Udit Nindra, Joshua Hurwitz, Dion Forstner, Venessa Chin, Richard Gallagher, Jia Liu
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) require multi-modality treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now standard of care in management of recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. However, its role in the definitive and neoadjuvant setting remains unclear. METHODS: A literature search was conducted that included all articles investigating ICI in untreated locally advanced (LA) HNSCC. Data was extracted and summarised and rated for quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool...
March 19, 2023: Cancer Medicine
Ryan K Shahidehpour, Abraham S Nelson, Lydia G Sanders, Chloe R Embry, Peter T Nelson, Adam D Bachstetter
New histological techniques are needed to examine protein distribution in human tissues, which can reveal cell shape and disease pathology connections. Spatial proteomics has changed the study of tumor microenvironments by identifying spatial relationships of immunomodulatory cells and proteins and contributing to the discovery of new cancer immunotherapy biomarkers. However, the fast-expanding toolkit of spatial proteomic approaches has yet to be systematically applied to investigate pathological alterations in the aging human brain in health and disease states...
March 18, 2023: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Tsutomu Anraku, Hideki Hashidate, Asa Nakahara, Tomoyuki Imai, Yoshiaki Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare, high-grade malignancy with epithelial and mesenchymal components. It may be a good candidate for immunotherapy because it is associated with overexpression of programmed cell death ligand 1. Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper urinary tract is extremely rare. Here we report the first case of sarcomatoid UC of the renal pelvis that responded to immunotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of various symptoms, including anorexia and abdominal pain...
March 18, 2023: BMC Urology
Zihan Zhou, Wenjie Guo, Dingqi Liu, Jose Ramon Nsue Micha, Yue Song, Shuhua Han
The reliable predictive markers to identify which patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer tumors (NSCLC) will achieve durable clinical benefit (DCB) for chemo-immunotherapy are needed. In this retrospective study, we collected radiomics and clinical signatures from 94 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 combined with chemotherapy from January 1, 2018 to May 31, 2022. Radiomics variables were extracted from pretreatment CT and selected by Spearman correlation coefficients and clinical features by Logistics regression analysis...
March 18, 2023: Scientific Reports
Su Yin Lim, Elena Shklovskaya, Jenny H Lee, Bernadette Pedersen, Ashleigh Stewart, Zizhen Ming, Mal Irvine, Brindha Shivalingam, Robyn P M Saw, Alexander M Menzies, Matteo S Carlino, Richard A Scolyer, Georgina V Long, Helen Rizos
Resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies in melanoma is common and remains an intractable clinical challenge. In this study, we comprehensively profile immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance mechanisms in short-term tumor cell lines and matched tumor samples from melanoma patients progressing on immune checkpoint inhibitors. Combining genome, transcriptome, and high dimensional flow cytometric profiling with functional analysis, we identify three distinct programs of immunotherapy resistance. Here we show that resistance programs include (1) the loss of wild-type antigen expression, resulting from tumor-intrinsic IFNγ signaling and melanoma de-differentiation, (2) the disruption of antigen presentation via multiple independent mechanisms affecting MHC expression, and (3) immune cell exclusion associated with PTEN loss...
March 18, 2023: Nature Communications
L-J Li, J-Z Xuan, H-N Zheng
AIM: To explore the association between metabolic parameters evaluated by integrated 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and the expression of immune biomarkers in the tumour microenvironment in lung adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 134 patients. Metabolic parameters were obtained by PET/CT. Immunohistochemistry analysis was used for FOXP3-TILs (transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes), CD8-TILs, CD4-TILs, CD68-TAMs (tumour-associated macrophages) and galectin-1 (Gal-1) tumour expression...
March 1, 2023: Clinical Radiology
Mai Abdel Mouti, Siim Pauklin
The clinical efficacy and durability of KRASG12C -targeted therapies are limited by the development of resistance mechanisms. Here, we provide a review of recent KRASG12C -targeted therapy and immunotherapy-unifying strategies that utilize covalently modified peptide/MHC class I complexes as tumor-specific neoantigens to tag drug-resistant cancer cells for destruction with hapten-based immunotherapeutics.
