Maddalena Mauri, Silvia Grazioli, Alessandro Crippa, Andrea Bacchetta, Uberto Pozzoli, Silvana Bertella, Erika Gatti, Eleonora Maggioni, Eleonora Rosi, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla, Massimo Molteni, Maria Nobile
BACKGROUND: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit behavioral inhibition deficits, which often lead to emotional dysregulation (ED) affecting individual ability to control emotions and behavioral responses. In ADHD, ED is associated with poor outcomes and comorbidities, with both externalizing and internalizing disorders. This work aims to evaluate sensitivity to emotional stimuli in children with ADHD using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 1, 2020: Journal of Affective Disorders
Svetlana Serdyuk, Karapet Davtyan, Sergey Burd, Oksana Drapkina, Sergey Boytsov, Evgeniy Gusev, Arpi Topchyan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rhythm and conduction disorders are common in patients with epilepsy and are presumably one of the leading causes of sudden unexpected death. There are only a few published reports on ictal cardiac arrhythmias detected by continuous monitoring, and the majority had a small sample size. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is the evaluation of frequency and type of cardiac arrhythmias recorded by an implantable loop recorder in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy...
September 7, 2020: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Carl H Göbel, Anna Göbel, Uwe Niederberger, Axel Heinze, Katja Heinze-Kuhn, Christoph Meinecke, Hubertus M Mehdorn, Dirk Rasche, Hartmut Göbel
INTRODUCTION: Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is used to treat therapy-resistant chronic migraine. Clinical use has resulted in a wide intraindividual and interindividual variation of clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to analyze a potential relationship between sociodemographic variables, headache parameters, perceived sensory quality, perceived sensory location, as well as clinical efficacy. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects (21.9% male, mean age 45.77 years) suffering from chronic migraine refractory to other treatment and therefore treated with ONS were included in this study...
September 10, 2020: Pain and Therapy
Qi Liang, Matthew Bartnof, Ya-Ling He, Jonathan A Malen, Alan J H McGaughey
The thermal conductivity of fullerene-based superatomic crystals (SACs) is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature-dependent predictions agree with the trends of previous measurements. The thermal conductivity behavior emerges as a result of the C60 molecule rotational dynamics and orientation, which are quantified using the root mean square displacements of the carbon atoms and the relative orientations of the C60s. At low temperatures, the C60s exhibit small rotations around equilibrium positions (i...
September 10, 2020: Nanoscale Horizons: the Home for Rapid Reports of Exceptional Significance in Nanoscience and Nanotechnolgy
Holly F Levin-Aspenson, David Watson, Lee Anna Clark, Mark Zimmerman
Bifactor analyses have become a popular way to model a general psychopathology factor (or p factor ) that accounts for correlations among higher order internalizing, externalizing, and thought-disorder dimensions. However, to advance dimensional nosology and construct validation of the p factor, this body of research needs to be synthesized. This study focuses on the p factor as a substantive construct by testing its consistency across samples and models. Bifactor analyses were run for three large epidemiological and clinical data sets: National Comorbidity Survey, Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, and Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services...
September 10, 2020: Assessment
Salvatore Bertino, Gianpaolo Antonio Basile, Giuseppe Anastasi, Alessia Bramanti, Bartolo Fonti, Filippo Cavallaro, Daniele Bruschetta, Demetrio Milardi, Alberto Cacciola
Background and objectives: The internal (GPi) and external segments (GPe) of the globus pallidus represent key nodes in the basal ganglia system. Connections to and from pallidal segments are topographically organized, delineating limbic, associative and sensorimotor territories. The topography of pallidal afferent and efferent connections with brainstem structures has been poorly investigated. In this study we sought to characterize in-vivo connections between the globus pallidus and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) via diffusion tractography...
September 7, 2020: Medicina
Timothy D Becker, Melanie K Arnold, Vicky Ro, Lily Martin, Timothy R Rice
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of electronic cigarette (EC) use has risen dramatically among adolescents and young adults (AYA, ages 12-26) over the past decade. Despite extensive established relationships between combustible cigarette (CC) use and mental health problems, the mental health comorbidities of EC use remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of existing literature on mental health co-morbidities of EC use among AYA. METHODS: Database searches using search terms related to EC, AYA, and mental health identified 1168 unique articles, 87 of which prompted full-text screening...
