N R Fuggle, C Cooper, N C Harvey, N Al-Daghri, M-L Brandi, O Bruyere, A Cano, E M Dennison, A Diez-Perez, J-M Kaufman, S Palacios, D Prieto-Alhambra, S Rozenberg, T Thomas, F Tremollieres, R Rizzoli, J A Kanis, J Y Reginster
The incidence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases with age, and there are potentially shared mechanistic associations between the two conditions. It is therefore highly relevant to understand the cardiovascular implications of osteoporosis medications. These are presented in this narrative review. Calcium supplementation could theoretically cause atheroma formation via calcium deposition, and in one study was found to be associated with myocardial infarction, but this has not been replicated...
July 28, 2020: Drugs
Yoshibumi Antoku, Masao Takemoto, Takahiro Mito, Akihiro Masumoto, Masatsugu Nozoe, Atsushi Tanaka, Yusuke Yamamoto, Takafumi Ueno, Takuya Tsuchihashi
Objectives We recently reported that routine cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans for radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) could steadily detect coronary artery lesions (CALs) and could accurately detect myocardial ischemia in 9% of patients with AF who underwent RFCA of AF. The aim of this study was to identify the independent risk factor (s) of myocardial ischemia in those patients. Methods, Patients and Materials Patient characteristics, blood test, CALs, Ordinal coronary calcium scoring (OCCS), and myocardial Ischemia (MI) were evaluated in 757 consecutive patients who underwent RFCA of AF...
July 21, 2020: Internal Medicine
Henry Sutanto, Matthijs J M Cluitmans, Dobromir Dobrev, Paul G A Volders, Markéta Bébarová, Jordi Heijman
Acute excessive ethyl alcohol (ethanol) consumption alters cardiac electrophysiology and can evoke cardiac arrhythmias, e.g., in 'holiday heart syndrome'. Ethanol acutely modulates numerous targets in cardiomyocytes, including ion channels, calcium-handling proteins and gap junctions. However, the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced arrhythmogenesis remain incompletely understood and difficult to study experimentally due to the multiple electrophysiological targets involved and their potential interactions with preexisting electrophysiological or structural substrates...
July 22, 2020: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Maria Odette Gore, Colby R Ayers, Amit Khera, Christopher R deFilippi, Thomas J Wang, Stephen L Seliger, Vijay Nambi, Elizabeth Selvin, Jarett D Berry, W Gregory Hundley, Matthew Budoff, Philip Greenland, Mark H Drazner, Christie M Ballantyne, Benjamin D Levine, James A de Lemos
Background Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment focus on 10-year or longer timeframes. Shorter-term CVD risk is also clinically relevant, particularly for high-risk occupations, but is under-investigated. Methods and Results We pooled data from participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and DHS (Dallas Heart Study), free from CVD at baseline (N=16 581). Measurements included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (>100 pg/mL prospectively defined as abnormal); high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (abnormal >5 ng/L); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (abnormal >3 mg/L); left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG (abnormal if present); carotid intima-media thickness, and plaque (abnormal >75th percentile for age and sex or presence of plaque); and coronary artery calcium (abnormal >10 Agatston U)...
July 23, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Na Zhao, Qince Li, Haibo Sui, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia with an increasing incidence rate. Particularly for the aging population, understanding the underlying mechanisms of atrial arrhythmia is important in designing clinical treatment. Recently, experiments have shown that atrial arrhythmia is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, an atrial cell model including oxidative-dependent Ca2+ /calmodulin- (CaM-) dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation was developed to explore the intrinsic mechanisms of atrial arrhythmia induced by oxidative stress...
2020: BioMed Research International
Naomi Hirota, Shinya Suzuki, Masao Yamasaki, Naoki Matsumoto, Kousuke Ajiki, Masashi Kasao, Yukio Hiroi, Masataka Takizawa, Haruo Mitani, Tohru Fukatsu, Noriyuki Hayami, Takeshi Yamashita
The "on-therapy range" of direct oral anticoagulants is the 90% interval of drug concentration. Previously, we reported the on-therapy range of rivaroxaban in a single-center cohort. The present study aimed to confirm the range and intraindividual reproducibility in a multicenter cohort.Eligible patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation under rivaroxaban treatment for prevention of ischemic stroke were enrolled from nine institutes in Tokyo, Japan, between June 2016 and May 2017 (n = 324). The first and second (three months later) blood samples both taken within 1-5 hours after rivaroxaban intake were analyzed (n = 219)...
