Daya Marasini, Anand B Karki, John M Bryant, Robert J Sheaff, Mohamed K Fakhr
Megaplasmids in Campylobacter spp. likely play important roles in antibiotic resistance, virulence, and horizontal gene transfer. In this study, megaplasmids pCJDM202 (119 kb) and pCJDM67L (116 kb) from C. jejuni strains WP2-202 and OD2-67, respectively, were sequenced and characterized. These megaplasmids contained genes for tetracycline resistance [tet(O)], the Type IV secretion system, conjugative transfer and the Type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS genes in Campylobacter plasmids encoded genes and proteins that were similar to those identified in Campylobacter chromosomal DNA...
July 27, 2020: Scientific Reports
Xiangjun Song, Manman Hou, Huyan Jiang, Xiao Shen, Mei Xue, Ying Shao, Lili Wang, Qi He, Liming Zheng, Jian Tu, Kezong Qi
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is an important pathogen that causes avian colibacillosis in poultry. APEC infection can lead to pathological changes in chicken trachea. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) of APEC contribute to the pathogenicity of APEC. However, whether T6SS plays a role in infection of the trachea remains unclear. We constructed mutant strain Δhcp2a by the Red recombination method system. The role of hcp2a (the structural secretion components and secretory protein of the T6SS) in the infection of trachea was investigated...
July 15, 2020: Research in Veterinary Science
Vera Safronova, Polina Guro, Anna Sazanova, Irina Kuznetsova, Andrey Belimov, Valentin Yakubov, Elizaveta Chirak, Alexey Afonin, Yuri Gogolev, Evgeny Andronov, Igor Tikhonovich
A collection of rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of the narrowly endemic legume species Oxytropis erecta, O. anadyrensis, O. kamtschatica and O. pumilio originated from the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation) was obtained. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed a significant diversity of isolates belonging to families Rhizobiaceae (genus Rhizobium), Phyllobacteriaceae (genera Mesorhizobium, Phyllobacterium) and Bradyrhizobiaceae (genera Bosea, Tardiphaga). Plant nodulation assay showed that only strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium could form nitrogen-fixing nodules on Oxytropis plants...
July 20, 2020: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sonia Villamizar, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, Juan Carlos Caicedo, L M C Alves
The bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila has been recognized as an exceptional species within the Pseudomonas genus, capable of naturally infecting and killing insects from at least three different orders. P. entomophila ingestion leads to irreversible gut damage resulting from a global blockage of translation, which impairs both immune and tissue repair systems in the insect intestine. In this study we isolated a P. entomophila bacterial strain from soil samples which displayed a strong activity against Xanthomonas citri subsp, citri ( Xcc ), the etiological agent of citrus canker disease...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luke A F Barretto, Casey C Fowler
Typhoid fever is a major global health problem and is the result of systemic infections caused by the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S . Typhi). The pathology underlying S . Typhi infections significantly differ from infections caused by broad host range serovars of the same species, which are a common cause of gastroenteritis. Accordingly, identifying S . Typhi genetic factors that impart functionality absent from broad host range serovars offers insights into its unique biology...
July 11, 2020: Pathogens
Mao Zhou, You Lan, Siyi Wang, Qingxia Liu, Zijuan Jian, Yanming Li, Xia Chen, Qun Yan, Wenen Liu
BACKGROUND: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been identified as a novel virulence factor. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the T6SS genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced bloodstream infections (BSIs). We also evaluated clinical and molecular characteristics of T6SS-positive K pneumoniae. METHODS: A total of 344 non-repetitive K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates and relevant clinical data were collected from January 2016 to January 2019. For all isolates, T6SS genes, capsular serotypes, and virulence genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by VITEK® 2 Compact...
July 12, 2020: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Sarah Wettstadt, Erh-Min Lai, Alain Filloux
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contractile injection apparatus that translocates a spike loaded with various effectors directly into eukaryotic and prokaryotic target cells. Such T6SS spike consists of a needle-shaped trimer of VgrG proteins topped by a conical and sharp PAAR protein that facilitates puncturing of the target membrane. T6SS-delivered effector proteins can be either fused to one of the two spike proteins or interact with either in a highly specific manner. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens the T6SS effector Tde1 is targeted to its cognate VgrG1 protein...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Trupti Asolkar, Raman Ramesh
Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil-borne plant pathogen which causes bacterial wilt in a large number of crops. Bacterial Type Six Secretion System (T6SS) is known to participate in pathogenesis, bacterial interaction and inter-bacterial competition. Contribution of T6SS in the virulence of R. solanacearum on eggplant ( Solanum melongena L) is studied. In this study, five T6SS gene ( ompA, vgrG3, hcp, tssH and tssM ) mutants have been developed by insertional mutagenesis and the virulence of the mutants was evaluated on eggplant...