March 16, 2023: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
A Farina, M Villagrán-García, J Honnorat
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has represented a major advance in cancer treatment. By enhancing endogenous immune responses to destroy cancer cells, ICIs can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), with possible involvement of any organ system. IrAEs are frequent, particularly those involving the skin or the endocrine system, and usually completely reversible after temporary immunosuppression, while neurological irAEs (n-irAEs) are relatively rare, often severe, and they carry a considerable risk of mortality and long-term disability...
March 16, 2023: Revue Neurologique
Shizhe Li, Ting Chen, Jinxin Liu, He Zhang, Jiatong Li, Zhiwei Wang, Guanning Shang
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, are important in governing protein expression levels. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) are novel structures designed to target a protein of interest (POI) for ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the selective reduction in the expression levels of the POI. PROTACs have exhibited great promise due to their ability to target undruggable proteins, including several transcription factors...
March 16, 2023: Cancer Letters
Bu-Fu Tang, Ruo-Chen Yan, Si-Wei Wang, Zhao-Chong Zeng, Du Shi-Suo
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is a member of the AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) protein family, which is widely and highly expressed in multiple cancer types. Through direct and indirect interactions with other proteins, it mediates various cascades of signal transduction processes and plays an important role in regulating tumor cell survival, growth, invasion and migration and other biological functions. Interestingly, MELK also plays an important role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment, which can not only predict the responsiveness of immunotherapy, but also affect the function of immune cells to regulate tumor progression...
March 16, 2023: Cancer Letters
Lorenza Rimassa, Richard S Finn, Bruno Sangro
Single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been tested in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showing an objective response rate of 15-20%, mostly without a significant overall survival (OS) benefit. Furthermore, approximately 30% of HCC shows intrinsic resistance to ICIs. In the absence of predictive biomarkers to identify patients likely to benefit most from immunotherapy, research has moved to exploring combinations with potential activity in broader patient populations. Basket trials, including cohorts of patients with HCC, and early phase studies tested the combination of ICIs with antiangiogenic agents as well as the combination of two different ICIs...
March 16, 2023: Journal of Hepatology
Arghavan Alisoltani, Xinru Qiu, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Mayya Sedova, Mallika Iyer, Adam Godzik
Both gender and smoking are correlated with prevalence and outcomes in many types of cancers. Tobacco smoke is a known carcinogen through its genotoxicity but can also affect cancer progression through its effect on the immune system. In this study, we aim to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of smoking on the tumor immune microenvironment will be influenced differently by gender using large-scale analysis of publicly available cancer datasets. We used The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) datasets (n = 2724) to analyze effects of smoking on different cancer immune subtypes and the relative abundance of immune cell types between male and female cancer patients...
March 16, 2023: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xiaojuan Zhang, Chuanchuan He, Xuelian He, Sijun Fan, Baoyue Ding, Yao Lu, Guangya Xiang
Based on its ability to induce strong immunogenic cell death (ICD), chemodynamic therapy (CDT) was elaborately designed to combine with immunotherapy for a synergistic anticancer effect. However, hypoxic cancer cells can adaptively regulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathways, leading to a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-homeostatic and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, both ROS-dependent CDT efficacy and immunotherapy are largely diminished, further lowering their synergy. Here, a liposomal nanoformulation co-delivering a Fenton catalyst copper oleate and a HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine (ACF) was reported for breast cancer treatment...
