Multiple sclerosis

Alessia Capone, Elisabetta Volpe
T helper (Th) 17 cells are a subtype of CD4 T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of retinoic acid-receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt transcription factor, encoded by gene Rorc . These cells are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune inflammatory disorders as well as in the clearance of extracellular infections. The main function of Th17 cells is the production of cytokine called interleukin (IL)-17A. This review highlights recent advances in mechanisms regulating transcription of IL-17A...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Larissa Ragozo Cardoso de Oliveira, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama Mimura, Thais Fernanda de Campos Fraga-Silva, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Alexandrina Sartori
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that involves damage to the myelin sheath surrounding axons. MS therapy is based on immunomodulatory drugs that reduce disease recurrence and severity. Vitamin D is a hormone whose immunomodulatory ability has been widely demonstrated, including in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of CNS inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the potential of very early intervention with the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) to control neuroinflammation during EAE development...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Isabelle Lehmann, Irène Thaler, Gere Luder, Ulrike Damm, Charlotte Wälti, Saskia Steinheimer, Martin L Verra, Rene M Müri, Thomas Nyffeler, Tim Vanbellingen, Christian P Kamm
BACKGROUND: We developed a standardized, comprehensive, ambulatory, hospital-based neu- rorehabilitation program ("MS-Fit") to improve disability, activities of daily living and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). AIM: To assess feasibility, adherence and satisfaction of the training intervention. DESIGN: Prospective multi-center cohort study analysis. POPULATION: PwMS, aged 18 to 75 years, complaining about multiple sclerosis-related disability affecting activities of daily living and/or quality of life...
March 30, 2020: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Claire McDaniel, Christine Trankiem
CASE: Immunomodulatory injections are becoming common long-term treatments for neuromuscular diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), although they carry a risk of local site infection. We describe a case of a 57-year-old man who developed necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior thigh secondary to intramuscular (IM) injections of interferon-beta-1A for MS, ultimately developing septic shock and requiring serial debridements for source control. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of necrotizing fasciitis from chronic IM injections for MS and deserves particular attention because of the immunosuppressive nature of the injections...
January 2020: JBJS Case Connector
Marc Pawlitzki, Marc Horbrügger, Kristian Loewe, Jörn Kaufmann, Roland Opfer, Markus Wagner, Khaldoon O Al-Nosairy, Sven G Meuth, Michael B Hoffmann, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: The visual pathway is commonly involved in multiple sclerosis (MS), even in its early stages, including clinical episodes of optic neuritis (ON). The long-term structural damage within the visual compartment in patients with ON, however, is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize visual system structure abnormalities using MRI along with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) depending on a single history of ON...
March 5, 2020: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Monica R Langley, Erin M Triplet, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes not only produce myelin to facilitate nerve impulse conduction, but are also essential metabolic partners of the axon. Oligodendrocyte loss and myelin destruction, as occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS), leaves axons vulnerable to degeneration and permanent neurological deficits ensue. Many studies now propose that lifestyle factors such as diet may impact demyelinating conditions, including MS. Most prior reviews have focused on the regulatory role of diet in the inflammatory events that drive MS pathogenesis, however the potential for dietary factors to modulate oligodendrocyte biology, myelin injury and myelin regeneration remain poorly understood...
March 26, 2020: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease
Lei Zhang, Baohong Wen, Tao Chen, Hongzhe Tian, Hongqiang Xue, Huipeng Ren, Li Li, Qing Fan, Zhuanqin Ren
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder that may eventually affect its function. The clinical standard for MS severity is based on a clinical scale, which lacks lesion specific information. Magnetic resonance imaging of MS faces the challenge of myelin specificity, and in this work a new method inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) is investigated as new biomarker of demyelination in MS. METHODS: Local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consents were obtained...
March 26, 2020: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Antonio Canosa, Maurizio Grassano, Marco Barberis, Maura Brunetti, Umberto Manera, Rosario Vasta, Stefania Cammarosano, Giovanni De Marco, Andrea Calvo, Adriano Chiò, Cristina Moglia
About 10% of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (FALS), mainly related to mutations in C9ORF72, SOD1, TARDBP, and FUS genes. Recent data revealed the presence of multiple variants in ALS-associated genes in FALS in excess of what is to be expected by chance. FALS patients not carrying a pathogenic genetic mutation detected in their kindred have been reported. We report a FALS case, who did not carry the p.Ala5Val heterozygous SOD1 mutation that had been detected in other affected subjects of his kindred...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Turhan Kahraman, Asiye Tuba Ozdogar, Zuhal Abasiyanik, Serkan Ozakbas
Smoking is associated with increased multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In addition, some studies have reported that smoking is associated with anxiety and depression. However, the associations between smoking, walking, and fatigue are needed to be investigated. The objective was to investigate the associations between cigarette smoking and walking, fatigue, depression symptom severity, and health-related quality of life in persons with MS. Two hundred seventy-nine persons with MS were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
March 28, 2020: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Hanxiao You, Dong Xu, Jiuliang Zhao, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Xinping Tian, Mengtao Li, Xiaofeng Zeng
The dysregulation of the JAK-STAT pathway is associated with various immune disorders. Four JAK inhibitors have been approved for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and numerous JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in phase II and III trials for the treatment of various autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this narrative review, we elucidate the involvement of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). We also discuss the efficacy of the first- and second-generation JAK inhibitors (tofacitinib, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, peficitinib, filgotinib, upadacitinib, solcitinib, itacitinib, decernotinib, R333, and pf-06651600) for CTDs including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and vasculitis, based on laboratory and clinical research findings...
