Arne Weiten, Kristin Kalvelage, Patrick Becker, Richard Reinhardt, Thomas Hurek, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek, Ralf Rabus
The betaproteobacterial genus Aromatoleum comprises facultative denitrifiers specialized in the anaerobic degradation of recalcitrant organic compounds (aromatic and terpenoid). This study reports on the complete and manually annotated genomes of Ar. petrolei ToN1T (5.41 Mbp) and Ar. bremense PbN1T (4.38 Mbp), which cover the phylogenetic breadth of the genus Aromatoleum together with previously genome sequenced Ar. aromaticum EbN1T [Rabus et al., Arch Microbiol. 2005 Jan;183(1):27-36]. The gene clusters for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic and terpenoid (strain ToN1T only) compounds are scattered across the genomes of strains ToN1T and PbN1T...
January 21, 2021: Microbial physiology
Li Song, Junfeng Pan, Yantao Yang, Zhenxing Zhang, Rui Cui, Shuangkai Jia, Zhuo Wang, Changxing Yang, Lei Xu, Tao G Dong, Yao Wang, Xihui Shen
Bacterial type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) inject toxic effectors into adjacent eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is generally thought that this process requires physical contact between the two cells. Here, we provide evidence of contact-independent killing by a T6SS-secreted effector. We show that the pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a T6SS (T6SS-3) to secrete a nuclease effector that kills other bacteria in vitro and facilitates gut colonization in mice. The effector (Tce1) is a small protein that acts as a Ca2+ - and Mg2+ -dependent DNase, and its toxicity is inhibited by a cognate immunity protein, Tci1...
January 18, 2021: Nature Communications
Wieland Steinchen, Shehryar Ahmad, Martina Valentini, Kira Eilers, Mohamad Majkini, Florian Altegoer, Marcus Lechner, Alain Filloux, John C Whitney, Gert Bange
The guanosine nucleotide-based second messengers ppGpp and pppGpp (collectively: (p)ppGpp) enable adaptation of microorganisms to environmental changes and stress conditions. In contrast, the closely related adenosine nucleotides (p)ppApp are involved in type VI secretion system (T6SS)-mediated killing during bacterial competition. Long RelA-SpoT Homolog (RSH) enzymes regulate synthesis and degradation of (p)ppGpp (and potentially also (p)ppApp) through their synthetase and hydrolase domains, respectively. Small alarmone hydrolases (SAH) that consist of only a hydrolase domain are found in a variety of bacterial species, including the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
January 15, 2021: Molecular Microbiology
Marcos H de Moraes, FoSheng Hsu, Dean Huang, Dustin E Bosch, Jun Zeng, Matthew C Radey, Noah Simon, Hannah E Ledvina, Jacob P Frick, Paul A Wiggins, S Brook Peterson, Joseph D Mougous
When bacterial cells come in contact, antagonism mediated by the delivery of toxins frequently ensues. The potential for such encounters to have long-term beneficial consequences in recipient cells has not been investigated. Here we examined the effects of intoxication by DddA, a cytosine deaminase delivered via the type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Burkholderia cenocepacia . Despite its killing potential, we observed that several bacterial species resist DddA and instead accumulate mutations. These mutations can lead to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, indicating that even in the absence of killing, interbacterial antagonism can have profound consequences on target populations...
January 15, 2021: ELife
Anne-Sophie Stolle, Bradley Thomas Meader, Jonida Toska, John J Mekalanos
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic organelle encoded by many gram-negative bacteria that can be used to kill competing bacterial prey species in densely occupied niches. Some predatory species, such as Vibrio cholerae , use their T6SS in an untargeted fashion while in contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa assembles and fires its T6SS apparatus only after detecting initial attacks by other bacterial prey cells; this targeted attack strategy has been termed the T6SS tit-for-tat response. Molecules that interact with the P...
January 5, 2021: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shady Estfanous, Kathrin Krause, Midhun N K Anne, Mostafa Eltobgy, Kyle Caution, Arwa Abu Khweek, Kaitlin Hamilton, Asmaa Badr, Kylene Daily, Cierra Carafice, Daniel Baetzhold, Xiaoli Zhang, Tianliang Li, Haitao Wen, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Hesham Haffez, Sameh Soror, Amal O Amer
Burkholderia cenocepacia (B. cenocepacia) is an opportunistic bacterium; causing severe life threatening systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals including cystic fibrosis patients. The lack of gasdermin D (GSDMD) protects mice against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock. On the other hand, GSDMD promotes mice survival in response to certain bacterial infections. However, the role of GSDMD during B. cenocepacia infection is not yet determined. Our in vitro study shows that GSDMD restricts B...
