Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides

Sho Tanaka, Masanori Abe, Genta Kohno, Masaru Kushimoto, Jin Ikeda, Katsuhiko Ogawa, Yutaka Suzuki, Hisamitsu Ishihara, Midori Fujishiro
A 65-year-old woman without a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted for elective total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthrosis. There were no specific complaints except for knee flexion contractures, and the results of preoperative tests were unremarkable. On the day of surgery, the patient suffered from a hypoglycemic attack (52 mg/dL) after preoperative overnight fasting. A dextrose infusion immediately corrected the hypoglycemia, and a total knee arthroplasty was then performed. Although a hypoglycemic attack did not recur, further evaluation was required because of nausea that persisted after surgery...
2020: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Santiago Pech-Pool, Laura C Berumen, Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Guadalupe García-Alcocer, Martha Carranza, Maricela Luna, Carlos Arámburo
It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in immune cells, where it exerts immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of expression and release of GH in the immune system remain unclear. We analyzed the effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), ghrelin (GHRL), and somatostatin (SST) upon GH mRNA expression, intracellular and released GH, Ser133-phosphorylation of CREB (pCREBS133 ), intracellular Ca2+ levels, as well as B-cell activating factor (BAFF) mRNA expression in bursal B-lymphocytes (BBLs) cell cultures since several GH secretagogues, as well as their corresponding receptors (-R), are expressed in B-lymphocytes of several species...
February 20, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Justin Flaven-Pouchon, Javier V Alvarez, Candy Rojas, John Ewer
BACKGROUND: In insects, continuous growth requires the periodic replacement of the exoskeleton. Once the remains of the exoskeleton from the previous stage have been shed during ecdysis, the new one is rapidly sclerotized (hardened) and melanized (pigmented), a process collectively known as tanning. The rapid tanning that occurs after ecdysis is critical for insect survival, as it reduces desiccation, and gives the exoskeleton the rigidity needed to support the internal organs and to provide a solid anchor for the muscles...
February 19, 2020: BMC Biology
Jinbo Deng, Jiaoqing Li, Miaopeng Ma, Peijing Zhao, Feiping Ming, Zhipeng Lu, Juqing Shi, Qin Fan, Qianyi Liang, Junhao Jia, Jiayi Li, Shuxia Zhang, Linghua Zhang
Porcine growth hormone (pGH) is a class of peptide hormones secreted from the pituitary gland, which can significantly improve growth and feed utilization of pigs. However, it is unstable and volatile in vitro. It needs to be encapsulated in liposomes when feeding livestock, whose high cost greatly limits its application in pig industry. Therefore we attempted to express pGH as intracellular soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and feed these yeasts with partial wall-breaking for swine, which could release directly pGH in intestine tract in case of being degraded in intestinal tract with low cost...
February 18, 2020: Microbial Cell Factories
Mian Fu, Xiaomei Zhuang, Tianhong Zhang, Ying Guan, Qingbin Meng, Yongjun Zhang
Leuprolide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist widely used in androgen deprivation therapy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, suffers from a short circulating half-life like other peptide therapeutics. As an attempt to improve its pharmacokinetic properties, two PEGylated leuprolides with different molecular weight were synthesized utilizing N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) conjugation chemistry. The reaction conditions, including reaction temperature, reaction time and feed ratio of the reactants, were optimized to obtain a higher yield...
January 7, 2020: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Wesley C Hymer, Mary J Kennett, Samir K Maji, Kristin L Gosselink, Gary E McCall, Richard E Grindeland, Emily M Post, William J Kraemer
OBJECTIVE: To revisit a finding, first described in 1978, which documented existence of a pituitary growth factor that escaped detection by immunoassay, but which was active in the established rat tibia GH bioassay. METHODS: We present a narrative review of the evolution of growth hormone complexity, and its bio-detectability, from a historical perspective. RESULTS: In humans under the age of 60, physical training (i.e. aerobic endurance and resistance training) are stressors which preferentially stimulate release of bioactive GH (bGH) into the blood...
