Alessandro Pincherle, Frederic Rossi, Jane Jöhr, Vincent Dunet, Philippe Ryvlin, Mauro Oddo, Nicolas Schiff, Karin Diserens
Bedside assessment of consciousness and awareness after a severe brain injury might be hampered by confounding clinical factors (i.e., pitfalls) interfering with the production of behavioral or motor responses to external stimuli. Despite the use of validated clinical scales, a high misdiagnosis rate is indeed observed. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 49 patients with severe brain injury admitted to an acute neuro-rehabilitation program. Patients' behavior was assessed using the Motor Behavior Tool and Coma Recovery Scale Revised...
August 4, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Rohan Panda, Sahil Jain, R K Tripathy, U Rajendra Acharya
Among various life-threatening cardiac disorders, ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) are shockable ventricular cardiac arrhythmias (SVCA) which require immediate defibrillation therapy for the survival of patients. Timely and accurate detection of rapid VT or VF episodes using ECG signals is extremely important before initiating external defibrillator (AED) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies. In this paper, a novel approach for the detection of SVCA using ECG signals is proposed...
July 29, 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jérémie Richard, Émilie Fletcher, Stephanie Boutin, Jeffrey Derevensky, Caroline Temcheff
Background and aims: Behavioral addictions such as gambling and gaming disorder are significant public health issues that are of increasing importance to policy makers and health care providers. Problem gambling and gaming behaviors have been identified as being associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, with theoretical models suggesting that both conduct problems and depressive symptoms may be significant risk factors in the development of problem gambling and gaming...
July 23, 2020: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Sarah C Van Alsten, Alexis E Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) have high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal patterns of comorbidities in adults with EDs. METHODS: Sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering were applied to ages of onset and recency for select eating, substance, mood, and anxiety disorders from the 479 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys with lifetime DSM-IV bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa...
August 3, 2020: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Pierre C M Herpers, Josephine E C Neumann, Wouter G Staal
Auto-aggressive behaviour, especially treatment refractory suicidality in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, may be challenging to clinicians. In search of therapeutic possibilities, we have integrated current opinions regarding causality and interdependency of suicidality and auto-aggressive behaviour across disorders within the HiTOP framework. We propose a developmental model regarding these unsettling behaviours in youths that may help to guide future directions for research and interventions. We argue that the interdependent development of biologic factors, attachment, moral reasoning and emotion regulation in an overprotective environment may lead to social anxiety and later during development to emotion dysregulation and severe internalizing behaviour disorders...
August 3, 2020: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Holly Y Chen, Ryan A Kelley, Tiansen Li, Anand Swaroop
The primary cilium is a ubiquitous microtubule-based organelle that senses external environment and modulates diverse signaling pathways in different cell types and tissues. The cilium originates from the mother centriole through a complex set of cellular events requiring hundreds of distinct components. Aberrant ciliogenesis or ciliary transport leads to a broad spectrum of clinical entities with overlapping yet highly variable phenotypes, collectively called ciliopathies, which include sensory defects and syndromic disorders with multi-organ pathologies...
July 31, 2020: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ayoung Hong, Andrew Petruska, Ajmal Zemmar, Bradley Nelson
Minimally invasive neurosurgery does not require large incisions and openings in the skull to access the desired brain region, which often results in a faster recovery with fewer complications than traditional open neurosurgery. For disorders treated by the implantation of neurostimulators and thermocoagulation probes, current procedures incorporate a straight rigid needle, which restricts surgical trajectories and limits the number of possible targets and degrees of freedom at the respective target. A steerable needle with a flexible body could overcome these limitations...
July 16, 2020: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yen-Cheng Shih, Chien-Chen Chou, Yi-Jiun Lu, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Hsiang-Yu Yu
INTRODUCTION: Depression is the most commonly seen psychiatric co-morbidity of epilepsy. Depression in patients with epilepsy (PWE) is underrecognized. The Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) is a useful tool to screen for major depressive episodes (MDEs) in PWE. This study validated the Taiwanese version of the NDDI-E using data from adult PWE in our hospital. METHOD: PWE were recruited from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from April 2017 to December 2019...
July 28, 2020: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jennifer H Suor, Maria Granros, Autumn Kujawa, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, Kinh Luan Phan, Katie L Burkhouse
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that reflects error monitoring. Enhanced ERN indicates sensitivity to performance errors and is a correlate of anxiety disorders. In contrast, youth with externalizing problems exhibit a reduced ERN, suggesting decreased error monitoring. Anxiety and externalizing problems commonly co-occur in youth, but no studies have tested how comorbidity might modulate the ERN. In a sample of youth (N = 46, ages 7-19) with and without anxiety disorders, this preliminary study examined the interactive effect of anxiety and externalizing problems on ERN...
August 2, 2020: Developmental Psychobiology
Kanako Matsuoka, Yuichi Sato, Seiji Hoshi, Tomoyuki Koguchi, Soichiro Ogawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Nobuhiro Haga, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kojima
Introduction: Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia is a rare disease that causes disorders of sex development. The 46,XY patient presents with female external genitalia and inguinal testes. We describe the case of a patient with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia and investigated the testes of this patient in detail. Case presentation: A 15-day-old 46,XY neonate presented with severe adrenal insufficiency. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed after detection of steroidogenic acute regulatory gene mutations...
March 2020: IJU case reports
Michel Kmeid, Jade Nehme
Acquired atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare cause of conductive hearing loss. It has been traditionally classified into 4 categories: traumatic, post-operative, neoplastic and inflammatory. Post-inflammatory acquired auditory canal atresia is thought to be the result of chronic and repetitive infectious bouts affecting the auditory canal. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiology of this disorder is yet to be fully elucidated. Current data fail to clearly state the impact that certain underlying systemic disorders may have on the EAC...
