chitosan nanoparticles (BTN) in calcium chloride-, barium chloride- and electrically induced arrhythmia rat models...
August 2, 2020: Marine Drugs
N R Fuggle, C Cooper, N C Harvey, N Al-Daghri, M-L Brandi, O Bruyere, A Cano, E M Dennison, A Diez-Perez, J-M Kaufman, S Palacios, D Prieto-Alhambra, S Rozenberg, T Thomas, F Tremollieres, R Rizzoli, J A Kanis, J Y Reginster
The incidence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases with age, and there are potentially shared mechanistic associations between the two conditions. It is therefore highly relevant to understand the cardiovascular implications of osteoporosis medications. These are presented in this narrative review. Calcium supplementation could theoretically cause atheroma formation via calcium deposition, and in one study was found to be associated with myocardial infarction, but this has not been replicated...
July 28, 2020: Drugs
Yoshibumi Antoku, Masao Takemoto, Takahiro Mito, Akihiro Masumoto, Masatsugu Nozoe, Atsushi Tanaka, Yusuke Yamamoto, Takafumi Ueno, Takuya Tsuchihashi
Objectives We recently reported that routine cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans for radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) could steadily detect coronary artery lesions (CALs) and could accurately detect myocardial ischemia in 9% of patients with AF who underwent RFCA of AF. The aim of this study was to identify the independent risk factor (s) of myocardial ischemia in those patients. Methods, Patients and Materials Patient characteristics, blood test, CALs, Ordinal coronary calcium scoring (OCCS), and myocardial Ischemia (MI) were evaluated in 757 consecutive patients who underwent RFCA of AF...
July 21, 2020: Internal Medicine
Henry Sutanto, Matthijs J M Cluitmans, Dobromir Dobrev, Paul G A Volders, Markéta Bébarová, Jordi Heijman
Acute excessive ethyl alcohol (ethanol) consumption alters cardiac electrophysiology and can evoke cardiac arrhythmias, e.g., in 'holiday heart syndrome'. Ethanol acutely modulates numerous targets in cardiomyocytes, including ion channels, calcium-handling proteins and gap junctions. However, the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced arrhythmogenesis remain incompletely understood and difficult to study experimentally due to the multiple electrophysiological targets involved and their potential interactions with preexisting electrophysiological or structural substrates...
July 22, 2020: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Maria Odette Gore, Colby R Ayers, Amit Khera, Christopher R deFilippi, Thomas J Wang, Stephen L Seliger, Vijay Nambi, Elizabeth Selvin, Jarett D Berry, W Gregory Hundley, Matthew Budoff, Philip Greenland, Mark H Drazner, Christie M Ballantyne, Benjamin D Levine, James A de Lemos
Background Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment focus on 10-year or longer timeframes. Shorter-term CVD risk is also clinically relevant, particularly for high-risk occupations, but is under-investigated. Methods and Results We pooled data from participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and DHS (Dallas Heart Study), free from CVD at baseline (N=16 581). Measurements included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (>100 pg/mL prospectively defined as abnormal); high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (abnormal >5 ng/L); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (abnormal >3 mg/L); left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG (abnormal if present); carotid intima-media thickness, and plaque (abnormal >75th percentile for age and sex or presence of plaque); and coronary artery calcium (abnormal >10 Agatston U)...
July 23, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Na Zhao, Qince Li, Haibo Sui, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia with an increasing incidence rate. Particularly for the aging population, understanding the underlying mechanisms of atrial arrhythmia is important in designing clinical treatment. Recently, experiments have shown that atrial arrhythmia is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, an atrial cell model including oxidative-dependent Ca2+ /calmodulin- (CaM-) dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation was developed to explore the intrinsic mechanisms of atrial arrhythmia induced by oxidative stress...
2020: BioMed Research International
Naomi Hirota, Shinya Suzuki, Masao Yamasaki, Naoki Matsumoto, Kousuke Ajiki, Masashi Kasao, Yukio Hiroi, Masataka Takizawa, Haruo Mitani, Tohru Fukatsu, Noriyuki Hayami, Takeshi Yamashita
The "on-therapy range" of direct oral anticoagulants is the 90% interval of drug concentration. Previously, we reported the on-therapy range of rivaroxaban in a single-center cohort. The present study aimed to confirm the range and intraindividual reproducibility in a multicenter cohort.Eligible patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation under rivaroxaban treatment for prevention of ischemic stroke were enrolled from nine institutes in Tokyo, Japan, between June 2016 and May 2017 (n = 324). The first and second (three months later) blood samples both taken within 1-5 hours after rivaroxaban intake were analyzed (n = 219)...
