liver cancer trial

Shigeharu Nakano, Yuji Eso, Hirokazu Okada, Atsushi Takai, Ken Takahashi, Hiroshi Seno
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death since most patients are diagnosed at advanced stage and the current systemic treatment options using molecular-targeted drugs remain unsatisfactory. However, the recent success of cancer immunotherapies has revolutionized the landscape of cancer therapy. Since HCC is characterized by metachronous multicentric occurrence, immunotherapies that induce systemic and durable responses could be an appealing treatment option. Despite the suppressive milieu of the liver and tumor immunosurveillance escape mechanisms, clinical studies of checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced HCC have yielded promising results...
March 25, 2020: Cancers
Ankeet S Bhatt, Andrew P Ambrosy, Allison Dunning, Adam D DeVore, Javed Butler, Shelby Reed, Adriaan Voors, Randall Starling, Paul W Armstrong, Justin A Ezekowitz, Marco Metra, Adrian F Hernandez, Christopher M O'Connor, Robert J Mentz
AIMS: Non-cardiac comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Our objective was to define the association between non-cardiac comorbidity burden and clinical outcomes, costs of care, and length of stay within a large randomized trial of acute HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with complete medical history for the following comorbidities were included: diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, history of cancer within the last 5 years, chronic renal disease (baseline serum creatinine >3...
March 25, 2020: European Journal of Heart Failure
Karim Boudjema, Clara Locher, Charles Sabbagh, Pablo Ortega-Deballon, Bruno Heyd, Philippe Bachellier, Sylvie Métairie, François Paye, Pascal Bourlier, René Adam, Aude Merdrignac, Christelle Tual, Estelle Le Pabic, Laurent Sulpice, Bernard Meunier, Jean-Marc Regimbeau, Eric Bellissant
OBJECTIVE: To answer whether synchronous colorectal cancer liver metastases (SLM) should be resected simultaneously with primary cancer or should be delayed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Numerous studies have compared both strategies. All were retrospective and conclusions were contradictory. METHODS: Adults with colorectal cancer and resectable SLM were randomly assigned to either simultaneous or delayed resection of the metastases. The primary outcome was the rate of major complications within 60 days following surgery...
March 20, 2020: Annals of Surgery
Anne Monika Muehe, Florian Siedek, Ashok Joseph Theruvath, Jayne Seekins, Sheri L Spunt, Allison Pribnow, Florette Kimberly Hazard, Tie Liang, Heike Daldrup-Link
The composition of lymph nodes in pediatric patients is different from that in adults. Most notably, normal lymph nodes in children contain less macrophages. Therefore, previously described biodistributions of iron oxide nanoparticles in benign and malignant lymph nodes of adult patients may not apply to children. The purpose of our study was to evaluate if the iron supplement ferumoxytol improves the differentiation of benign and malignant lymph nodes in pediatric cancer patients on 18 F-FDG PET/MRI. Methods: We conducted a prospective clinical trial from May 2015 to December 2018 to investigate the value of ferumoxytol nanoparticles for staging of children with cancer with 18 F-FDG PET/MRI...
2020: Theranostics
Navid Hafez, Scott Gettinger
Numerous studies in a variety of solid tumor malignancies have demonstrated prolonged progression-free and overall survival with the addition of definitive local therapies to systemic therapies in patients with a limited number of metastases. A subset of patients with oligometastases (1-5 metastases) may experience long-term disease remission or cure after local therapies such as surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy to metastatic sites. This article reviews the literature in oligometastatic disease and considers a theoretical rationale for a curative approach in a subset of oligometastatic solid tumor patients...
March 2020: Cancer Journal
Naohiro Okano, Daisuke Naruge, Kirio Kawai, Takaaki Kobayashi, Fumio Nagashima, Hitoshi Endou, Junji Furuse
This open-label first-in-human study evaluated JPH203, which is a novel selective L-type amino acid transporter 1 inhibitor. We also evaluated the association between the N-acetyltransferase 2 phenotype and outcomes. Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors received daily intravenous JPH203 treatment for 7 days, followed by a 21-day rest period, at escalating doses of 12-85 mg/m2 . Dose-limiting toxicities were evaluated during the first cycle using a 3 + 3 design. The study enrolled 17 patients, although grade 3 liver dysfunction was detected in one of six patients receiving 60 mg/m2 and in the first patient to receive 85 mg/m2 ...