March 28, 2020: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Fang Chen, Arijit Ghosh, Jingran Lin, Chunteng Zhang, Yining Pan, Abhimanyu Thakur, Kunal Singh, Hao Hong, Susu Tang
5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) is an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, a metabolic pathway in which cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are the resultant metabolites. Both ALOX5 and CysLTs are clinically significant in a number of inflammatory diseases, such as in asthma and allergic rhinitis, and drugs antagonizing the effect of these molecules have long been successfully used to counter these diseases. Interestingly, recent advances in 'neuroinflammation' research has led to the discovery of several novel inflammatory pathways regulating many cerebral pathologies, including the ALOX5 pathway...
March 25, 2020: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Serkan Gökaslan, Hayri Demirbaş, Çiğdem Özer Gökaslan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by neurodegeneration or demyelination, and the relapsing?remitting phase of MS is characterized by acute exacerbation of disease activity. The most commonly used non-invasive approach to assess autonomic function is the determination of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction using HRT and HRV parameters determined via 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring in patients with relapsing-remitting MS without known heart disease...
March 28, 2020: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Gabrielle Macaron, Laura E Baldassari, Kunio Nakamura, Stephen M Rao, Marisa P McGinley, Brandon P Moss, Hong Li, Deborah M Miller, Stephen E Jones, Robert A Bermel, Jeffrey A Cohen, Daniel Ontaneda, Devon S Conway
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between cognitive processing speed, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), employment, and MRI metrics in a large multiple sclerosis cohort METHODS: Cross-sectional clinical data, PROMs, employment, and MRI studies within 90 days of completion of the Processing Speed Test (PST), a technology-enabled adaptation of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, were collected. MRIs were analyzed using semi-automated methods. Correlations of PST with PROMs and MRI metrics were examined using Spearman's rho...
March 28, 2020: European Journal of Neurology
Eleonora Sgarlata, Clara Grazia Chisari, Emanuele D'Amico, Enrico Millefiorini, Francesco Patti
INTRODUCTION: Natalizumab (NTZ) can be associated with an opportunistic infection, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by John Cunningham virus (JCV). High titer of anti-JCV antibody (JCV index) in patients treated with NTZ for over 2 years limit it use, leading to treatment discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to investigate the JCV index changes pre, during and post NTZ treatment and describe the trend after a long period of NTZ discontinuation...
March 27, 2020: CNS Drugs
Lina H Al-Sakran, Ruth Ann Marrie, David F Blackburn, Katherine B Knox, Charity D Evans
OBJECTIVE: Hospitalizations are the most costly component of healthcare in Canada, and hospitalization rates are higher in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population compared to the general population. This study aimed to examine predictors of hospitalizations in the MS population in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used population-based health administrative data from Saskatchewan, Canada from 1996 to 2016. Subjects with MS were identified using a validated definition (≥3 hospital, physician, or drug claims for MS)...
February 27, 2020: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Liya Li, Xiaoxia Zuo, Yizhi Xiao, Di Liu, Hui Luo, Honglin Zhu
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation, and extensive fibrosis in multiple organs. Exosomes (EXOs) are cell-derived vesicles contained various DNAs, RNAs and proteins, and play important roles in various diseases. Here, we aimed to investigate the roles of SSc EXOs in angiogenesis related mechanisms. METHODS: EXOs were isolated from plasma, cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)/neutrophil supernatants, and identified by transmission electron microscopy...
March 24, 2020: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Imtiaz A Samjoo, Evelyn Worthington, Anja Haltner, Chris Cameron, Richard Nicholas, Nicolas Rouyrre, Frank Dahlke, Nicholas Adlard
Background. Siponimod, interferon beta-1a (IFN ß-1a), IFN ß-1b, and natalizumab have been evaluated as treatments for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) in separate randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but not head-to-head. These trials included heterogeneous patient populations, which limits the use of standard network meta-analysis (NMA) for indirect treatment comparison (ITC) of relative efficacy. Matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) aims to correct these cross-trial differences. We compared siponimod to other disease modifying treatments (DMTs) in SPMS using MAIC...
March 27, 2020: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Elkin Beltrán, Diana Díaz, Cindy Díaz, Luis Zarco
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease associated with neurological disability. Clinical features include motor, cerebellar, visual, and sensory function alterations, as well as psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety, and irritability. There is little literature available on the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis and their caregivers in Colombia given that there is no information on the subject in this particular population to establish comprehensive management plans...
March 1, 2020: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Francois Collin, Joanna Tarasiuk, Monika Chorąży, Agata Czarnowska, Mirosław Kwaśniewski, Waldemar Brola, Halina Bartosik-Psujek, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Jan Kochanowicz, Alina Kułakowska
AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to collect and analyse data on relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients receiving disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This observational, multicentre study with prospective data collection included RRMS patients receiving DMTs reimbursed by the National Health Fund (NFZ) in Poland, monitored by the Therapeutic Programme Monitoring System (SMPT). Demographic profiles, disability status, and treatment modalities were analysed...
March 27, 2020: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Nooshin Masoudian, Fatemeh Ehsani, Monireh Nazari, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological diseases in the world. Due to structural and functional changes in central nerves system, the patients with MS may affected by sensory-motor learning deficits. The aims of the current study was to assess the effect of primary motor cortex (M1) anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in patients with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with MS were randomly assigned in three groups: concurrent M1 a-tDCS and serial response time test (SRTT) (n=13), concurrent sham a-tDCS and SRTT (n=13) and SRTT-only control (n=13)...
March 27, 2020: Neurological Sciences
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