Cornelius J Fernandez, Mayuri Agarwal, Biju Pottakkat, Nisha Nigil Haroon, Annu Susan George, Joseph M Pappachan
Our understanding about the epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapies of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have drastically advanced in the past decade. Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NENs originate from the enteroendocrine cells of the embryonic gut which share common endocrine and neural differentiation factors. Most NENs are well-differentiated, and slow growing. Specific neuroendocrine biomarkers that are used in the diagnosis of functional NENs include insulin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, gastrin, somatostatin, adrenocorticotropin, growth hormone releasing hormone, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, serotonin, histamine, and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA)...
March 27, 2021: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Cameron R Moattari, Richard D Granstein
Humans are exposed to varying amounts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through sunlight. UVR penetrates into human skin leading to release of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. These messengers released from local sensory nerves, keratinocytes, Langerhans cells (LCs), mast cells, melanocytes and endothelial cells (ECs) modulate local and systemic immune responses, mediate inflammation and promote differing cell biologic effects. In this review, we will focus on both animal and human studies that elucidate the roles of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), nerve growth factor (NGF), nitric oxide and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives in mediating immune and inflammatory effects of exposure to UVR as well as other cell biologic effects of UVR exposure...
March 16, 2021: Acta Physiologica
Risa Kimura, Daisuke Kondo, Shota Takemi, Miyuki Fujishiro, Shinji Tsukahara, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
Under severe calorie restriction (CR), the ghrelin-growth hormone axis in mice is involved in the maintenance of plasma glucose levels. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived acylated peptide, is up-regulated by the sympathetic nerve in the negative energy status. Central corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R) signalling stimulates the sympathetic tone. The present study aimed to examine the effect of central CRF-R signalling on the maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations in severe calorie-restricted mice with the involvement of ghrelin...
March 2021: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Danielle DaCrema, Rajan Bhandari, Faith Karanja, Ryunosuke Yano, Adrian Halme
Regeneration of Drosophila imaginal discs, larval precursors to adult tissues, activates a regeneration checkpoint that coordinates regenerative growth with developmental progression. This regeneration checkpoint results from the release of the relaxin-family peptide Dilp8 from regenerating imaginal tissues. Secreted Dilp8 protein is detected within the imaginal disc lumen, where it is separated from its receptor target Lgr3, expressed in the brain and prothoracic gland, by the disc epithelial barrier. Here we demonstrate that following damage the imaginal disc epithelial barrier limits Dilp8 signaling and the duration of regeneration checkpoint delay...
March 3, 2021: Development
Jens F Rehfeld
The birth certificate for endocrinology was Bayliss' and Starling's demonstration in 1902 that regulation of bodily functions is not only neuronal, but due also to blood-borne messengers. Starling named these messengers hormones. Since then, transport via blood has defined hormones. This definition, however, may be too narrow. Thus, today we know that several peptide hormones not only are produced and released to blood from endocrine cells. They are released also from neurons, myocytes, immune cells, endothelial cells, spermatogenic cells, fat cells, etc...
February 1, 2021: Endocrine Connections
Kana Tanikawa, Kentaro Kaneko, Shimon Abe, Jyunya Nakato, Yuki Tokuyama, Sayano Odaka, Hiroshi Iwakura, Masaru Sato, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Hideyuki Suzuki, Miki Makita, Hiroyuki Ikemoto, Shigenobu Matsumura, Kazuo Inoue, Kousaku Ohinata
Ghrelin is an endogenous orexigenic hormone mainly produced by stomach cells and is reported to influence appetite, gastrointestinal motility and growth hormone secretion. We observed that enzymatic digest of wheat gluten stimulated ghrelin secretion from MGN3-1 a ghrelin-releasing cell line. Further on, we characterized the ghrelin-releasing peptides present in the digest by comprehensive peptide analysis using LC/MS and structure-activity relationship. Among the candidate peptides, we found that SQQQQPVLPQQPSF, LSVTSPQQVSY, and YPTSL stimulated ghrelin release...
February 19, 2021: FEBS Open Bio
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Valentina Di Valerio, Serena Veschi, Giustino Orlando, Claudio Ferrante, Iacopo Gesmundo, Riccarda Granata, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Andrew V Schally, Rossano Lattanzio, Luigi Brunetti, Sheila Leone
Besides its metabolic and endocrine effects, growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is involved in the modulation of inflammation. Recently synthetized GHRH antagonist MIA-690 and MR-409, GHRH agonist, developed by us have shown potent pharmacological effects in various experimental paradigms. However, whether their administration modify resistance to chronic inflammatory stimuli in colon is still unknown. Ex vivo results demonstrated that MIA-690 and MR-409 inhibited production of pro-inflammatory and oxidative markers induced by lipopolysaccharide on isolated mouse colon specimens...