March 16, 2023: Journal of Controlled Release
Irene Olivera, Elixabet Bolaños, Jose Gonzalez-Gomariz, Sandra Hervas-Stubbs, Karina V Mariño, Carlos Luri-Rey, Iñaki Etxeberria, Assunta Cirella, Josune Egea, Javier Glez-Vaz, Saray Garasa, Maite Alvarez, Iñaki Eguren-Santamaria, Sonia Guedan, Miguel F Sanmamed, Pedro Berraondo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Alvaro Teijeira, Ignacio Melero
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene transfer enhances the therapeutic potency of adoptive T cell therapies. We previously reported that transient engineering of tumor-specific CD8 T cells with IL-12 mRNA enhanced their systemic therapeutic efficacy when delivered intratumorally. Here, we mix T cells engineered with mRNAs to express either single-chain IL-12 (scIL-12) or an IL-18 decoy-resistant variant (DRIL18) that is not functionally hampered by IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). These mRNA-engineered T cell mixtures are repeatedly injected into mouse tumors...
March 17, 2023: Cell reports medicine
Arian Charehjoo, Jamal Majidpoor, Keywan Mortezaee
Metabolic alterations occur commonly in tumor cells as a way to adapt available energetic sources for their proliferation, survival and resistance. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an intracellular enzyme catalyzing tryptophan degradation into kynurenine. IDO1 expression shows a rise in the stroma of many types of human cancers, and it provides a negative feedback mechanism for cancer evasion from immunosurveillance. Upregulation of IDO1 correlates with cancer aggression, poor prognosis and shortened patient survival...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Benjawan Wudtiwai, Kanchanok Kodchakorn, Thuzar Hla Shwe, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Thanyaluck Phitak, Raksa Suninthaboonrana, Prachya Kongtawelert
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibits high levels of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, which promotes immune escape and metastasis. Brazilein is a natural compound extracted from Caesalpinia sappan L., and has been demonstrated to be an anti-inflammatory anti- proliferative and apoptosis-inducer in various cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of brazilein on EMT and PD-L1 expression in breast cancer cells and its related molecular mechanisms using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as a model...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Lilong Zhang, Jiarui Feng, Tianrui Kuang, Dongqi Chai, Zhendong Qiu, Wenhong Deng, Keshuai Dong, Kailiang Zhao, Weixing Wang
OBJECTIVE: We conducted the first meta-analysis to identify the predictive significance of baseline blood biomarkers (such as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), early alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI), AFP, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), protein induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA-II), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR)) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: Eligible articles were retrieved using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar by November 24, 2022...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Xin-Yu Shen, Jing-Mei Lu, Yu-Nan Lu, Guang-Nan Jin, Jing-Wen Ma, Jing-He Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Xu, Lian-Xun Piao
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes pulmonary toxoplasmosis, although its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. There is no cure for toxoplasmosis. Coixol, a plant polyphenol extracted from coix seeds, has a variety of biological activities. However, the effects of coixol on T. gondii infection have not been clarified. In this study, we infected a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice with the T. gondii RH strain to establish infection models in vitro and in vivo, respectively, to explore protective effects and potential mechanisms of coixol on lung injury caused by T...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Lu Zhan, Xue Tian, Jing Lin, Yingxue Zhang, Hengrui Zheng, Xudong Peng, Guiqiu Zhao
PURPOSE: To screen and identify the mechanism of honokiol on anti-fungi and anti-inflammation in fungal keratitis (FK) through bioinformatic analysis and biological experiments. METHODS: Transcriptome profile demonstrated differential expression genes (DEGs) of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis between PBS-treated and honokiol-treated groups via bioinformatics analyses. Inflammatory substances were quantified by qRT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA, and macrophage polarization was examined by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Liyile Chen, Zeyu Huang, Qianhao Li, Changjun Chen, Yue Luo, Pengde Kang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and its association with intestinal microbiome-related tryptophan metabolism. METHODS: Cartilage was isolated from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and analyzed for expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and cytochrome P450 of family 1, subfamily A, and polypeptide 1 (CyP1A1). To gain mechanistic insights, OA model was induced in Sprague Dawley rats after antibiotic pretreatment combined with a tryptophan-rich diet (or not)...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
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