July 18, 2020: International Heart Journal
Hannah M Campbell, Ann P Quick, Issam Abu-Taha, David Y Chiang, Carlos F Kramm, Tarah A Word, Sören Brandenburg, Mohit Hulsurkar, Katherina M Alsina, Hui-Bin Liu, Brian Martin, Dennis Uhlenkamp, Oliver M Moore, Satadru K Lahiri, Eleonora Corradini, Markus Kamler, Albert J R Heck, Stephan E Lehnart, Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
Background: Enhanced diastolic calcium (Ca2+ ) release via ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2) has been implicated in atrial fibrillation (AF) promotion. Diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak is caused by increased RyR2 phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) or Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase-II (CaMKII) phosphorylation, or less dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. However, considerable controversy remains regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying altered RyR2 function in AF. We thus sought to determine the role of 'striated muscle preferentially expressed protein kinase' (SPEG), a novel regulator of RyR2 phosphorylation, in AF pathogenesis...
July 20, 2020: Circulation
Jennifer Susan Lees, Kenneth Mangion, Elaine Rutherford, Miles D Witham, Rosemary Woodward, Giles Roditi, Tracey Hopkins, Katriona Brooksbank, Alan G Jardine, Patrick B Mark
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) exhibit increased vascular stiffness and calcification; these parameters are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Activity of endogenous calcification inhibitors such as matrix gla protein (MGP) is dependent on vitamin K. RTRs commonly have subclinical vitamin K deficiency. The Vitamin K in kidney Transplant Organ Recipients: Investigating vEssel Stiffness (ViKTORIES) study assesses whether vitamin K supplementation reduces vascular stiffness and calcification in a diverse population of RTR...
July 2020: Open Heart
Hai-Tao Hou, Lan-Gang Xue, Jia-Yi Zhou, Shi-Fu Wang, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors including trace elements contribute to the development of disorders including coronary artery diseases. Whether there are differences in concentrations of trace elements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the plasma level of four trace elements Cu, Fe, Zn, magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) during and after CABG between on-pump and off-pump procedure and the correlation between these trace elements and the development of postoperative AF...
July 4, 2020: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Martin J Holzmann, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most important cause of death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to study the association between cardiovascular drugs in AF patients and incident CHF. The study population included all adults (n = 120 756) aged ≥45 years diagnosed with AF in Sweden diagnosed for the period 1998-2006. Outcome was incident congestive heart failure (follow-up 2007-2015) in AF patients. Associations between treatment with cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and CHF were evaluated using Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, after adjustment for age, sociodemographic variables, and comorbidities...
July 15, 2020: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Mark D McCauley, Liang Hong, Arvind Sridhar, Ambili Menon, Srikanth Perike, Meihong Zhang, Ivson Bezerra da Silva, JiaJie Yan, Marcelo G Bonini, Xun Ai, Jalees Rehman, Dawood Darbar
Background - Epidemiological studies have established obesity as an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced cardiac sodium channel expression is a known causal mechanism in AF. We hypothesized that obesity decreases Nav1.5 expression via enhanced oxidative stress, thus reducing INa , and enhancing susceptibility to AF. Methods - To elucidate the underlying electrophysiologic (EP) mechanisms a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model was used...
July 12, 2020: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Jah Yeon Choi, Young Joo Suh, Young Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sak Lee, Geu-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Chi Young Shim
Left atrial calcium (LAC) is often observed in patients who have undergone mitral valve (MV) surgery, but little is known about its characteristics and clinical implications. Therefore, we sought to investigate the structural and hemodynamic significance of LAC and its association with clinical outcomes. We investigated 327 patients with repaired or prosthetic MV who underwent cardiac CT from 2010 to 2017. The degree of LAC was analyzed and classified into three groups: group 1 (no LAC), group 2 (mild-to-moderate LAC), and group 3 (severe LAC)...
August 1, 2020: American Journal of Cardiology
Ruben R De With, Ömer Erküner, Michiel Rienstra, Bao-Oanh Nguyen, Frank W J Körver, Dominik Linz, Hugo Ten Cate, Henri Spronk, Abraham A Kroon, Alexander H Maass, Yuri Blaauw, Robert G Tieleman, Martin E W Hemels, Joris R de Groot, Arif Elvan, Mirko de Melis, Coert O S Scheerder, Meelad I H Al-Jazairi, Ulrich Schotten, Justin G L M Luermans, Harry J G M Crijns, Isabelle C Van Gelder
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often starts as a paroxysmal self-terminating arrhythmia. Limited information is available on AF patterns and episode duration of paroxysmal AF. In paroxysmal AF patients, we longitudinally studied the temporal AF patterns, the association with clinical characteristics, and prevalence of AF progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this interim analysis of the Reappraisal of AF: Interaction Between HyperCoagulability, Electrical Remodelling, and Vascular Destabilisation in the Progression of AF (RACE V) registry, 202 patients with paroxysmal AF were followed with continuous rhythm monitoring (implantable loop recorder or pacemaker) for 6 months...