January 28, 2021: Scientific Reports
Yunna Lee, Elise L Ma, Marisa Patel, Gayoung Kim, Cody Howe, Charalabos Pothoulakis, Yong Sung Kim, Eunok Im, Sang Hoon Rhee
The neuroendocrine circuit of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family peptides, via their cognate receptors CRHR1 and CRHR2, copes with psychological stress. However, peripheral effects of the CRH system in colon cancer remains elusive. Thus, we investigate the role of CRHR1 and CRHR2 in colon cancer. Human colon cancer biopsies were used to measure the mRNA levels of the CRH family by quantitative real-time PCR. Two animal models of colon cancer were used: Apcmin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice...
January 21, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dominik Simon Botermann, Nadine Brandes, Anke Frommhold, Ina Heß, Alexander Wolff, Arne Zibat, Heidi Hahn, Rolf Buslei, Anja Uhmann
Ubiquitous overactivation of Hedgehog signaling in adult pituitaries results in increased expression of proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl), elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) production and proliferation of Sox2+ cells. Moreover, ACTH, GH and PRL-expressing human pituitary adenomas strongly express the Hedgehog target GLI1. Accordingly, Hedgehog signaling seems to play an important role in pathology and probably also in homeostasis of the adult hypophysis. However, the specific Hedgehog-responsive pituitary cell type has not yet been identified...
January 1, 2021: Journal of Endocrinology
Min Pi, Satoru Kenneth Nishimoto, L Darryl Quarles
A new schema proposes that the bone-derived osteocalcin (Ocn) peptide hormone activates the G- protein coupled receptor GPRC6A to directly regulate glucose and fat metabolism in liver, muscle and fat, and to stimulate the release of metabolism-regulating hormones, including insulin, fibroblast growth factor 21, glucagon-like peptide 1, testosterone and interleukin 6. Ocn/GPRC6A activation has also been implicated in cancer progression. GPRC6Ais activated by cations, amino acids and testosterone. The multi-ligand specificity, the regulation of energy metabolism in diverse tissues and the coordinated release of metabolically active hormones make the GPRC6A endocrine networks unique...
January 20, 2021: Endocrinology
Angela C Rieger, Luiza L Bagno, Alessandro Salerno, Victoria Florea, Jose Rodriguez, Marcos Rosado, Darren Turner, Raul A Dulce, Lauro M Takeuchi, Rosemeire M Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Peter Buchwald, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Wayne Balkan, Ivonne H Schulman, Andrew V Schally, Joshua M Hare
Therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are lacking. Growth hormone-releasing hormone agonists (GHRH-As) have salutary effects in ischemic and nonischemic heart failure animal models. Accordingly, we hypothesized that GHRH-A treatment ameliorates chronic kidney disease (CKD)-induced HFpEF in a large-animal model. Female Yorkshire pigs ( n = 16) underwent 5/6 nephrectomy via renal artery embolization and 12 wk later were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of GHRH-A (MR-409; n = 8; 30 µg/kg) or placebo ( n = 8) for 4 to 6 wk...
January 26, 2021: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qianqian Pan, Jingjun Tian, Huihui Zhu, Liangjie Hong, Zhengwei Mao, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira, Rui L Reis, Xiao Li
Synergetic treatments that combine chemotherapy with photothermal/photodynamic therapy have been developed as promising new strategies for cancer therapy, especially for drug-resistant cancers. To achieve optimized synergetic outcomes for cancer therapy, it is highly desirable to selectively and simultaneously deliver both chemotherapeutics and near-infrared photosensitizers to the cancer tissues and cells, enhancing local accumulation. Here we report the preparation of poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticles (PCL NPs) using bovine albumin as a stabilizer; the nanoparticles are loaded with IR780 and paclitaxel (PTX) for combinational phototherapy and chemotherapy...
April 13, 2020: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
The pubertal process is initiated as a result of complex neuroendocrine interactions within the preoptic and hypothalamic regions of the brain. These interactions ultimately result in a timely increase in the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Researchers for years have believed that this increase is due to a diminished inhibitory tone which has applied a prepubertal brake on GnRH secretion, as well as to the gradual development of excitatory inputs driving the increased release of the peptide...
