Fengsong Zhang, Guixiang Zhang, Xiaoyong Liao
Biochars were studied for their impacts on the dissipation and vegetable uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an agricultural soil. The health risks of PAHs taken up by vegetables were assessed by growing Chinese cabbage in both unamended soil and biochar-amended soils. In the unamended soil, the total 16 PAHs (Σ16PAHs) content decreased by 77.38% after planting the vegetable. The dissipation percentages of low-molecular-weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs), medium-molecular-weight PAHs (MMW-PAHs), and high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) were 82...
February 24, 2021: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Haiying Cheng, Yiyu Zou, Chirag D Shah, Ni Fan, Tushar D Bhagat, Rasim Gucalp, Mimi Kim, Amit Verma, Bilal Piperdi, Simon D Spivack, Balazs Halmos, Roman Perez-Soler
BACKGROUND: Aerosolized Azacitidine has been shown to inhibit orthotopic lung cancer growth and induce re-expression of methylated tumor suppressor genes in murine models. We hypothesized that inhaled Azacitidine is safe and effective in reversing epigenetic changes in the bronchial epithelium secondary to chronic smoking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the first in human study of inhaled Azacitidine. Azacitidine in aqueous solution was used to generate an aerosol suspension of 0...
February 17, 2021: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Keunchil Park, Mustafa Özgüroğlu, Johan Vansteenkiste, David Spigel, James C-H Yang, Marcis Bajars, Mary Ruisi, Juliane Manitz, Fabrice Barlesi
OBJECTIVES: The JAVELIN Lung 200 phase 3 trial did not meet its primary endpoint of improving overall survival (OS) with avelumab vs docetaxel in patients with platinum-treated PD-L1+ NSCLC. We report post hoc analyses assessing the effects of subsequent immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment on OS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC progressed following platinum-doublet therapy were randomized to receive avelumab or docetaxel. OS was analyzed in the PD-L1+ population (≥1% of tumor cells) and full analysis set (PD-L1+ or PD-L1-)...
February 6, 2021: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Hae Ju Han, Woong Sub Byun, Gyu Ho Lee, Won Kyung Kim, Kyungkuk Jang, Sehun Yang, Jewon Yang, Min Woo Ha, Suckchang Hong, Jeeyeon Lee, Jongheon Shin, Ki Bong Oh, Sang Kook Lee, Hyeung-Geun Park
Disruptor of telomeric silencing-1 like (DOT1L) is a histone H3 methyltransferase which specifically catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine-79 residue. Recent findings demonstrate that DOT1L is abnormally overexpressed and the upregulated DOT1L evokes the proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer cells. Therefore, the DOT1L inhibitor is considered a promising strategy to treat breast cancers. Non-nucleoside DOT1L inhibitors, selenopsammaplin A and its analogues, were firstly reported in the present study...
February 11, 2021: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Qi Mao, Shuguang Zhao, Dongbing Tong, Shengchao Su, Zhiwei Li, Xiang Cheng
Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules is an effective approach for early detection of lung cancer. However, due to the low contrast of lung computed tomography (CT) images, the interference of blood vessels and classifications, CADe has the problems of low detection rate and high false-positive rate (FPR). To solve these problems, a novel method using Hessian information and multi-scale reverse Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) (Hessian-MRLoG) is proposed and developed in this work. Also, since the intensity distribution of the LoG operator and the lung nodule in CT images are inconsistent, and their shapes are mismatched, a multi-scale reverse Laplacian of Gaussian (MRLoG) is constructed...
February 16, 2021: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Guillaume Achen, Meriem Koual, Enrica Bentivegna, Laure Fournier, Huyên-Thu Nguyen Xuan, Nicolas Delanoy, Anne-Sophie Bats, Henri Azaïs
INTRODUCTION: Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with high mortality and often managed first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by debulking surgery. Laparoscopic surgery with or without robotic assistance (Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)) may represent a beneficial option for these patients. The objective of this literature review is to clarify the place of MIS in the management of advanced EOC for selected patients. METHOD: Pubmed, Cochrane and Clinicaltrials...