January 13, 2021: Scientific Reports
Sherley Chamoun, Jenny Welander, Mihaela-Maria Martis-Thiele, Maria Ntzouni, Carina Claesson, Elena Vikström, Maria V Turkina
The nosocomial opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and an emerging global health problem. The polymyxin antibiotic colistin, targeting the negatively charged lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharide on the bacterial cell surface, is often considered as the last-resort treatment, but resistance to colistin is unfortunately increasing worldwide. Notably, colistin-susceptible A. baumannii can also develop a colistin dependence after exposure to this drug in vitro...
January 8, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kai-Wei Yu, Peng Xue, Yang Fu, Liang Yang
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a protein secretion apparatus widely distributed in Gram-negative bacterial species. Many bacterial pathogens employ T6SS to compete with the host and to coordinate the invasion process. The T6SS apparatus consists of a membrane complex and an inner tail tube-like structure that is surrounded by a contractile sheath and capped with a spike complex. A series of antibacterial or antieukaryotic effectors is delivered by the puncturing device consisting of a Hcp tube decorated by the VgrG/PAAR complex into the target following the contraction of the TssB/C sheath, which often leads to damage and death of the competitor and/or host cells...
January 6, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara Moriel, Karoline de Campos Prediger, Emanuel M de Souza, Fábio O Pedrosa, Cyntia M T Fadel-Picheth, Leonardo M Cruz
Aeromonas are bacteria broadly spread in the environment, particularly in aquatic habitats and can induce human infections. Several virulence factors have been described associated with bacterial pathogenicity, such as the Type VI Secretion System (T6SS). This system translocates effector proteins into target cells through a bacteriophage-like contractile structure encoded by tss genes. Here, a total of 446 Aeromonas genome sequences were screened for T6SS and the proteins subjected to in silico analysis. The T6SS-encoding locus was detected in 243 genomes and its genes are encoded in a cluster containing 13 core and 5 accessory genes, in highly conserved synteny...
January 6, 2021: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Nathaly Andrea Montenegro Benavides, Alejandro Alvarez B, Mario L Arrieta-Ortiz, Luis Miguel Rodriguez-R, David Botero, Javier Felipe Tabima, Luisa Castiblanco, Cesar Trujillo, Silvia Restrepo, Adriana Bernal
BACKGROUND: The type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is important in diverse cellular processes in Gram-negative bacteria, including interactions with other bacteria and with eukaryotic hosts. In this study we analyze the evolution of the T6SS in the genus Xanthomonas and evaluate its importance of the T6SS for virulence and in vitro motility in Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), the causal agent of bacterial blight in cassava (Manihot esculenta). We delineate the organization of the T6SS gene clusters in Xanthomonas and then characterize proteins of this secretion system in Xpm strain CIO151...
January 6, 2021: BMC Microbiology
Michael W Kempnich, Marilou P Sison-Mangus
Marine bacteria employ various strategies to maintain their competitive advantage over others in a mixed community. The use of Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS), a protein secretion apparatus used as a molecular weapon for interbacterial competition and eukaryotic interactions, is one of the competitive strategies that is least studied among heterotrophic bacteria living in the water column. To get an insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of bacteria with T6SS in this portion of the marine environment, we examine the presence and abundance of T6SS-bearing bacteria at both local and global scales through the use of metagenome data from water samples obtained from the coast of Monterey Bay and the TARA Oceans project...
2020: PloS One
Sonya L Donato, Christina M Beck, Fernando Garza-Sánchez, Steven J Jensen, Zachary C Ruhe, David A Cunningham, Ian Singleton, David A Low, Christopher S Hayes
Bacteria deploy rearrangement hotspot (Rhs) proteins as toxic effectors against both prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Rhs proteins are characterized by YD-peptide repeats, which fold into a large β-cage structure that encapsulates the C-terminal toxin domain. Here, we show that Rhs effectors are essential for type VI secretion system (T6SS) activity in Enterobacter cloacae (ECL). ECL rhs - mutants do not kill Escherichia coli target bacteria and are defective for T6SS-dependent export of hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp)...
December 15, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shehryar Ahmad, Kara L Tsang, Kartik Sachar, Dennis Quentin, Tahmid M Tashin, Nathan P Bullen, Stefan Raunser, Andrew G McArthur, Gerd Prehna, John C Whitney
Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) deliver antibacterial effector proteins between neighbouring bacteria. Many effectors harbor N-terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs) implicated in effector translocation across target cell membranes. However, the distribution of these TMD-containing effectors remains unknown. Here we discover prePAAR, a conserved motif found in over 6,000 putative TMD-containing effectors encoded predominantly by 15 genera of Proteobacteria. Based on differing numbers of TMDs, effectors group into two distinct classes that both require a member of the Eag family of T6SS chaperones for export...