September 9, 2020: Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Simona Corina Trifu, Alexandra Popescu, Maria Alina Marian
Fetal development, especially in the first trimester, has proven to be heavily influenced by external factors, such as chemical intake of medication. Chronic psychiatric treatment might interfere with the anatomical and physiological wellbeing of the fetus, because psychotropic medication proceeds past the placenta, into the amniotic fluid, and can enter breast milk. Hence some of the medications prescribed for mood disorders should be reconsidered during pregnancy, without sub-optimally treating when it is needed...
October 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Simona Corina Trifu, Alexandra Tudor, Ioana Radulescu
Aggressive behavior is one of the main characteristics of different psychiatric disorders such as: personality disorders (antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder), schizophrenia, intermittent explosive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, alcohol/substance induced psychiatric disorders. Epidemiological evidence shows that always there is a higher risk of violence and aggressivity among patients with psychiatric disorders compared with general population...
October 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Frank Petzke, Frietjof Bock, Michael Hüppe, Monika Nothacker, Heike Norda, Lukas Radbruch, Marcus Schiltenwolf, Matthias Schuler, Thomas Tölle, Anika Viniol, Winfried Häuser
The opioid epidemic in North America challenges national guidelines worldwide to define the importance of opioids for the management of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Methods: The second update of the German guidelines on long-term opioid therapy for CNCP was developed by 26 scientific associations and 2 patient self-help organizations. A systematic literature search in CENTRAL, Medline, and Scopus (to May 2019) was performed. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and open-label extension studies with opioids for CNCP were conducted...
September 2020: Pain Reports
Georg Christoph Korenke, Björn Schulte, Saskia Biskup, John Neidhardt, Marta Owczarek-Lipska
Intellectual disability syndrome (IDS) associated with a hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HbF), also known as Dias-Logan syndrome, is commonly characterised by psychomotor developmental delay, intelectual disability, language delay, strabismus, thin upper lip, abnormalities of external ears, microcephaly, downslanting palpebral fissures. Sporadically, autism spectrum disorders and blue sclerae in infancy have been reported in IDS. Rarely, IDS-affected patients present with epilepsy and/or epileptic syndromes...
July 2020: Molecular Syndromology
Yongde Yang, Sheng Zhang, Xianping Zhang, Yongjun Xu, Junrui Cheng, Xue Yang
Background: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a biological and mood disorder with a seasonal pattern. Dietary intervention and nutritional status have been reported to affect SAD severity. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of associations between SAD and diet, eating behavior, and nutrition intervention. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception up to July 1, 2019. Studies that examined diet and eating behaviors in SAD patients and tests of nutrition interventions for SAD were included...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Luis A- Trujillo Villarreal, Marcela Cárdenas-Tueme, Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Diana Reséndez-Pérez, Alberto Camacho-Morales
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disease which involves functional and structural defects in selective central nervous system (CNS) regions that harm function and individual ability to process and respond to external stimuli. Individuals with ASD spend less time engaging in social interaction compared to non-affected subjects. Studies employing structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging reported morphological and functional abnormalities in the connectivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway between the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to social stimuli, as well as diminished medial prefrontal cortex in response to visual cues, whereas stronger reward system responses for the non-social realm (e...
August 9, 2020: Journal of Neurochemistry
F Lejeune, A Chatton, D-A Laplaud, E Le Page, S Wiertlewski, G Edan, A Kerbrat, D Veillard, S Hamonic, N Jousset, F Le Frère, J-C Ouallet, B Brochet, A Ruet, Y Foucher, Laure Michel
BACKGROUND: In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), relapse severity and residual disability are difficult to predict. Nevertheless, this information is crucial both for guiding relapse treatment strategies and for informing patients. OBJECTIVE: We, therefore, developed and validated a clinical-based model for predicting the risk of residual disability at 6 months post-relapse in MS. METHODS: We used the data of 186 patients with RRMS collected during the COPOUSEP multicentre trial...
