Ben Geselowitz, Diana J Whalen, Rebecca Tillman, Deanna M Barch, Joan L Luby, Alecia Vogel
OBJECTIVE: Developmental models of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have highlighted the interplay of psychological variables (i.e., impulsivity and emotional reactivity) with social risk factors including invalidating parenting and childhood trauma. Prospective longitudinal studies have demonstrated the association of BPD with social, familial and psychological antecedents. However, to date, few of these studies have studied the interaction of multiple risk domains and their potential manifestations in the preschool period...
September 17, 2020: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Susan D Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Raman Baweja, Daniel A Waschbusch
No study has analyzed the relative occurrence of a broad range of symptoms reported by mothers of children with autism, ADHD-Combined, and ADHD-Inattentive and typical controls. Mothers rated 1436 children with autism, 1056 with ADHD without autism, and 186 controls, 2-17 years, on 41 internalizing, externalizing, neurodevelopmental, and somatic problems. Most children with autism had symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and expressive language disorder and almost half had dysgraphia and receptive language disorder...
September 19, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jonathan Cleaver, Richard James, Gurjit Chohan, Paul Lyons
Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) spectrum disorder associated with predominantly central nervous system predilection. Patients exhibit a variable constellation of depressed consciousness, bilateral external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and long tract signs. Although the pathophysiology is not fully understood, it has been associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies in two-thirds of patients. We present a patient with clinical features consistent with BBE and positive anti-GM1 and anti-GD1a antibodies...
September 18, 2020: BMJ Case Reports
Uros Topalovic, Zahra M Aghajan, Diane Villaroman, Sonja Hiller, Leonardo Christov-Moore, Tyler J Wishard, Matthias Stangl, Nicholas R Hasulak, Cory S Inman, Tony A Fields, Vikram R Rao, Dawn Eliashiv, Itzhak Fried, Nanthia Suthana
Uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying human natural ambulatory behavior is a major challenge for neuroscience. Current commercially available implantable devices that allow for recording and stimulation of deep brain activity in humans can provide invaluable intrinsic brain signals but are not inherently designed for research and thus lack flexible control and integration with wearable sensors. We developed a mobile deep brain recording and stimulation (Mo-DBRS) platform that enables wireless and programmable intracranial electroencephalographic recording and electrical stimulation integrated and synchronized with virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) and wearables capable of external measurements (e...
September 17, 2020: Neuron
Nina A Sayer, Nancy C Bernardy, Matthew Yoder, Jessica L Hamblen, Craig S Rosen, Princess E Ackland, Shannon M Kehle-Forbes, Barbara A Clothier, Paula P Schnurr, Robert J Orazem, Siamak Noorbaloochi
To evaluate an implementation intervention to increase the uptake, referred to as reach, of two evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) PTSD specialty clinics. The implementation intervention was external facilitation guided by a toolkit that bundled strategies associated with high EBP reach in prior research. We used a prospective quasi-experimental design. The facilitator worked with local champions at two low-reach PTSD clinics...
September 17, 2020: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Lane Strathearn, Michele Giannotti, Ryan Mills, Steve Kisely, Jake Najman, Amanuel Abajobir
Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age...
September 17, 2020: Pediatrics
Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
The validity of studies on the diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRS) for schizophrenia has been put in doubt because of a poor compliance with Schneider's criterion for their definition and the lack of use of the phenomenological method for their assessment. In this study, using a rigorously phenomenological approach to elicit FRS, we examined (a) the degree to which unequivocally present FRS differentiated schizophrenia (n=513) from other psychotic disorders (n=633), and (b) the comparative validity between FRS and other reality-distortion symptoms against 16 external validators in the whole sample of psychotic disorders (n=1146)...
September 18, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Laura Vergani, Francesca Baldini, Mohamad Khalil, Adriana Voci, Pietro Putignano, Niccolò Miraglia
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is an endogenous methyl donor derived from ATP and methionine that has pleiotropic functions. Most SAMe is synthetized and consumed in the liver, where it acts as the main methylating agent and in protection against the free radical toxicity. Previous studies have shown that the administration of SAMe as a supernutrient exerted many beneficial effects in various tissues, mainly in the liver. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the direct effects of SAMe on fatty acid-induced steatosis and oxidative stress in hepatic and endothelial cells...
September 15, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sung Hyun Kim, In Young Sung, Eun Jae Ko, Jieun Park, Nayoung Heo
This study aimed to evaluate the stress levels of caregivers and children with developmental disorders who were receiving rehabilitation treatment. The relationships between stress levels and factors such as early rehabilitation and home rehabilitation were quantified. METHODS: This study was conducted in children with development disorders, aged from 1.5 years to 18 years, who were undergoing rehabilitation. The Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Adult Self-Report (K-ASR) were used to evaluate stress levels in children and caregivers, respectively...
September 15, 2020: Children
Carolina Villada, Mauricio González-López, Herlinda Aguilar-Zavala, Thalía Fernández
Successful aging depends upon several internal and external factors that influence the overall aging process. Objective and subjective socioeconomic status emerge as potential psychosocial factors in the ethiopathophysiology of aging-related disorders. Presumably, low socioeconomic status can act as a psychosocial stressor that can affect humans' physiology via psychoneuroendocrine mechanisms, that may, in turn, affect the brain physiology. In resting-state electroencephalography (EEG), excess theta and delta activity has been related to cognitive decline and dementia...
September 15, 2020: Brain Sciences
Juan Cruz Moreno, M Leticia Rubio Puzzo, Wolfgang Paul
We study the pedestrian motion along a corridor in a nonpanic regime, as usually happens in evacuation scenarios in, e.g., schools, hospitals, or airports, by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We present a model, a combination of the well-known social force model (SFM) and Vicsek model (VM), that takes into account both model interactions, based on the relative position (SFM) and based on the velocity of the particles with some randomness (modulated by an external control parameter, the noise η, VM), respectively...
