Ayinalem Alemu, Zebenay Workneh Bitew, Getachew Seid, Getu Diriba, Emebet Gashu, Nega Berhe, Solomon H Mariam, Balako Gumi
BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 overwhelmed tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control, resulting in a decrease in TB detection rate and an increase in TB deaths. Furthermore, the temporary immunosuppressive effects, lung inflammation, and the corticosteroids used to treat COVID-19, may play a direct role in immunosuppression, leading to reactivation of either previous infection or latent TB or the development of new TB. Thus, the aim of this study was to review TB incidence in individuals who recovered from COVID-19...
2022: PloS One
Nicole L Wolter, Iris Z Jaffe
As growing evidence implicates extra-renal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent studies have defined both cell- and sex-specific roles. MR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC). This review integrates published data from the past five years to identify novel roles for vascular MR in CVD, with a focus on understanding sex differences. Four areas are reviewed in which there is recently expanded understanding of the cell type- or sex-specific role of MR in: (1) obesity-induced microvascular endothelial dysfunction, (2) vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis, (3) pulmonary hypertension and (4) chronic-kidney disease (CKD)-related CVD...
November 28, 2022: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Lingfeng Qin, Bo Jiang, Krisztina Zsebo, Henricus J Duckers, Michael Simons, Pei-Yu Chen
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive life-threatening disease, primarily affecting small pulmonary arterioles of the lung. Currently, there is no cure for PAH. It is important to discover new compounds that can be used to treat PAH. The mouse hypoxia-induced PAH model is a widely used model for PAH research. This model recapitulates human clinical manifestations of PAH Group 3 disease and is an important research tool to evaluate the effectiveness of new experimental therapies for PAH. Research using this model often requires the administration of compounds in mice...
November 11, 2022: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kara S Motonaga, Loren Sacks, Inger Olson, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Sharon Chen, Lynn Peng, Jeffrey A Feinstein, Norman H Silverman, Frank L Hanley, David M Axelrod, Catherine D Krawczeski, Alisa Arunamata, David M Kwiatkowski, Scott R Ceresnak
BACKGROUND: The transition from residency to paediatric cardiology fellowship is challenging due to the new knowledge and technical skills required. Online learning can be an effective didactic modality that can be widely accessed by trainees. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a paediatric cardiology Fellowship Online Preparatory Course prior to the start of fellowship. METHODS: The Online Preparatory Course contained 18 online learning modules covering basic concepts in anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterisation, cardiovascular intensive care, electrophysiology, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and cardiac surgery...
November 28, 2022: Cardiology in the Young
Franziska Schmidt, Miriam Erlacher, Charlotte Niemeyer, Dirk Reinhardt, Jan-Henning Klusmann
Twelve to 22% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients present with hyperleukocytosis, which is one of the main risk factors of early death due to its clinical complications: leukostasis, causing pulmonary or central nervous system injuries, tumor lysis syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocks the Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase 3 receptor ( FLT3 ) in AML patients with a FLT3 -internal tandem duplication ( FLT3 -ITD), leading to a reduction of proliferation...
2022: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yu-Wei Chiu, Wei-Chun Huang
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a rare but lethal disease that affects the pulmonary vascular bed, resulting in hypoxia, respiratory distress, right heart failure, exercise limitation and mortality. Currently, many PAH specific medications are applied to ameliorate patients' symptoms, improve life quality and prolong their lives. The survival rate has improved with medical therapy but patients may still suffer from insufficient exercise capacity. Therefore, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) can play an important role in the evaluation of PAH patients' risk status and treatment response, and, furthermore, it can guide the rehabilitation program...