September 9, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Kainan S Wang, Roselinde H Kaiser, Alyssa L Peechatka, Blaise B Frederick, Amy C Janes
BACKGROUND: Cue reactivity, a core characteristic of substance use disorders, commonly recruits brain regions that are key nodes in neurocognitive networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). Whether resting-state temporal dynamic properties of these networks relate to subsequent cue reactivity and cue-induced craving is unknown. METHODS: The resting-state data of 46 nicotine-dependent participants were assessed to define temporal dynamic properties of DMN and SN states...
July 18, 2020: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Angelina Vernetti, Frederick Shic, Laura Boccanfuso, Suzanne Macari, Finola Kane-Grade, Anna Milgramm, Emily Hilton, Perrine Heymann, Matthew S Goodwin, Katarzyna Chawarska
Past studies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicate atypical peripheral physiological arousal. However, the conditions under which these atypicalities arise and their link with behavioral emotional expressions and core ASD symptoms remain uncertain. Given the importance of physiological arousal in affective, learning, and cognitive processes, the current study examined changes in skin conductance level (ΔSCL) in 41 toddlers with ASD (mean age: 22.7 months, SD: 2.9) and 32 age-matched toddlers with typical development (TD) (mean age: 21...
September 8, 2020: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
J Zabrzyński, G Huri, A Yataganbaba, Ł Paczesny, D Szwedowski, A Zabrzyńska, Ł Łapaj, M Gagat, M Wiśniewski, P Pękała
In this review we described the anatomy and biomechanics of popliteus muscle and its tendon. Furthermore, we combined the anatomy with clinics and discussed a wide spectrum of disorders regarding the popliteus and its musculotendinous complex. There are three main anatomical regions of the popliteus musculotendinous complex: the proximal origin, the mid-portion, the distal part on the tibia. The unique localization and various origins of the tendon, connected with structures such as fibular head, Wrisberg, Humphrey and posterior cruciate ligament, lateral meniscus, medial collateral ligament, give an implication to diagnosis and treatment...
September 8, 2020: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Nadège Bourvis, Aveline Aouidad, Michel Spodenkiewicz, Giuseppe Palestra, Jonathan Aigrain, Axel Baptista, Jean-Jacques Benoliel, Mohamed Chetouani, David Cohen
Stress reactivity is a complex phenomenon associated with multiple and multimodal expressions and functions. Herein, we hypothesized that compared with healthy controls (HCs), adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would exhibit a stronger response to stressors and a deficit in self-perception of stress due to their lack of insight. Twenty adolescents with BPD and 20 matched HCs performed a socially evaluated mental arithmetic test to induce stress. We assessed self- and heteroperception using both human ratings and affective computing-based methods for the automatic extraction of 39 behavioral features (2D + 3D video recording) and 62 physiological features (Nexus-10 recording)...
September 4, 2020: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
João Janeiro, Sofia Barreira, Patrícia Martins, Pedro Ninitas, João Eurico Fonseca, Jorge Campos, Jacinto Melo Monteiro
The aim of this study was to find a reliable set of clinical tests to predict pain and disability in patients with shoulder pain. Shoulder pain is the second most frequent musculoskeletal complaint in the primary care setting and has a great impact in work and leisure activities. Patient reported outcomes measuring pain and disability are available, but they are time-consuming, often biased by psychological and sociological factors and depend on patient collaboration. This was an observational, cross-sectional study, including patients with shoulder pain aged 18 to 70 years...
April 2020: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Han Woong Kim, Ha Eun Lee, KyeongTaek Oh, Sangwon Lee, Mijin Yun, Sun K Yoo
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder that often occurs in people over 65 years old. As advanced AD is difficult to manage, accurate diagnosis of the disorder is critical. Previous studies have revealed effective deep learning methods of classification. However, deep learning methods require a large number of image datasets. Moreover, medical images are affected by various environmental factors. In the current study, we propose a deep learning-based method for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is less sensitive to different datasets for external validation, based upon F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)...
September 7, 2020: Biomedical Engineering Online
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