January 6, 2021: Neuroendocrinology
Jiayi Sun, Xin Shen, Hui Liu, Siying Lu, Jing Peng, Haibin Kuang
Caloric restriction (CR), an energy-restricted intervention with undernutrition instead of malnutrition, is widely known to prolong lifespan and protect against the age-related deteriorations. Recently it is found that CR significantly affects female reproduction via hypothalamic (corticotropin releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide) and peripheral (leptin, ghrelin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor) mediators, which can regulate the energy homeostasis. Although CR reduces the fertility in female mammals, it exerts positive effects like preserving reproductive capacity...
January 4, 2021: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Rosario Baltazar-Lara, José Ávila-Mendoza, Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Martha Carranza, Santiago Pech-Pool, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Maricela Luna, Carlos Arámburo
It has been reported that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) exert protective and regenerative actions in response to neural damage. It is also known that these peptides are expressed locally in nervous tissues. When the central nervous system (CNS) is exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI), both GH and IGF-1 are upregulated in several brain areas. In this study, we explored the neuroprotective effects of GH and IGF-1 administration as well as the involvement of these endogenously expressed hormones in embryonic chicken cerebellar cell cultures exposed to an acute HI injury...
December 29, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhengxiang Huang, Xuehan Lu, Lili Huang, Chunhong Zhang, Johannes D Veldhuis, Michael A Cowley, Chen Chen
Obese individuals often show low growth hormone (GH) secretion, which leads to reduced lipid mobilization and further fat accumulation. Pharmacological approaches to increase GH levels in obese individuals by GH injection or GH-releasing hormone receptor agonist showed promising effects on fat reduction. However, side effects on glucose metabolism and the heavy costs on making large peptides hindered their clinical application. Here, we tested whether stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by a synthetic GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) agonist, hexarelin, improved the metabolism in a hyperphagic obese mouse model...
January 2021: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lorenzo Carnevale, Fabio Pallante, Marialuisa Perrotta, Daniele Iodice, Sara Perrotta, Stefania Fardella, Francesco Mastroiacovo, Daniela Carnevale, Giuseppe Lembo
Angiotensin II (AngII) is a peptide hormone that affects the cardiovascular system, not only through typical effects on the vasculature, kidneys, and heart, but also through less understood roles mediated by the brain and the immune system. Here, we address the hard-wired neural connections within the autonomic nervous system that modulate splenic immunity. Chronic AngII infusion triggers burst firing of the vagus nerve celiac efferent, an effect correlated with noradrenergic activation in the spleen and T cell egress...
December 15, 2020: Cell Reports
Héctor Santana, Luis Ariel Espinosa, Aniel Sánchez, Alain Bolaño Alvarez, Vladimir Besada, Luis Javier González
Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is a promising molecule (H-His1 -d-Trp- Ala-Trp-d-Phe-Lys6 -NH2 ) for the treatment of several diseases. Studies on the degradation pathways of this molecule under stressed conditions are needed to develop appropriate formulations. Degradation products (DPs) of GHRP-6, generated by heating in the dark at 60 °C with pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0 and in presence of common buffers, were isolated by RP-HPLC and characterized by ESI-MS/MS. C-terminal deamidation of GHRP-6 was generated preferentially at pH 3...
November 21, 2020: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Federica Tonon, Stefano Di Bella, Gabriele Grassi, Roberto Luzzati, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Cristina Zennaro
C. difficile infection (CDI) is not a merely "gut-confined" disease as toxemia could drive the development of CDI-related extra-intestinal effects. These effects could explain the high CDI-associated mortality, not just justified by diarrhea and dehydration. Here, the extra-intestinal effects of toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) produced by C. difficile have been studied in vivo using the zebrafish embryo model. Noteworthy, protective properties of human serum albumin (HSA) towards toxins-induced extra-intestinal effects were also addressed...
December 1, 2020: Cells
Damien J Keating
The release from cells of signaling molecules through the controlled process of exocytosis involves multiple coordinated steps and is essential for the proper control of a multitude of biological pathways across the endocrine and nervous systems. However, these events are minute both temporally and in terms of the minute amounts of neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors, and peptides released from single vesicles during exocytosis. It is therefore difficult to measure the kinetics of single exocytosis events in real time...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
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