March 20, 2020: Investigational New Drugs
Xian Sun, Chia-Wei Li, Wei-Jan Wang, Mei-Kuang Chen, Hui Li, Yun-Ju Lai, Jennifer L Hsu, Paul B Koller, Li-Chuan Chan, Pei-Chih Lee, Fang-Ju Cheng, Clinton Yam, Gong-Yan Chen, Mien-Chie Hung
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with c-MET dysregulation may benefit from c-MET inhibitors therapy as inhibition of c-MET activity has emerged as a therapeutic approach against this disease. Although several c-MET inhibitors have been evaluated in multiple clinical trials in lung cancer, their benefits so far have been modest. Thus, furthering our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the lack of success of c-MET inhibitors in clinical trials is essential toward the development of rational and effective combination strategies...
2020: American Journal of Cancer Research
Adam Zayac, Khaldoun Almhanna
Primary liver cancers are a heterogenous collection of diseases with variable natural histories and treatments. This review article will focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder cancer, and the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in their treatment. This will include the currently studied, approved uses as well as the potential future roles of ICIs in the treatment of cancers of the hepatobiliary system through recent updates on ongoing studies and discussion of phase III studies underway...
2020: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Marco Spadafora, Laura Evangelista, Salvatore Fiordoro, Francesco Porcaro, Marilena Sicignano, Luigi Mansi
PURPOSE: The Italian Tailored Assessment of Lung Indeterminate Accidental Nodule (ITALIAN) trial is a trial drawn to determine the performance of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) , stratified for different kind of risk. An additional end-point was to compare the diagnostic information and estimated dosimetry, provided by a segmental PET/CT (s-PET/CT) acquisition instead of a whole body PET/CT (wb-PET/CT), in order to evaluate if segmental thoracic PET/CT can be used in patients with SPN...
March 18, 2020: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
José A González-Regueiro, Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Mariana Cruz-Contreras, Ana M Montaña-Duclaud, Andrea Cavazos-Gómez, Roberta Demichelis-Gómez, Ricardo U Macías-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: A significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis concomitantly develop some type of solid or hematological cancer, including lymphoma. Treatment of patients with lymphoma and cirrhosis is challenging for physicians due to the clinical characteristics related to cirrhosis, including biochemical and functional abnormalities, as well as portal hypertension and lack of scientific evidence, limiting the use of chemotherapy. Currently, experts recommend only offering oncological treatment to patients with compensated cirrhosis...
February 27, 2020: World Journal of Hepatology
Lorena Baboci, Sara Capolla, Federica Di Cintio, Federico Colombo, Prisca Mauro, Michele Dal Bo, Monica Argenziano, Roberta Cavalli, Giuseppe Toffoli, Paolo Macor
The development of nanostructures for therapeutic purpose is rapidly growing, following the results obtained in vivo in animal models and in the clinical trials. Unfortunately, the potential therapeutic efficacy is not completely exploited, yet. This is mainly due to the fast clearance of the nanostructures in the body. Nanoparticles and the liver have a unique interaction because the liver represents one of the major barriers for drug delivery. This interaction becomes even more relevant and complex when the drug delivery strategies employing nanostructures are proposed for the therapy of liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2020: Journal of Oncology
Xiao Meng, Jing Zhou, Cai-Ning Zhao, Ren-You Gan, Hua-Bin Li
Resveratrol is a bioactive compound in many foods. Since its anticancer activity was reported in 1997, its health benefits have been intensively investigated. Resveratrol has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, glucose and lipid regulatory, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular protective effects, therefore, can protect against diverse chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, liver diseases, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. This review summarizes the main findings of resveratrol-related health benefits in recent epidemiological surveys, experimental studies, and clinical trials, highlighting its related molecular mechanisms...
March 14, 2020: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Federico Salomone, Reem Z Sharaiha, Ivo Boškoski
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease in industrialized countries due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. Beyond metabolic complications, a subset of patients with NAFLD develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis, which is emerging as a leading cause of liver transplantation due to progression to cirrhosis and cancer. For these reasons, NAFLD is considered a public health burden. In recent years endoscopic bariatric and metabolic therapies (EBMT) have emerged as safe and effective for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
March 17, 2020: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Mohammad Ghiasloo, Diana Pavlenko, Marzia Verhaeghe, Zoé Van Langenhove, Ortwin Uyttebroek, Giammauro Berardi, Roberto I Troisi, Wim Ceelen
BACKGROUND: The ideal treatment approach for colorectal cancer (CRC) with synchronous liver metastases (SCRLM) remains debated. We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) comparing the 'bowel-first' approach (BFA), simultaneous resection (SIM), and the 'liver-first' approach (LFA). METHODS: A systematic search of comparative studies in CRC with SCRLM was undertaken using the Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and CENTRAL databases. Outcome measures included postoperative complications, 30- and 90-day mortality, chemotherapy use, treatment completion rate, 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival, and 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS)...