February 23, 2021: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Alona Salita, Marcos Rosado, Kita Mack, John Pui, Richard Zekman, Kelly Dinnan
BACKGROUND: Traditional oncologic pattern of spread of breast cancer is metastasis to axillary lymph nodes, lung, liver and bone (Doval et al., 2006 [1]). Here we present a case of unknown synchronous breast cancer in a patient that was revealed on histopathologic assessment following elective cholecystectomy. CASE SUMMARY: A 57 year old female presented for an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy secondary to biliary colic. Histopathologic assessment of the gallbladder revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma with signet ring features, consistent with metastatic lobular carcinoma...
February 4, 2021: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Diana Stoycheva, Hasan Simsek, Willi Weber, Anja E Hauser, Enrico Klotzsch
Immunotherapy stands out as a powerful and promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Adoptive immune therapies are usually centered on modified T cells and their specific expansion towards antigen-specific T cells against cancer and other diseases. However, despite their unmatched features, the potential of B cells in immunotherapy is just beginning to be explored. The main role of B cells in the immune response is to secrete antigen-specific antibodies and provide long-term protection against foreign pathogens...
February 23, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Li Li, Yujin Qian, Luyao Sun, Felicity Y Han, Run Zhang, Peng-Yuan Wang, Zhi Ping Xu
Combination chemotherapy with two or more complimentary drugs has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, the efficacy and side effects of combination chemotherapy still remains a challenge. Here, we constructed an albumin-stabilized layered double hydroxide nanoparticle (BLDH) system to simultaneously load and deliver two widely used anti-tumor drugs, i.e. 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and albumin-bound PTX (Abraxane, ABX) for colorectal cancer treatment. The cellular uptake test has revealed that BLDH/5FU-ABX nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by the colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116), synergistically inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells...
February 23, 2021: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yi Ren, Jiaqing Chen, Peishi Chen, Qi Hao, Leng-Kuan Cheong, Mingzhu Tang, Lian-Lian Hong, Xuan-Yu Hu, Celestial T Yap, Boon-Huat Bay, Zhi-Qiang Ling, Han-Ming Shen
The liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an important tumor suppressor and its loss-of-function mutations are observed in around 16% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. One of the main functions of LKB1 is to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct phosphorylation. Under metabolic or energy stress conditions, the LKB1-AMPK axis inhibits the anabolic pathways and activates the catabolic pathways to maintain metabolic homeostasis for cell survival. In this study, we found that LKB1-mutant NSCLC cells are particularly susceptible to cell death induced by glucose starvation, but not by other forms of starvation such as amino acid starvation or serum starvation...
February 23, 2021: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Naresh Kumar, Claudina Perez-Novo, Priyanka Shaw, Emilie Logie, Angela Privat-Maldonado, Sylvia Dewilde, Evelien Smits, Wim Vanden Berghe, Annemie Bogaerts
Despite modern therapeutic advances, the survival prospects of pancreatic cancer patients remain poor, due to chemoresistance and dysregulated oncogenic kinase signalling networks. We applied a novel kinome activity-mapping approach using biological peptide targets as phospho-sensors to identify vulnerable kinase dependencies for therapy sensitisation by physical plasma. Ser/Thr-kinome specific activity changes were mapped upon induction of ferroptotic cell death in pancreatic tumor cells exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species of plasma-treated water (PTW)...
February 23, 2021: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shanqiang Qu, Ouwen Qiu, Jing Huang, Jin Liu, Huafu Wang
hsa-miR-196a-5p is involved in tumorigenesis and progression; however, the driving factors for hsa-miR-196a-5p overexpression and its correlation with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients remain unclear in glioma. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of hsa-miR-196a-5p and its correlation with MIR196A2 methylation in glioma. We observed that hsa-miR-196a-5p expression was upregulated in glioma. Next, 112 patients were divided into high (n = 56) and low (n = 56) hsa-miR-196a-5p expression groups...