July 18, 2020: International Heart Journal
Hannah M Campbell, Ann P Quick, Issam Abu-Taha, David Y Chiang, Carlos F Kramm, Tarah A Word, Sören Brandenburg, Mohit Hulsurkar, Katherina M Alsina, Hui-Bin Liu, Brian Martin, Dennis Uhlenkamp, Oliver M Moore, Satadru K Lahiri, Eleonora Corradini, Markus Kamler, Albert J R Heck, Stephan E Lehnart, Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
Background: Enhanced diastolic calcium (Ca2+ ) release via ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2) has been implicated in atrial fibrillation (AF) promotion. Diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak is caused by increased RyR2 phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) or Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase-II (CaMKII) phosphorylation, or less dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. However, considerable controversy remains regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying altered RyR2 function in AF. We thus sought to determine the role of 'striated muscle preferentially expressed protein kinase' (SPEG), a novel regulator of RyR2 phosphorylation, in AF pathogenesis...
July 20, 2020: Circulation
Jennifer Susan Lees, Kenneth Mangion, Elaine Rutherford, Miles D Witham, Rosemary Woodward, Giles Roditi, Tracey Hopkins, Katriona Brooksbank, Alan G Jardine, Patrick B Mark
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) exhibit increased vascular stiffness and calcification; these parameters are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Activity of endogenous calcification inhibitors such as matrix gla protein (MGP) is dependent on vitamin K. RTRs commonly have subclinical vitamin K deficiency. The Vitamin K in kidney Transplant Organ Recipients: Investigating vEssel Stiffness (ViKTORIES) study assesses whether vitamin K supplementation reduces vascular stiffness and calcification in a diverse population of RTR...
July 2020: Open Heart
Hai-Tao Hou, Lan-Gang Xue, Jia-Yi Zhou, Shi-Fu Wang, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors including trace elements contribute to the development of disorders including coronary artery diseases. Whether there are differences in concentrations of trace elements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the plasma level of four trace elements Cu, Fe, Zn, magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) during and after CABG between on-pump and off-pump procedure and the correlation between these trace elements and the development of postoperative AF...
July 4, 2020: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Martin J Holzmann, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most important cause of death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to study the association between cardiovascular drugs in AF patients and incident CHF. The study population included all adults (n = 120 756) aged ≥45 years diagnosed with AF in Sweden diagnosed for the period 1998-2006. Outcome was incident congestive heart failure (follow-up 2007-2015) in AF patients. Associations between treatment with cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and CHF were evaluated using Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, after adjustment for age, sociodemographic variables, and comorbidities...
July 15, 2020: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Mark D McCauley, Liang Hong, Arvind Sridhar, Ambili Menon, Srikanth Perike, Meihong Zhang, Ivson Bezerra da Silva, JiaJie Yan, Marcelo G Bonini, Xun Ai, Jalees Rehman, Dawood Darbar
Background - Epidemiological studies have established obesity as an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced cardiac sodium channel expression is a known causal mechanism in AF. We hypothesized that obesity decreases Nav1.5 expression via enhanced oxidative stress, thus reducing INa , and enhancing susceptibility to AF. Methods - To elucidate the underlying electrophysiologic (EP) mechanisms a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model was used...
July 12, 2020: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Jah Yeon Choi, Young Joo Suh, Young Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sak Lee, Geu-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Chi Young Shim
Left atrial calcium (LAC) is often observed in patients who have undergone mitral valve (MV) surgery, but little is known about its characteristics and clinical implications. Therefore, we sought to investigate the structural and hemodynamic significance of LAC and its association with clinical outcomes. We investigated 327 patients with repaired or prosthetic MV who underwent cardiac CT from 2010 to 2017. The degree of LAC was analyzed and classified into three groups: group 1 (no LAC), group 2 (mild-to-moderate LAC), and group 3 (severe LAC)...
August 1, 2020: American Journal of Cardiology
Ruben R De With, Ömer Erküner, Michiel Rienstra, Bao-Oanh Nguyen, Frank W J Körver, Dominik Linz, Hugo Ten Cate, Henri Spronk, Abraham A Kroon, Alexander H Maass, Yuri Blaauw, Robert G Tieleman, Martin E W Hemels, Joris R de Groot, Arif Elvan, Mirko de Melis, Coert O S Scheerder, Meelad I H Al-Jazairi, Ulrich Schotten, Justin G L M Luermans, Harry J G M Crijns, Isabelle C Van Gelder
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often starts as a paroxysmal self-terminating arrhythmia. Limited information is available on AF patterns and episode duration of paroxysmal AF. In paroxysmal AF patients, we longitudinally studied the temporal AF patterns, the association with clinical characteristics, and prevalence of AF progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this interim analysis of the Reappraisal of AF: Interaction Between HyperCoagulability, Electrical Remodelling, and Vascular Destabilisation in the Progression of AF (RACE V) registry, 202 patients with paroxysmal AF were followed with continuous rhythm monitoring (implantable loop recorder or pacemaker) for 6 months...
July 8, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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