July 2020: 3 Biotech
Namgyu Kim, Jin Ju Kim, Inyoung Kim, Mohamed Mannaa, Jungwook Park, Juyun Kim, Hyun-Hee Lee, Sais-Beul Lee, Dong-Soo Park, Woo Jun Sul, Young-Su Seo
In the environment, bacteria show close association, such as interspecies interaction, with other bacteria as well as host organisms. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) in gram-negative bacteria is involved in bacterial competition or virulence. The plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae BGR1, causing bacterial panicle blight in rice, has four T6SS gene clusters. The presence of at least one T6SS gene cluster in an organism indicates its distinct role, like in the bacterial and eukaryotic cell targeting system...
July 9, 2020: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kaiyu Yin, Jin Zhang, Jiabao Ma, Peng Jin, Yue Ma, Yuanxing Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is a notorious pathogen infecting diverse kinds of fish and causes substantial economic losses in the global aquaculture industries. The EsrA-EsrB two-component system plays a critical role in the regulation of virulence genes expression, including type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SSs). In this study, the putative regulators of esrB were screened by the transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) technology. As a result, MviN, a lipid II flippase, was identified as a modulator to upregulate esrB and downstream T3/T6SS gene expression in the earlier growth phases while downregulate esrB at the later stages...
June 27, 2020: Microbiological Research
Xiao Fei, Qiuchun Li, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Xinan Jiao
S. Pullorum and S. Enteritidis are closely related in genetic terms, but they show very different pathogenicity and host range. S. Enteritidis infects many different hosts, usually causing acute gastroenteritis, while S. Pullorum is restricted to avian, where it causes systemic disease in young animals. The reason why they differ in host range and pathogenicity is unknown. The core-genome denotes those genes that are present in all strains within a clade, and in the present work, an automated bioinformatics workflow was developed and applied to identify core-genome differences between these two serovars with the aim to identify genome features associated with host specificity of S...
July 1, 2020: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Linlin Hu, Chenchen Wang, Wenjia Lu, Hao Lu, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
The two-component system BaeSR is an extra-cytoplasmic stress response system in Escherichia coli, whose function is to be adapted to environmental stress. Recently, we have identified an active type VI secretion system in porcine extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli PCN033. DNA-protein interactions shows that BaeR directly binds to the promoter region of the T6SS and then induces its expression. Deletion of baeR/baeSR decreased zinc resistance of bacteria. Moreover, T6SS mutant Δhcp1/hcp2/hcp3 is more sensitive than wild type after exposure to external zinc, and complementation of hcp1 largely restored growth defect...
June 27, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ruth E Hernandez, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Sarah J Coulthurst
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a protein translocation nanomachine widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria and used as a means to deliver effectors directly into target bacterial or eukaryotic cells. These effectors have a wide variety of functions within target cells which ultimately help the secreting cell gain a competitive fitness advantage. Here we discuss the different ways in which these effectors can be delivered by the T6SS and the diverse mechanisms by which they exert their noxious action upon recipient cells...
June 27, 2020: Cellular Microbiology
Avatar Joshi, Samar A Mahmoud, Soo-Kyoung Kim, Justyne L Ogdahl, Vincent T Lee, Peter Chien, Fitnat H Yildiz
The LonA (or Lon) protease is a central post-translational regulator in diverse bacterial species. In Vibrio cholerae, LonA regulates a broad range of behaviors including cell division, biofilm formation, flagellar motility, c-di-GMP levels, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), virulence gene expression, and host colonization. Despite LonA's role in cellular processes critical for V. cholerae's aquatic and infectious life cycles, relatively few LonA substrates have been identified. LonA protease substrates were therefore identified through comparison of the proteomes of wild-type and ΔlonA strains following translational inhibition...