February 23, 2021: Genomics
Eduardo A Lacayo, Sara Velayati, Ahmed Elsakka, Lynn Brody, Joseph P Erinjeri, Etay Ziv, Franz E Boas, Constantinos T Sofocleous, Mikhail Silk, Vicky Makker, William P Tew, Hooman Yarmohammadi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of two locoregional therapies (LRT) including hepatic artery embolization (HAE) and transarterial radioembolization (TARE) in treating patients with metastatic ovarian cancer to the liver. METHODS: From October 2010 to May 2019, the data of 15 consecutive patients (median age, 54 ± 9.8; range, 35-78) with hepatic metastatic ovarian cancer that were treated with either HAE (n = 6, 40%) or TARE (n = 9, 60%) were reviewed...
February 23, 2021: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Axel Wibbertmann, Annette Bitsch, Christine Frieke Kuper
MA is a chemical intermediate, manufactured and processed within closed systems. While so far available subacute to chronic inhalation toxicity studies performed in compliance with OECD TG principles gave no indication of any carcinogenic potential for MA, a recent 2-year inhalation study with F344/DuCrlCrlj rats published in 2017 by the JBRC showed a statistically significant increase of squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity of male rats at the highest tested concentration of 160 ppm. However, the results of the different studies in total indicate that this high concentration exceeded the MTC...
February 23, 2021: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Loubna Oumeslakht, Mouna Ababou, Bouabid Badaoui, Zineb Qmichou
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is associated with different cancers, mainly cervical cancer, which remains the fourth most frequent cancer among women worldwide; it is also related to anogenital (anus, vulvar, vagina, and penis) and oropharyngeal cancers. Vaccination against HPV infection is the major way of prevention, and it has demonstrated impressive efficacy in reducing cervical cancer incidence. Nowadays, all the licensed HPV recombinant vaccines were designed based on HPV major capsid L1 protein...
February 23, 2021: Gene
Yi Luo, Zhou Yang, Yusheng Chen, Xiaolan Lu, Yingjun Quan
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is closely related to the prognosis and therapy response of colon cancer. Colon cancer patients with MSI show resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) but sensitivity to immunosuppressive checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The relevant mechanism behind the opposite response remains unclear. Multi-omics research data of colon cancer patients were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, GEO database, and DAFI dataset. Transcriptome data were normalized to gene expression data through the R software package "Limma"...
February 23, 2021: Gene
A Desai, I Subbiah, V Subbiah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2021: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Joanna Sharpless, Bethany-Rose Daubman, David Ryley, Sarah Byrne-Martelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2021: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
G J Bubley, I Kaplan, R Bhatt, M-E Taplin, S Dowling, K Mahoney, E Werner, E P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is often used as adjuvant treatment with radiation therapy (RT) for intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). ADT is associated with multiple side effects including weight gain, loss of libido and hot flashes. In contrast, anti-androgen monotherapy has been generally better tolerated. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of enzalutamide (an anti-androgen) monotherapy with RT for the treatment of prostate cancer in intermediate risk prostate...
February 23, 2021: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mingzhu Liang, Meilin Yang, Fen Wang, Xiaojin Wang, Bailiang He, Chaoming Mei, Jianzhong He, Yujing Lin, Qingdong Cao, Dan Li, Hong Shan
The postoperative survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (eSCC) is notably hindered by cancer recurrence due to difficulty in identifying occult metastases. Cellular mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met), which is highly expressed in different cancers, including eSCC, has become a target for the development of imaging probes and therapeutic antibodies. In this study, we synthesized an optical probe (SHRmAb-IR800) containing a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye and c-Met antibody, which may help in NIRF-guided resection of micrometastases derived from eSCC...
February 23, 2021: Journal of Controlled Release
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