December 15, 2020: ELife
Yushan Xia, Congjuan Xu, Dan Wang, Yuding Weng, Yongxin Jin, Fang Bai, Zhihui Cheng, Oscar P Kuipers, Weihui Wu
YbeY is a highly conserved RNase in bacteria and plays essential roles in the maturation of 16S rRNA, regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs) and bacterial responses to environmental stresses. Previously, we verified the role of YbeY in rRNA processing and ribosome maturation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstrated YbeY-mediated regulation of rpoS through a sRNA ReaL. In this study, we demonstrate that mutation of the ybeY gene results in upregulation of the type III secretion system (T3SS) genes as well as downregulation of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) genes and reduction of biofilm formation...
December 11, 2020: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ya Liu, Zheng Zhang, Feng Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Yue-Zhong Li
Toxic effectors secreted by the type VI secretion system (T6SS) facilitate interbacterial warfare, as well as pathogenesis toward humans, animals and plants. However, systematically predicting T6SS effectors remains challenging due to their sequence and functional diversity. In this study, we systematically identified putative T6SS toxic effectors in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of the observation that genes encoding adaptor proteins and genes encoding cognate effector proteins are generally adjacent in the genome...
2020: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Guilan Zhou, Hao Liang, Yixin Gu, Changyan Ju, Lihua He, Pengbo Guo, Zhujun Shao, Jianzhong Zhang, Maojun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pullorum commonly colonized in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and caused gastroenteritis. This bacterium could be transmitted to humans through contaminated food and caused colitis and hepatitis. Currently, the genetic characteristics of the H. pullorum were not recognized enough. In this study, the genomes of 23 H. pullorum strains from different counties were comparatively analyzed. Among them, H. pullorum 2013BJHL was the first isolated and reported in China...
December 10, 2020: Gut Pathogens
Ping Wang, Jun-Fang Dong, Ren-Qing Li, Lei Li, Qing-Hua Zou
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a new secretion system that is widely distributed among Gram-negative bacteria. The core component hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) can be used as both its structural protein and secretory protein or chaperone protein. Studies on Hcp are important to elucidate the overall virulence mechanism of T6SS. Salmonella typhimurium is an important foodborne pathogen. There are three copies of hcp genes identified in S . Typhimurium 14028s. This study aimed to characterize the functions of the three Hcp family proteins and to elucidate the interactions among them...
December 2020: Virulence
Gabi Steinbach, Cristian Crisan, Siu Lung Ng, Brian K Hammer, Peter J Yunker
Bacterial communities are governed by a wide variety of social interactions, some of which are antagonistic with potential significance for bacterial warfare. Several antagonistic mechanisms, such as killing via the type VI secretion system (T6SS), require killer cells to directly contact target cells. The T6SS is hypothesized to be a highly potent weapon, capable of facilitating the invasion and defence of bacterial populations. However, we find that the efficacy of contact killing is severely limited by the material consequences of cell death...
December 2020: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Francis J Santoriello, Lina Michel, Daniel Unterweger, Stefan Pukatzki
Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic microbe that can be divided into three subtypes: harmless environmental strains, localised pathogenic strains, and pandemic strains causing global cholera outbreaks. Each type has a contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS) that kills neighbouring competitors by translocating unique toxic effector proteins. Pandemic isolates possess identical effectors, indicating that T6SS effectors may affect pandemicity. Here, we show that one of the T6SS gene clusters (Aux3) exists in two states: a mobile, prophage-like element in a small subset of environmental strains, and a truncated Aux3 unique to and conserved in pandemic isolates...
December 7, 2020: Nature Communications
M R Tuttobene, J F Pérez, E Pavesi, B Perez Mora, D Biancotti, P Cribb, M Altilio, G Müller, H Gramajo, G Tamagno, M S Ramírez, L Diacovich, M A Mussi
Light sensing has been extensively characterized in the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii at environmental temperatures. However, the influence of light on the physiology and pathogenicity of human bacterial pathogens at temperatures found in warm-blooded hosts is still poorly understand. In this work, we show that ESKAPE priority pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Acinetobacter spp., which have been recognized by the WHO and the CDC as critical, can also sense and respond to light at temperatures found in human hosts...
December 7, 2020: Journal of Bacteriology
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