June 26, 2020: PLoS Genetics
Ching-Fang Chien, Cheng-Ying Liu, Yew-Yee Lu, You-Hsing Sung, Kuo-Yau Chen, Nai-Chun Lin
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread bacterial nanoweapon used for delivery of toxic proteins into cell targets and contributes to virulence, anti-inflammatory processes, and interbacterial competition. In the model phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ( Pst ) DC3000, two T6SS gene clusters, HSI-I and HSI-II, were identified, but their functions remain unclear. We previously reported that hcp2 , located in HSI-II, is involved in competition with enterobacteria and yeast. Here, we demonstrated that interbacterial competition of Pst DC3000 against several Gram-negative plant-associated bacteria requires mainly HSI-II activity...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephanie Sibinelli-Sousa, Julia T Hespanhol, Gianlucca G Nicastro, Bruno Y Matsuyama, Stephane Mesnage, Ankur Patel, Robson F de Souza, Cristiane R Guzzo, Ethel Bayer-Santos
Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are nanomachines used by bacteria to inject toxic effectors into competitors. The identity and mechanism of many effectors remain unknown. We characterized a Salmonella T6SS antibacterial effector called Tlde1 that is toxic in target-cell periplasm and is neutralized by its cognate immunity protein (Tldi1). Microscopy analysis reveals that cells expressing Tlde1 stop dividing and lose cell envelope integrity. Bioinformatic analysis uncovers similarities between Tlde1 and the catalytic domain of l,d-transpeptidases...
June 23, 2020: Cell Reports
Federico M Ruiz, Juvenal Lopez, C Gastón Ferrara, Elena Santillana, Yanis R Espinosa, Mario F Feldman, Antonio Romero
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a complex molecular nanomachine used by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver diverse effectors into adjacent cells. A membrane complex (MC) anchors this transport system to the bacterial cell wall. One of the proteins forming the MC is TssL, a cytoplasmic protein bound to the inner membrane through a single transmembrane helix. Here, we report the structure of the cytoplasmic N-terminal region of TssL from Acinetobacter baumannii , a bacteria encoding in a single locus a secretion system that is a special case among others T6SSs...
June 22, 2020: Journal of Bacteriology
Rebecca M Kochanowsky, Christine Bradshaw, Isabel Forlastro, S Patricia Stock
Xenorhabdus bovienii strain jolietti (XBJ) is a Gram-negative bacterium that interacts with several organisms as a part of its life cycle. It is a beneficial symbiont of nematodes, a potent pathogen of a wide range of soil-dwelling insects, and also has the ability to kill soil- and insect-associated microbes. Entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes vector XBJ into insects, releasing the bacteria into the insect body cavity. There, XBJ produce a variety of insecticidal toxins and antimicrobials. XBJ's genome also encodes two separate Type Six Secretion Systems (T6SSs), structures that allow bacteria to inject specific proteins directly into other cells, but their roles in the XBJ life cycle are mostly unknown...
June 19, 2020: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fatima Kamal, Xiaoye Liang, Kevin Manera, Tong-Tong Pei, Haeun Kim, Linh G Lam, Alexander Pun, Steven J Hersch, Tao G Dong
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal microbial weapon that injects a large needle-like structure carrying toxic effectors into recipient cells through physical penetration. How recipients respond to physical force and effectors remains elusive. Here, we use a series of effector mutants of Vibrio cholerae to determine how T6SS elicits response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. We show that TseL, but no other effectors or physical puncture, triggers the tit-for-tat response of P. aeruginosa H1-T6SS...
June 16, 2020: Cell Reports
Liming Zheng, Shenghua Wang, Mengyu Ling, Zhengmei Lv, Shuai Lin
Hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) of Salmonella enteritidis is known to be a structural and effector protein of the T6SS, but little is known about the role of Hcp in host cells. In this study, Hcp was expressed by plasmid pEGFP-N1-hcp in BHK-21 cells and the results showed that the subcellular localization of Hcp was predominantly in the cytoplasm of BHK-21 cells. When Hcp was over-expressed by transfecting plasmid pCI-neo-hcp in BHK-21 cells and mRNA sequencing was performed to analyze differentially expressed genes, the results showed a change in the expression levels of 307 mRNAs (fold change > 2, and p  < 0...
July 2020: 3 Biotech
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