November 27, 2019: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Juanita K Hodax, Sara A DiVall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss treatments used to enhance growth in pediatric patients with short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: New data confirm the known efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature. The latest data from the Safety and Appropriateness of Growth hormone Treatment in Europe cohort did not indicate a long-term risk of malignancy in those treated for isolated GHD, but possibly increased risk in those with other diagnoses...
November 26, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Akimi Soga, Izumi Fukuda, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Shigeyuki Tahara, Akio Morita, Hitoshi Sugihara
Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one common cause of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). In Japan, a GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 test is used to evaluate GH secretion. Although the cut-off for peak GH during a GHRP-2 test for severe AGHD is ≤9 ng/mL, severe AGHD may further diminish responses (range, nearly no-response to ≤9 ng/mL). We studied whether the peak GH responses during a GHRP-2 test could be predicted based on clinical characteristics of patients with NFPA. We compared patients with almost no-response during a GHRP-2 test with other patients considered as severe AGHD...
November 26, 2019: Endocrine Journal
Anwesha Barik, Nishant Chakravorty
Titanium implants are considered the gold standard of treatment for dental and orthopedic applications. Biocompatibility, low elasticity, and corrosion resistance are some of the key properties of these metallic implants. Nonetheless, a long-term clinical failure of implants may occur due to inadequate osseointegration. Poor osseointegration induces mobility, inflammation, increased bone resorption, and osteolysis; hence, it may result in painful revision surgeries. Topographical modifications, improvement in hydrophilicity, and the development of controlled-release drug-loading systems have shown to improve cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation...
November 26, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kevin C J Yuen, Beverly M K Biller, Sally Radovick, John D Carmichael, Sina Jasim, Kevin M Pantalone, Andrew R Hoffman
Objective: The development of these guidelines is sponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Methods: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
November 2019: Endocrine Practice
Olga B Garbuzenko, Andriy Kuzmov, Oleh Taratula, Sharon R Pine, Tamara Minko
Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC), is the most common type of lung cancer (more than 80% of all cases). Small molecule Tyrosine Kinase (TK) Inhibitors acting on the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFRs) are standard therapies for patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR-TK inhibitor-sensitizing mutations. However, fewer than 10 % of patients with NSCLC benefit from this therapy. Moreover, even the latest generation of EGFR inhibitors can cause severe systemic toxicities and are ineffective in preventing non-canonical EGFR signaling...
2019: Theranostics
Eszter Lajkó, Éva Pállinger, Zsombor Kovács, Ildikó Szabó, László Kőhidai
The unicellular Tetrahymena distinguishes structure-related vertebrate hormones by its chemosensory reactions. In the present work, the selectivity of hormone receptors was evaluated by analyzing the effects of various gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs (GnRH-I, GnRH-III) as well as truncated (Ac-SHDWKPG-NH2 ) and dimer derivatives ([GnRH-III(C)]2 and [GnRH-III(CGFLG)]2 ) of GnRH-III on (i) locomotory behaviors, (ii) cell proliferation, and (iii) intracellular hormone contents of Tetrahymena pyriformis ...
November 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayelén M Blanco
Most endocrine systems in the body are influenced by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Within this axis, the hypothalamus delivers precise signals to the pituitary gland, which in turn releases hormones that directly affect target tissues including the liver, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and gonads. This action modulates the release of additional hormones from the sites of action, regulating key physiological processes, including growth, metabolism, stress and reproduction. Pituitary hormones are released by five distinct hormone-producing cell types: somatotropes (which produce growth hormone), thyrotropes (thyrotropin), corticotropes (adrenocorticotropin), lactotropes (prolactin) and gonadotropes (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone), each modulated by specific hypothalamic signals...