March 6, 2020: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Borja Herrero de la Parte, Ignacio García-Alonso, Carmen Mar-Medina, Sira Iturrizaga, Alberto Saiz-López, Leire Hernández-Farto, Consuelo Del Campo-Clemente, Jose Javier Echevarría-Uraga
During tumor development, tissue necrosis appears as a natural phenomenon directly associated with an increase in tumor size. The aim of this study was to assess the use of ultrasound (US) for predicting natural tumor necrosis in a rat liver implant model of colorectal cancer. To achieve this goal, we sought to establish a correlation between US-measured tumor volume, serum enzyme levels and histopathological findings, particularly those regarding necrosis phenomena in liver implants. Under US guidance, CC531 colorectal cancer cells were injected into the left liver lobe of WAG/RijHsd rats...
March 13, 2020: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Krishan R Jethwa, Michael G Haddock, Erik J Tryggestad, Christopher L Hallemeier
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) plays an essential role in the treatment of esophageal cancer as either curative or neoadjuvant therapy. When delivered with conventional photon-based techniques, multiple adjacent organs at risk including the heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, stomach, and bowel, receive considerable radiation dose which may contribute to acute and late adverse events (AEs). Proton beam therapy (PBT) offers a reduction in radiation exposure to these organs and potentially an improvement in the therapeutic ratio...
February 2020: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Simone Krebs, Darren R Veach, Lukas M Carter, Milan Grkovski, Monica Fornier, Michael J Mauro, Martin H Voss, Daniel C Danila, Eva Burnazi, Manda Null, Kevin Staton, Christina Pressl, Bradley Jay Beattie, Pat B Zanzonico, Wolfgang Andreas Weber, Serge K Lyashchenko, Jason S Lewis, Steven M Larson, Mark P S Dunphy
We developed a first-of-kind dasatinib-derivative imaging agent, 18 F-SKI-249380 (18 F-SKI), and validated its use for noninvasive in vivo tyrosine kinase-targeted tumor detection in preclinical models. In this study, we assess the feasibility of using 18 F-SKI for PET imaging in patients with malignancies. Methods: Five patients with a prior diagnosis of breast cancer, renal cell cancer, or leukemia underwent whole-body PET/CT imaging 90 min post-injection of 18 F-SKI (mean: 241.24 ± 116.36 MBq) as part of a prospective study...
March 13, 2020: Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Yoshio Sumida, Masashi Yoneda, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Miwa Kawanaka, Hideki Fujii, Masato Yoneda, Kento Imajo, Hirokazu Takahashi, Yuichiro Eguchi, Masafumi Ono, Yuichi Nozaki, Hideyuki Hyogo, Masahiro Koseki, Yuichi Yoshida, Takumi Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Kamada, Takeshi Okanoue, Atsushi Nakajima, Japan Study Group Of Nafld Jsg-Nafld
Liver-related diseases are the third-leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japan. T2D is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. No pharmacotherapies are established for NASH patients with T2D. Though vitamin E is established as a first-line agent for NASH without T2D, its efficacy for NASH with T2D recently failed to be proven...
March 11, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Grazia Refolo, Caterina Messa, Vito Guerra, Brian Irving Carr, Rosalba D'Alessandro
HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with several etiologic causes, mostly inflammation-associated. Different inflammatory responses in the liver can be triggered by different etiological agents. The inflammatory process can be resolved or be persistent, depending on the etiology and multiple other factors. Chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, genetic alterations, and modifications in cellular signaling are considered to be key processes promoting immunosuppression...
March 10, 2020: Cancers
Mateusz J Swierz, Dawid Storman, Robert P Riemsma, Robert Wolff, Jerzy W Mitus, Michal Pedziwiatr, Jos Kleijnen, Malgorzata M Bala
BACKGROUND: The liver is affected by two of the most common groups of malignant tumours: primary liver tumours and liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma or other extrahepatic primary cancers. Liver metastases are significantly more common than primary liver cancer, and long-term survival rate after radical surgical treatment is approximately 50%. However, R0 resection (resection for cure) is not feasible in the majority of people; therefore, other treatments have to be considered...
March 12, 2020: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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