December 2019: Journal of Otology
Jennifer Wolff, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Elisabeth Frazier, Robert Stout, Judy Gomez, Maya Massing-Schaffer, Bridget Nestor, Shayna Cheek, Hannah Graves, Shirley Yen, Jeffrey Hunt, Anthony Spirito
The current study conducted a preliminary test of whether community mental health clinic staff could implement a multicomponent cognitive behavioral treatment, developed for adolescents with substance misuse (alcohol and/or marijuana) and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. We randomized a total of 111 families, with an adolescent 12-18 years old, referred to a home-based services program for youth with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems, to receive treatment from either masters-level therapists who received intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT) training or from masters-level therapists who took part in a typical brief continuing education-style CBT workshop (treatment as usual, or TAU)...
September 2020: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Fadia Ahmed Attiah, Refaat Fathy Abd Elaal, Mohamed Fawzy
PURPOSE: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have an increased risk of psychological/psychiatric symptoms and disorders. This study aimed to assess the behavior of girls with CAH and its independent risk variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 55 girls with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (mean age 12.64 ± 1.52 years; salt-wasting (SW) form = 20, simple virilizing (SV) form = 35). Psychiatric interviewing and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (parent-reporting questionnaires) were used to assess behavior...
August 1, 2020: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniel Turner, Anne Jule Wolf, Steffen Barra, Marcus Müller, Priscilla Gregório Hertz, Michael Huss, Oliver Tüscher, Wolfgang Retz
High rates of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, e.g., abuse and neglect) have been found in young offenders. Furthermore, ACEs seem to increase the risk of developing relevant mental health problems, in non-offending juveniles and adults. However, this association has only seldomly been addressed in offending juveniles and young adults. The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of ACEs and mental health problems as well as their association within a sample of male and female young offenders. Altogether, 161 adolescent and young adult offenders (16...
August 2, 2020: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Rachna George Joseph, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, A Rajeev
PURPOSE: In India the pathways to care in children with mental health problems remain relatively unexplored. Investigating the factors that drive the pathway will help determine interventions and also draft policies for a streamlined Child and adolescent mental health service. METHOD: Children who attended the Child Guidance Clinic sampled by WHO Pathways Encounter questionnaire. Statistical tests applied to find key influencers like gatekeepers, intermediate points of care, symptoms initiating referral, duration of untreated illness, time to arrive at appropriate care and primary diagnosis...
July 18, 2020: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Ekram W Abd El-Wahab, Rehab A Zein El-Abedin, Walid M Ahmed, Hanan Z Shatat
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disorder in more than 20% of the general population worldwide.  Several combinations of non-invasive factors and scoring models were investigated as indicators of NAFLD. This study aimed to validate and adapt an established fatty liver score, which allows the identification of NAFLD based on routinely available clinical and laboratory data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort comprised 190 adults seeking health check-up at the out-patient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Alexandria, Egypt...
June 21, 2020: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Antony A Boucard
The environmental complexity in which living organisms found themselves throughout evolution, most likely resulted in various encounters that would continuously challenge the organisms' ability to survive. Coping with this stress can prove energetically demanding and might require the proper coupling between mechanisms aimed at sensing external stimuli and cellular strategies geared at producing energy. In this issue of BioEssays, Lovejoy and Hogg hypothesize that preservation of this bifaceted coupling can be detected by the maintenance and evolution of stress response mechanisms at the genomic, molecular and cellular levels...
July 30, 2020: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Melissa L Danielson, Rebecca H Bitsko, Joseph R Holbrook, Sana N Charania, Angelika H Claussen, Robert E McKeown, Steven P Cuffe, Julie Sarno Owens, Steven W Evans, Lorraine Kubicek, Kate Flory
The Project to Learn About Youth-Mental Health (PLAY-MH; 2014-2018) is a school-based, two-stage study designed to estimate the prevalence of selected mental disorders among K-12 students in four U.S.-based sites (Colorado, Florida, Ohio, and South Carolina). In Stage 1, teachers completed validated screeners to determine student risk status for externalizing or internalizing problems or tics; the percentage of students identified as being at high risk ranged from 17.8% to 34.4%. In Stage 2, parents completed a structured diagnostic interview to determine whether their child met criteria for fourteen externalizing or internalizing disorders; weighted prevalence estimates of meeting criteria for any disorder were similar in three sites (14...
July 30, 2020: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Oleg Kozhevnikov, Svetlana Kralina, Yulia Yurasova, Vladimir Kenis, Susanne Gerit Kircher, Ali Al Kaissi
Purpose: Progressive deformity of the lower limbs can be encountered in a long list of syndromic associations. The baseline tool in the management of such disorders is to approach to a definite diagnosis. Methods: We describe a 4-year-old girl who presented with the clinical phenotype and genotype of congenital erythrokeratoderma, keratosis, and sensorineural hearing loss (keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome) (KID syndrome). She manifested progressive contractures of the knees associated with talipes equinovarus of the feet...
2020: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Janak L Pathak, Nathalie Bravenboer, Jenneke Klein-Nulend
Osteocytes are the most abundant (~95%) cells in bone with the longest half-life (~25 years) in humans. In the past osteocytes have been regarded as vestigial cells in bone, since they are buried inside the tough bone matrix. However, during the last 30 years it has become clear that osteocytes are as important as bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts in maintaining bone homeostasis. The osteocyte cell body and dendritic processes reside in bone in a complex lacuno-canalicular system, which allows the direct networking of osteocytes to their neighboring osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, bone marrow, blood vessels, and nerves...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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