July 8, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jian Hou, Shaojie Huang, Yan Long, Jiaxing Huang, Song Yang, Jianping Yao, Guangxian Chen, Yuan Yue, Mengya Liang, Bo Mei, Jiawen Li, Zhongkai Wu
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. DACT2 is a novel and important mediator of signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of DACT2 expression in AF. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the DACT2 expression pattern in valvular disease patients. DACT2 was overexpressed in HL-1 cells and primary atrial fibroblasts. The expression levels of the potassium channel, the L-type calcium current channel, sodium ion channel proteins and collagen proteins were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 2020: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Duo Feng, DongZhu Xu, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Kazuko Tajiri, Rujie Qin, Saori Yonebayashi, Yuta Okabe, Siqi Li, Zixun Yuan, Kazutaka Aonuma, Masaki Ieda
Aging and obesity are the most prominent risk factors for onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) activity. Nampt and NAD are essential for maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis and modulation of cellular metabolism, and their expression levels decrease with aging and obesity. However, a role for Nampt in AF is unknown. The present study aims to test whether there is a role of Nampt/NAD axis in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced AF...
June 30, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuan Hung, Yao-Chang Chen, Shih-Yu Huang, Yen-Yu Lu, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Wei-Shiang Lin, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
AIMS: Klotho, a potential antiageing protein has remarkable cardiovascular effects, which is lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of atrial fibrillation, majorly triggered by pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. This study investigated whether klotho protein can modulate PV electrical activity and the underlying potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: A conventional microelectrode and whole-cell patch clamp were used to investigate the action potentials and ionic currents in isolated rabbit PV tissue preparations and single cardiomyocytes before and after klotho administration...
July 1, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Pei-Pei Zhang, Zhao-Fu Guo, Pei-Hua Zhang, Zhi-Pei Liu, Lv Song, Ze-Fu Zhang, Yu-Zhong Jia, Zhen-Zhen Cao, Ji-Hua Ma
Eleutheroside B (EB) is the main active constituent derived from the Chinese herb Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) that has been reported to possess cardioprotective effects. In this study we investigated the effects of EB on cardiac electrophysiology and its suppression on atrial fibrillation (AF). Whole-cell recording was conducted in isolated rabbit atrial myocytes. The intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) concentration was measured using calcium indicator Fura-2/AM fluorescence. Monophasic action potential (MAP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) synchronous recordings were conducted in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts using ECG signal sampling and analysis system...
July 1, 2020: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Clotilde Roy, Sibille Lejeune, Alisson Slimani, Christophe de Meester, Sylvie A Ahn As, Michel F Rousseau, Amzulescu Mihaela, Audrey Ginion, Benjamin Ferracin, Agnès Pasquet, David Vancraeynest, Christophe Beauloye, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Sandrine Horman, Damien Gruson, Bernhard L Gerber, Anne-Catherine Pouleur
AIMS: Besides regulating calcium-phosphate metabolism, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has been associated with incident heart failure (HF) and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, data about FGF-23 in HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remain limited. The aim of this study was to assess the association between FGF-23 levels, clinical and imaging characteristics, particularly diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and prognosis in HFpEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 143 consecutive HFpEF patients (78 ± 8 years, 61% female patients) and 31 controls of similar age and gender (75 ± 6 years, 61% female patients)...
June 24, 2020: ESC Heart Failure
Haikel Dridi, Alexander Kushnir, Ran Zalk, Qi Yuan, Zephan Melville, Andrew R Marks
Ca2+ is a fundamental second messenger in all cell types and is required for numerous essential cellular functions, including cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. The intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]) is regulated primarily by ion channels, pumps (ATPases), exchangers and Ca2+ -binding proteins. Defective regulation of [Ca2+ ] is found in a diverse spectrum of pathological states that affect all the major organs. In the heart, abnormalities in the regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+ ] occur in heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), two common forms of heart disease and leading contributors to morbidity and mortality...
June 18, 2020: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Yi Zhang, Ying Qi, Jing-Jing Li, Wen-Jin He, Xiao-Hang Gao, Yu Zhang, Xia Sun, Jie Tong, Jianbao Zhang, Xiu-Ling Deng, Xiao-Jun Du, Wenjun Xie
AIMS: Despite numerous reports documenting an important role of hypertension in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the detailed mechanism underlying the pathological process remains incompletely understood. Here, we aim to test the hypothesis that diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes, induced by mechanical stretch due to elevated pressure in the left atrium (LA), plays an essential role in the AF development in pressure-overloaded hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated mouse atrial myocytes subjected to acute axial stretch displayed an immediate elevation of SR Ca2+ leak...
June 12, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
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