Owen Richfield, Ricardo Cortez, L Gabriel Navar
A novel anatomically accurate model of rat glomerular filtration is used to quantify shear stresses on the glomerular capillary endothelium and hoop stresses on the glomerular capillary walls. Plasma, erythrocyte volume, and plasma protein mass are distributed at network nodes using pressure differentials calculated taking into account volume loss to filtration, improving on previous models which only took into account blood apparent viscosity in calculating pressures throughout the network. Filtration is found to be heterogeneously distributed throughout the glomerular capillary network and is determined by concentration of plasma proteins and surface area of the filtering capillary segments...
September 2020: Physiological Reports
Samuel Quan, Guanmin Chen, Raj S Padwal, Finlay A McAlister, Karen C Tran, Norman R C Campbell, Zhiying Liang, Yuanchao Feng, Doreen M Rabi, Alexander A Leung
Clinical practice guidelines recommend several routine laboratory tests in patients diagnosed with hypertension. However, the rates of clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities are unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using administrative and laboratory data of patients diagnosed with hypertension between April 2010 and March 2015 in Alberta, Canada. Laboratory investigations for renal function, serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and diabetes (fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c), measured within 1 year of diagnosis, were examined, and the frequency of abnormalities determined...
September 20, 2020: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Kyeong-Hyeon Chun, Chan Joo Lee, Jaewon Oh, Sang-Hak Lee, Seok-Min Kang, Kazuomi Kario, Sungha Park
Resistant hypertension was defined according to the 2008 scientific statement as office blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg and the 2018 scientific statement as office blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mm Hg. We investigated the prognostic significance of lowered blood pressure threshold for defining resistant hypertension in the 2018 American Heart Association scientific statement compared with that in the 2008 scientific statement. The participants of this prospective cohort were enrolled from December 2013 to November 2018...
September 20, 2020: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Salma Mohammed Magboul, Bashier Osman, Asim Ahmed Elnour
Background There is a paucity of studies in acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit, particularly in Sudan. Objectives The current study has estimated the incidence; risk factors and outcomes of subjects with acute kidney injury developed during admission to the intensive care unit at Fedail Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. Methodology This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the intensive care unit during the period from July 2018 to June 2019. The data was collected from the clinical profiles of all adult subjects' who have met the published criteria for acute kidney injury...
September 20, 2020: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Min Shi, Fan Guo, Dan Liao, Rongshuang Huang, Yuying Feng, Xiaoxi Zeng, Liang Ma, Ping Fu
Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Excessive uric acid (UA) level in the blood leads to hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN), which is characterized by glomerular hypertension, arteriolosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a potential mediator of inflammatory responses which contributes to renal interstitial fibrosis. However, the roles of FABP4 in HN remains unknown. In the study, a mouse model of HN induced by feeding a mixture of adenine and potassium oxonate, severe kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis, as well as the increased kidney-expressed FABP4 protein level were evident, accompanied by the activation of inflammatory responses...
September 16, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Andrea Corda, Francesca Corda, Domenico Caivano, Laura Saderi, Giovanni Sotgiu, Alessandra Mollica, Francesco Birettoni, Francesco Porciello, Maria Luisa Pinna Parpaglia
BACKGROUND: Systemic hypertension (SH) is a persistent and pathological increase in arterial blood pressure (BP). Chronic SH leads to an increase in aortic (Ao) stiffness, and measuring Ao elasticity is useful for estimating Ao stiffness in humans. Currently, no literature in veterinary medicine describes noninvasive assessment of abdominal Ao elasticity in dogs with SH. OBJECTIVE: Compare ultrasonographic-derived abdominal Ao strain (AoSt) between hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT) dogs...