November 2022: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Dong Liu, Feiya Xu, Qian Gao, Zhenguo Zhai
A young adult woman presented with exertional dyspnea and she had had recurrent epistaxis for more than 10 years. On physical examination, cyanosis was noted on the lips, and telangiectasias were seen on the oral mucosa and fingertips. Routine investigations revealed iron deficiency anemia and slightly elevated bilirubin. The result of right heart catheterization was indicative of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary angiography showed arteriovenous malformations of the left upper pulmonary artery, and anterior cerebral artery malformation was seen in cranial computed tomographic angiogram...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ran Miao, Xingbei Dong, Juanni Gong, Yidan Li, Xiaojuan Guo, Jianfeng Wang, Qiang Huang, Ying Wang, Jifeng Li, Suqiao Yang, Tuguang Kuang, Min Liu, Jun Wan, Zhenguo Zhai, Jiuchang Zhong, Yuanhua Yang
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the pathological mechanisms of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) using a gene chip array and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression profile GSE130391 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The peripheral blood samples of five CTEPH patients and five healthy controls were used to prepare the Affymetrix microRNA (miRNA) chip and the Agilent circular RNA (circRNA) chip...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Chantal Lokhorst, Sjoukje van der Werf, Rolf M F Berger, Johannes M Douwes
INTRODUCTION: Currently, risk stratification is the cornerstone of determining treatment strategy for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since the 2015 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension recommended risk assessment, the number of studies reporting risk stratification has considerably increased. This systematic review aims to report and compare the variables and prognostic value of the various risk stratification models for outcome prediction in adult and pediatric PAH...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yanhong Guo, Mingjing Ren, Tingting Wang, Yulin Wang, Tian Pu, Xiaodan Li, Lu Yu, Liuwei Wang, Peipei Liu, Lin Tang
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is a common co-morbidity in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), results in substantial mortality and morbidity. However, there are still no effective therapeutic drugs available for HFpEF currently. Sacubitril/valsartan has been shown to significantly improve clinical outcomes and reverse myocardial remodeling among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The effect of sacubitril/valsartan in MHD patients with HFpEF remains unclear...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Xiao Zhang, Zhao Huangfu
Pregnant individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have significantly high risks of maternal and perinatal mortality. Profound changes in plasma volume, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance can all increase the strain being placed on the right ventricle, leading to heart failure and cardiovascular collapse. Given the complex network of opposing physiological changes, strict contraception and reduction of hemodynamic fluctuations during pregnancy are important methods of minimizing the risk of maternal mortality and improving the outcomes following pregnancy...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jin-Ling Li, Fan Xiao, Hong-Ting Liu, Hui-Ting Li, Qin-Hua Zhao, Chun-Yan Sun, Yan Zhu, Lei Yan, Wen-Yue Wang, Hui Luo, Su-Gang Gong, Rong Jiang, Jin-Ming Liu, Rui Zhang, Lan Wang
BACKGROUND: Significantly improved survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) has raised interest in maintaining a good quality of long-term survivorship. In this study, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement was used to assess the long-term changes of physical and mental outcomes. METHODS: A total of 559 consecutive inpatients with PH completed generic HRQOL (Short Form-36) who were diagnosed with PH by right heart catheterization. Assessments were carried out at short-term (1 year), midterm (3 years), and long-term (5 years) follow-ups...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yijun Wu, Zhuoran Yao, Jianhui Zhang, Chang Han, Kai Kang, Ailin Zhao
BACKGROUND: With approval of anti-PD-1/PD-L1, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has entered the era of immunotherapy. Since immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occur commonly in patients receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1, the landscape of death causes may have changed in metastatic NSCLC. We aim to compare patterns of death causes in metastatic NSCLC between the pre-immunotherapy and immunotherapy era to identify the consequent landscape transition of death causes. METHODS: In this cohort study, 298,48patients with metastatic NSCLC diagnosed between 2000 and 2018 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Melissa A Lyle, Subir Bhatia, Eric Fenstad, Darrell Schroeder, Robert B McCully, Martha Q Lacy, Wayne Feyereisn
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in patients with PH as well as precapillary PH. METHODS: Olmsted County residents with PH, diagnosed between 1/1/1995 and 9/30/2017, were identified, and age and sex were matched to a normal control group. The PH group and normal control group were then cross-referenced with the Mayo Clinic MGUS database. Charts were reviewed to verify MGUS and PH. Heart catheterization data were then analyzed in these patients for reference to the gold standard for diagnosis...