November 15, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
The onset of puberty is the result of an increase in secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This action is due to development of stimulatory inputs to its release, but also to a gradual decrease in inhibitory inputs that restrain release of the peptide prior to pubertal onset. Dynorphin (DYN) is one of the inhibitory inputs that is produced in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), however, little is known about what substance(s) control its prepubertal synthesis and release. Because neurokinin B (NKB) increases in the hypothalamus as puberty approaches, we considered it a candidate for such a role...
November 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A Lorenzo-Almorós, T Hang, C Peiró, L Soriano-Guillén, J Egido, J Tuñón, Ó Lorenzo
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as the presence of high blood glucose levels with the onset, or detected for the first time during pregnancy, as a result of increased insulin resistance. GDM may be induced by dysregulation of pancreatic β-cell function and/or by alteration of secreted gestational hormones and peptides related with glucose homeostasis. It may affect one out of five pregnancies, leading to perinatal morbidity and adverse neonatal outcomes, and high risk of chronic metabolic and cardiovascular injuries in both mother and offspring...
October 30, 2019: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Maira Huerta-Reyes, Guadalupe Maya-Núñez, Marco Allán Pérez-Solis, Eunice López-Muñoz, Nancy Guillén, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Arturo Aguilar-Rojas
Although significant progress has been made in the implementation of new breast cancer treatments over the last three decades, this neoplasm annually continues to show high worldwide rates of morbidity and mortality. In consequence, the search for novel therapies with greater effectiveness and specificity has not come to a stop. Among the alternative therapeutic targets, the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone type I and type II (hGnRH-I and hGnRH-II, respectively) and its receptor, the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor type I (hGnRHR-I), have shown to be powerful therapeutic targets to decrease the adverse effects of this disease...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Showkat Ahmad Dar, Prem P Srivastava, Mohd Ashraf Rather, Tincy Varghese, Sheikh Irfan Rasool, Subodh Gupta
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted primarily by the stomach and is involved in controlling growth by governing different functions in vertebrates including feed intake and metabolism in vertebrates. This work was aimed to identify sequences of ghrelin gene and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in Labeo rohita. The full-length cDNA sequence of ghrelin is 453 bp including 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 65 bp, 3'-UTR of 76 bp with a poly-A frame. An open reading frame (ORF) is 312 bp, which encodes a peptide of 103 amino acid residues...
October 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Takeshi Tokudome, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide first discovered in rat stomach in 1999, is a ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance and body weight maintenance, and appears to be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In animal models of chronic heart failure, ghrelin improves cardiac function and remodeling; these findings have been recapitulated in human patients. In other animal models, ghrelin effectively diminishes pulmonary hypertension...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Ivan Ranđelović, Sabine Schuster, Bence Kapuvári, Gianluca Fossati, Christian Steinkühler, Gábor Mező, József Tóvári
Among various homing devices, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) peptide represents a suitable targeting moiety for drug delivery systems. The anti-tumor activity of the previously developed GnRH-III-[4 Lys(Bu),8 Lys(Dau=Aoa)] conjugate and the novel synthesized GnRH-III-[2 ΔHis,3 d-Tic,4 Lys(Bu),8 Lys(Dau=Aoa)] conjugate, containing the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin, were evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that both GnRH-III-Dau conjugates possess an efficient growth inhibitory effect on more than 20 cancer cell lines, whereby the biological activity is strongly connected to the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R)...
September 25, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Samantha M Mirczuk, Andrew J Lessey, Alice R Catterick, Rebecca M Perrett, Christopher J Scudder, Jordan E Read, Victoria J Lipscomb, Stijn J Niessen, Andrew J Childs, Craig A McArdle, Imelda M McGonnell, Robert C Fowkes
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the most conserved member of the mammalian natriuretic peptide family, and is implicated in the endocrine regulation of growth, metabolism and reproduction. CNP is expressed throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the central nervous system and anterior pituitary gland. Pituitary gonadotropes are regulated by pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, to control reproductive function. GnRH and CNP reciprocally regulate their respective signalling pathways in αT3-1 gonadotrope cells, but effects of pulsatile GnRH stimulation on CNP expression has not been explored...
September 14, 2019: Cells
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