August 2020: Physical Review. E
Svetislav Mijatović, Milica Branković, Stefan Graovac, Djordje Spasojević
We present numerical findings on the behavior of the athermal nonequilibrium random-field Ising model of spins at the thin striplike L_{1}×L_{2}×L_{3} cubic lattices with L_{1}<L_{2}<L_{3}. Changing of system sizes highly influences the evolution and shape of avalanches. The smallest avalanches [classified as three-dimension- (3D) like] are unaffected by the system boundaries, the larger are sandwiched between the top and bottom system faces so are 2D-like, while the largest are extended over the system lateral cross section and propagate along the length L_{3} like in 1D systems...
August 2020: Physical Review. E
A F Wagner, M Butt, A Rigby
INTRODUCTION: Internalized weight bias (IWB) is significantly related to poor psychosocial health outcomes in patients with increased body mass index (BMI). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and correlates of the Weight-Bias Internalization Scale in a pre-surgical bariatric population. METHODS: Self-report measures were administered to patients prior to surgery. Measures assessed internalized weight bias, body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and eating behaviors...
August 27, 2020: Eating Behaviors
Laura Cañadillas-Delgado, Oscar Fabelo, J Alberto Rodríguez-Velamazán, Anne Stunault, Jiong-Peng Zhao, Xian-He Bu, Juan Rodríguez-Carvajal
Polarized neutron diffraction is used to study in depth the magnetic properties of the heterometallic compound [NH2 (CH3 )2 ][FeIII FeII (HCOO)6 ] and give insight into its magnetic behaviour, addressing open questions that will contribute to a better understanding of this attention-grabbing material and other related ones. Previous results revealed that upon cooling, the magnetic moments of the FeII and FeIII sites do not order simultaneously: the magnetization of the FeII site increases faster than that of the FeIII sites...
September 1, 2020: IUCrJ
Clovis Ntahkie Takembo, Henri Paul Ekobena Fouda
Based on the improved FitzHugh-Nagumo myocardial model driven by a constant external current, the effect of temperature fluctuation in a network of electrically coupled myocardial cells are investigated through analytical and numerical computations. Through the technique of multiple scale expansion, we successfully reduced the complex nonlinear system of equations to a more tractable and solvable nonlinear amplitude equation on which the analysis of linear stability is performed. Interestingly from this analysis, a plot of critical amplitude of action potential versus wave number revealed the growth rate of modulational instability (MI) is an increasing function of the thermoelectric couplings; [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], under fixed conditions of nonlinear electrical couplings...
September 15, 2020: Scientific Reports
Simona Pergolizzi, Andreana Marino, Gioele Capillo, Marialuisa Aragona, Peggy Marconi, Eugenia Rita Lauriano
The constant exposure of ocular surface to external environment and then to several microbial agents is often related to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory eye disorders. In the present study α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) and Langerin CD/207 expression and function was investigated in a rabbit corneal keratitis. The inflammation was induced by the secreted form of glycoprotein B (gB1s) of HSV-1, in an ex vivo rabbit corneal model. α-SMA is often used as a marker for myofibroblasts. In this study, for the first time, we show α-SMA positive corneal epithelial cells, during HSV-1 cornea inflammation, demonstrating a crucial role in wound healing, especially during remodeling phase...
October 2020: Tissue & Cell
Sivayini Kandeepan, Jorge Rudas, Francisco Gomez, Bobby Stojanoski, Sreeram Valluri, Adrian Mark Owen, Lorina Naci, Emily Sophia Nichols, Andrea Soddu
Propofol is a short-acting medication that results in decreased levels of consciousness and is used for general anesthesia. Although it is the most commonly used anesthetic in the world, much remains unknown about the mechanisms by which it induces a loss of consciousness. Characterizing anesthesia-induced alterations to brain network activity might provide a powerful framework for understanding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness. The aim of this work was to model brain activity in healthy brains during various stages of consciousness, as induced by propofol, in the auditory paradigm...
September 12, 2020: NeuroImage
David R Young, Bernhard Suter, Jackson T Levine, Daniel G Glaze, Charles S Layne
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) exhibit impaired motor performance and gait performance, leading to decreased quality of life. Currently, there is no robust observational instrument to identify gait characteristics in RTT. Current scales are limited as individuals with intellectual disorders may be unable to understand instructions. Our primary purpose was to utilize video analysis to characterize the behaviors associated with walking in individuals with RTT and explore the relationship between behaviors during overground and during treadmill walking...
September 15, 2020: Disability and Rehabilitation
Irwin D Waldman, Holly E Poore, Justin M Luningham, Jingjing Yang
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with the vulnerability to major psychiatric disorders, and post-GWAS analyses have shown substantial genetic correlations among these disorders. This evidence supports the existence of a higher-order structure of psychopathology at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. Despite recent efforts by collaborative consortia such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), this structure remains unclear. In this study, we tested multiple alternative structural models of psychopathology at the genomic level, using the genetic correlations among fourteen psychiatric disorders and related psychological traits estimated from GWAS summary statistics...
October 2020: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
M Perego, D M Porteiro Vàzquez, L Ramera, S F Lombardo, C Pane, L V Bontempi, R A Santilli
The identification of the heart rhythm during an episode of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is considered the reference standard method to elucidate the underlying aetiology. This study aimed to characterise heart rhythm in dogs during TLOC using Holter and external loop recorder monitoring. We retrospectively reviewed 24-h Holter monitoring and external loop recorder tracings from 8084 dogs. Heart rhythms from dogs that experienced TLOC during the recording was analysed to identify rhythm disturbances that occurred during episodes of TLOC...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
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