2022: Advances in Hematology
Neil Blanchard, Patrick A Link, Daniela Farkas, Brennan Harmon, Jaylen Hudson, Srimathi Bogamuwa, Bryce Piper, Kayla Authelet, Carlyne D Cool, Rebecca L Heise, Robert Freishtat, Laszlo Farkas
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive, devastating disease, and its main histological manifestation is an occlusive pulmonary arteriopathy. One important functional component of PAH is aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function including apoptosis-resistance, unchecked proliferation, and impaired migration. The mechanisms leading to and maintaining physiologic and aberrant EC function are not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in PAH, ECs have increased expression of the transmembrane protein integrin-β5, which contributes to migration and survival under physiologic and pathological conditions, but also to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EnMT)...
October 2022: Pulmonary Circulation
Takeshi Suetomi, Hiroto Shimokawahara, Yoichi Sugiyama, Ayane Miyagi, Aiko Ogawa, Mari Nishizaki, Hiromi Matsubara
Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by cutaneous capillary malformations, bone hypertrophy, and multiple venous or lymphatic malformations. KTWS is associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), presumably due to thromboembolism from multiple vascular malformations. Here, we report the first case series of patients with KTWS-CTEPH who underwent balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA). Both patients are alive 20 years and 1 year after the initial diagnosis of CTEPH, respectively, and are stable with improved hemodynamics...
October 2022: Pulmonary Circulation
Ruilin Quan, Xiaoxi Chen, Tao Yang, Wen Li, Yuling Qian, Yangyi Lin, Changming Xiong, Guangliang Shan, Qing Gu, Jianguo He
Risk assessment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) utilizing noninvasive prognostic variables could be more practical in real-world scenarios, especially at follow-up reevaluations. Patients who underwent comprehensive evaluations both at baseline and at follow-up visits were enrolled. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Predictive variables identified by Cox analyses were further incorporated with the French noninvasive risk prediction approach. A total of 580 PAH patients were enrolled. During a median follow-up time of 47...
October 2022: Pulmonary Circulation
Tsai-Chu Yeh, Hui-Chen Cheng, Hsing-Yuan Li, Sheng Chu Chi, Hsin-Yu Yang, Jenn-Yah Yu, Dau-Ming Niu, An-Guor Wang
BACKGROUND: We aim to characterise the ophthalmic findings and retinal vasculature changes in patients with WS, and to analyse the correlation between ophthalmic manifestations and the associated systemic diseases. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included 27 WS patients and 28 age-matched healthy participants. Stellate pattern of iris, central macular thickness (CMT), foveal width, retinal vessel diameter, superficial vascular density (SVD) of macula and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were compared between WS patients and healthy participants...
November 28, 2022: Eye
Garima Dahiya, Andreas Kyvernitakis, Adee Elhamdani, Andrew Begg, Mark Doyle, Mahmoud Elsayed, Stephen Bailey, Amresh Raina, Manreet Kanwar, Robert W W Biederman, Raymond L Benza
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently co-exists in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). In this study, we sought to identify the implications of invasive pulmonary hemodynamics on major adverse cardiac events (MACE), biventricular function and NYHA functional class after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Invasive hemodynamics via right heart catheterization (RHC) were performed pre-TAVR. Patients were stratified per mean PA pressure (mPAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and followed at 1-month and 1-year intervals up to 6 years...
October 9, 2022: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Arlene Sirajuddin, S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Travis S Henry, Asha Kandathil, Aine Marie Kelly, Christopher S King, Christopher T Kuzniewski, Andrew R Lai, Elizabeth Lee, Maria D Martin, Parth Mehta, Michael F Morris, Constantine A Raptis, Eric A Roberge, Kim L Sandler, Edwin F Donnelly
Pulmonary hypertension may be idiopathic or related to a large variety of diseases. Various imaging examinations may be helpful in diagnosing and determining the etiology of pulmonary hypertension. Imaging examinations discussed in this document include chest radiography, ultrasound echocardiography, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, CT, MRI, right heart catheterization, and pulmonary angiography. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel...
November 2022: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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