September 19, 2020: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Angélique Bourqui, ElHadji Atou Boye Niang, Bertrand Graz, ElHadji Assane Diop, Mohamed Dahaba, Issa Thiaw, Khady Soumare, Philippe Valmaggia, Renata Campos Nogueira, Anne-Laure Cavin, Marwah Al-Anbaki, Sidy Mohamed Seck
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (local names: bissap, karkade) and Combretum micranthum (kinkeliba) are widely known in traditional medicines and popular beliefs for their antihypertensive effect. This study assessed the clinical effectiveness of these two plants in the galenic forms of tablet and brew (decoction) in noncomplicated hypertensive patients. In total, 219 hypertensive patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 110 mmHg, without cardiovascular or renal complications, were involved in a multicentric randomized clinical trial in Senegal comparing five treatment regimens: bissap tablets (2 × 375 mg/day), bissap brew (10 g of calyx/day), kinkeliba tablets (2 × 200 mg/day), kinkeliba brew (10 g of leaves/day), and captopril (2 × 50 mg/day) as control...
September 18, 2020: Journal of Human Hypertension
Dongmei Wen, Yi Tang, Li Tan, Jiaxing Tan, Dezheng Chen, Yong Zhang, Wei Qin
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of sex on the clinicopathological features and long-term outcomes of IgAN patients. METHODS: A total of 1096 adult IgAN patients were divided into male and female groups. Clinicopathological features and risk factors of IgAN patients of different genders were contrasted. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or end stage renal disease (ESRD: eGFR < 15 mL/min/1...
September 17, 2020: International Urology and Nephrology
Siddharth Shah, Laith Sweis
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare but life-threatening pediatric disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway related to genetic mutations and carries a worse prognosis. In the last decade, a monoclonal antibody against complement C5, eculizumab, has dramatically improved the disease outcomes. The complement mutations in aHUS are detected only in 60%-70% of cases in previous studies. We report a severe presentation of aHUS diagnosed in a two-month-old child who presented with seizures, renal failure with anuria, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and required peritoneal dialysis soon after admission...
September 11, 2020: Curēus
Farah Anum Jameel, Abdul Mannan Junejo, Ayesha Ejaz, Qurat Ul Ain Khan, Kamran Faisal Bhopal, Ahmad Faraz, Syed Hasan Mustafa Rizvi, Fatima Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir
Introduction Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known complication that occurs in patients of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that have an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for hemodialysis (HD). It is defined as pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of greater than 30 mmHg on echocardiography. The presence of PH in ESRD is an independent risk factor and decreases the survival likelihood among HD patients. Unexplained PH is frequently seen in ESRD following AVF. Obesity can lead to various complications, such as sleep apnea, cardiac complications, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality...
August 13, 2020: Curēus
Khadijeh Abasi, Zahra Lotfi, Mahnaz Ahmadi, Hasan Mehrad Majd, Boshra Hasanzamani
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease. Delayed Graft Function (DGF), on the other hand; is an essential complication after kidney transplantation. These two complications increase morbidity and mortality in patients. The effect of PHTN on cardiovascular and graft blood supply, as well as the same mechanisms underlying PTHN and DGF; led us to investigate the relationship between them. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 306 patients aged 18 years or older who underwent kidney transplantation at our center over a 4-year were enrolled...
September 2020: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Yan Zhang, Shaoxiong Wang, Hefei Huang, Andi Zeng, Yu Han, Cindy Zeng, Shuo Zheng, Hongmei Ren, Yajing Wang, Yu Huang, Pedro A Jose, Xin-Liang Ma, Chunyu Zeng, Ken Chen
Hypertensive patients have impaired sodium excretion. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Despite the established association between obesity/excess adiposity and hypertension, whether and how adiponectin, one of the adipokines, contributes to impaired sodium excretion in hypertension has not been previously investigated. The current study tested the hypothesis that adiponectin promotes natriuresis and diuresis in the normotensive state.  However, impaired adiponectin-mediated natriuresis and diuresis are involved in pathogenesis of hypertension...
September 17, 2020: Clinical Science (1979-)
Yasunori Nio, Mitsugi Ookawara, Midori Yamasaki, Guido Hanauer, Kimio Tohyama, Sachio Shibata, Tomoya Sano, Fumi Shimizu, Hisashi Anayama, Masatoshi Hazama, Takanori Matsuo
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertension increases kidney stress, which deteriorates function, and leads to peripheral renal vascular resistance. Long-term hypoperfusion promotes interstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis, resulting in nephrosclerosis. Although hypertension and DN are frequent ESRD complications, relevant animal models remain unavailable. We generated a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive uni-nephrectomized (UNx) KKAy mouse model demonstrating hypertension, hyperglycemia, cardiac hypertrophy, kidney failure, increased urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), and increased renal PDE4D and cardiac PDE5A mRNA levels...
September 16, 2020: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ter-Er Kusu-Orkar, Muhammed Kermali, Nina Oguamanam, Christiana Bithas, Amer Harky
INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting forms the bulk of a cardiac surgeon's workload. An extensive amount of research has been undertaken to improve the outcomes of this procedure. This literature review aimed to summarize key areas that influence coronary artery bypass grafting in modern day practice. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was done using PubMed, Ovid, SCOPUS, Embase and google scholar from inception to July 2020. Articles were included if they discussed factors affecting outcomes in coronary bypass grafting (CABG)...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Taro Aoki, Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Takashi Matsuyama, Taichi Sato, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Akihiko Kato, Hiroaki Miyajima, Hideo Yasuda
Objective The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and is not suppressed at night in CKD patients showing nocturnal hypertension, contributing to renal damage. Furthermore, changes in RAS inhibitor administration from morning to evening, namely chronotherapy, ameliorates renal damage at night. We attempted to clarify whether or not chronotherapy ameliorates renal damage by suppressing the intrarenal RAS activity. Methods We recruited 34 CKD patients with RAS inhibitors in the morning...
2020: Internal Medicine
Isabella D Cooper, Catherine A P Crofts, James J DiNicolantonio, Aseem Malhotra, Bradley Elliott, Yvoni Kyriakidou, Kenneth H Brookler
Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners...
September 2020: Open Heart
Aleksandar Denic, Hisham Elsherbiny, Aidan F Mullan, Bradley C Leibovich, R Houston Thompson, Luisa Ricaurte Archila, Ramya Narasimhan, Walter K Kremers, Mariam P Alexander, John C Lieske, Lilach O Lerman, Andrew D Rule
BACKGROUND: Nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis may be important determinants of CKD and mortality. However, studies of outcomes associated with these microstructural features have been limited to small tissue specimens from patients selected for either good kidney health or known kidney disease. METHODS: To determine whether microstructural features are predictive of progressive CKD and mortality outcomes, we studied patients who underwent a radical nephrectomy for a tumor...
September 16, 2020: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Wisam Sbeit, Tawfik Khoury, Anas Kadah, Waseem Asadi, Amir Shahin, Ahmad Lubany, Mohammed Safadi, Haya Haddad, Ruba Abu Ahmad, Sami Abu El Hija, Rand Abboud, Mahmud Mahamid, Rinaldo Pellicano, Amir Mari
Colonic diverticular disease, especially diverticulitis constitutes a major cause of hospitalization and an economic burden in developed countries. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the commonest drugs used to treat several diseases affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract. A few studies have reported that the use of Proton Pump Inhibitors PPIs caused dysbiosis. In this study, we searched for a relationship between PPI use and the onset and severity of diverticulitis in patients with colonic diverticulosis...
September 14, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Gabriela Schmajuk, Jing Li, Michael Evans, Christine Anastasiou, Julia L Kay, Jinoos Yazdany
OBJECTIVE: Although multiple national quality measures focus on the management and safety of rheumatoid arthritis, few measures address the care of patients with SLE. We applied a group of quality measures relevant to the care of SLE patients and used the ACR's RISE registry to assess nationwide variations in care. METHODS: Data derived from RISE and included patients with ≥2 visits with SLE codes ≥30 days apart in 2017-2018. We calculated performance on 5 quality measures: renal disease screening; blood pressure assessment and management; hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prescribing; safe dosing for HCQ; and prolonged glucocorticoid use at doses > 7...
September 16, 2020: Arthritis Care & Research
Jonathan Dash, Menno Pruijm, Belén Ponte
The kidneys play a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and are also one of the main culprits of arterial hypertension (HT). Renal ultrasound is a valuable diagnostic tool that can provide instant information at the bedside on possible underlying causes and consequences of HT. Its role in the screening for renal artery stenosis is well-known. However, renal ultrasound can also detect abnormalities in renal parenchyma, morphology, or the vascularization of the kidneys, and as such directly influence further diagnostic work-up and treatment...
September 16, 2020: Revue Médicale Suisse
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