Shijing Wang, Francesco Leri, Sakina J Rizvi
Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), which is often inadequately treated by traditional antidepressants. The modern framework of anhedonia extends the definition from impaired consummatory pleasure or interest in rewards to a broad spectrum of deficits that impact functions such as reward anticipation, approach motivation, effort expenditure, reward valuation, expectation, and reward-cue association learning. Substantial preclinical and clinical research has explored the neural basis of reward deficits in the context of depression, and has implicated mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry comprising the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, ventral tegmental area, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and other prefrontal cortex regions...
February 22, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Izumi Iida, Kohtarou Konno, Rie Natsume, Manabu Abe, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji Sakimura, Miho Terunuma
Kainate receptors (KARs) are members of the glutamate receptor family that regulate synaptic function in the brain. Although they are known to be associated with psychiatric disorders, how they are involved in these disorders remains unclear. KARs are tetrameric channels assembled from a combination of GluK1-5 subunits. Among these, GluK2 and GluK5 subunits are the major heteromeric subunits in the brain. To determine the functional similarities and differences between GluK2 and GluK5 subunits, we generated GluK2 KO and GluK5 KO mice on a C57BL/6 N background, a well-characterized inbred strain, and compared their behavioral phenotypes...
February 22, 2021: Behavioural Brain Research
Miren Gabilondo, Jesús Loza, Angel Pereda, Ohiane Caballero, Nerea Zamora, Ania Gorostiza, Javier Mar
OBJECTIVES: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a key factor in making anticoagulant treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the HRQL of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation by treatment type: direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional observational study with clinical practice data, gathering demographic and clinical variables. HRQL was measured using the 5-level 5-dimension EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L)...
December 2021: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Ga Bin Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Ye Jin Jeon, Sun Jae Jung
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and longitudinal sleep quality patterns are mediated by depressive symptoms. METHODS: We utilized data on 3,347 participants in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study aged 40-69 years at baseline from 2001-2002 who were followed up for 16 years. A group-based modeling approach was used to identify sleep quality trajectories using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (year 2, 6, 8, 10, and 12)...
February 25, 2021: Sleep
Helen M Nabwera, Vishna Shah, Rowena Neville, Fatou Sosseh, Mariama Saidykhan, Fatou Faal, Bakary Sonko, Omar Keita, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Belen Torondel
Inadequate menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices have been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to describe MHM practices among schoolgirls from rural Gambia and assess risk factors associated with urogenital infections and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent schoolgirls in thirteen schools in rural Gambia. A questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, MHM practices and clinical symptoms of reproductive and urinary tract infections (UTIs)...
2021: PloS One
Sónia Ferreira, Mafalda Machado Sousa, Pedro Silva Moreira, Nuno Sousa, Maria Picó-Pérez, Pedro Morgado
BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has put a lot of physical and psychological pressure on healthcare professionals, including physicians at the frontline. Thus, evaluating the mental health status of physicians during the current pandemic is important to define future preventive guidelines from healthcare stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we intended to study alterations in the mental health status of Portuguese physicians working at the COVID-19 frontline, and potential sociodemographic factors influencing this status...
January 14, 2021: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Rodman Turpin, Typhanye Dyer, Lakeshia Watson, Kenneth Mayer
Homophobia is associated with sexual risk among sexual minorities, including Black sexual minority men, though experienced homophobia may differ across sexual identities. We conducted latent class analysis of sexual identities and experienced homophobia associated with sexual risk, and tested mediators of this association. We used longitudinal data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Study 061 (n = 1,553). We generated rate ratios between baseline latent classes of experienced homophobia and sexual identity and 12-month outcomes: Condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), number of partners, and transactional sex...
February 25, 2021: Journal of Sex Research
Sandeep Grover, Anish Shouan, Subho Chakrabarti, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Aseem Mehra
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for different treatment strategies in patients with clozapine resistant schizophrenia (CRS). AIM: To determine the effectiveness of ECT in patients with clozapine resistant schizophrenia and compare the same with a group of patients with non-clozapine resistant schizophrenia, receiving ECT. RESULTS: Out of a total of 68 patients with schizophrenia, 27 (38.66%) of patients had CRS. With 6 ECTs, there was a significant reduction in PANSS positive, negative, general psychopathology, prosocial score and depression symptoms in the CRS ( p  < 0...
February 25, 2021: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Jeffrey D Lambert, Lewis R Elliott, Adrian H Taylor, Paul Farrand, Anne M Haase, Colin J Greaves
OBJECTIVE: Delivery is one of the most common ways of assessing fidelity in behavioral interventions. However, there is a lack of research reporting on how well an intervention protocol reflects its proposed theoretical principles (design fidelity). This study presents a systematic method for assessing design fidelity and applies it to the eMotion web-based intervention targeting physical activity and depression. METHOD: The eMotion intervention comprises of 13 web-based modules, designed according to an underlying intervention map...
March 2021: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Micah Gerhardt, Xin Feng, Meingold Hiu-Ming Chan
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the psychosocial processes related to the health outcomes of depression and obesity. Specifically, the mediating role of participant's trait conscientiousness on the relation between early experiences of paternal/maternal warmth and later depressive symptoms/obesity across 20 years and how this relationship is moderated by age across adulthood. METHOD: The current study utilized a national longitudinal data set, Midlife in the United States...
March 2021: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Sara Semborski, Benjamin Henwood, Harmony Rhoades, Tyler Mason, Suzanne Wenzel, Eric Rice
Skills in emotional regulation are vitally important for enabling homeless young adults to navigate the complex and chaotic settings associated with homelessness. The current study seeks to test the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of the Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS-18) in a sample of formerly and currently homeless young adults. Data come from a study of HIV risk among young adults who have experienced homelessness, including both those currently experiencing homelessness (n = 99) and in permanent housing (n = 120), collected between 2017 and 2019 in Los Angeles, CA...
February 25, 2021: Psychological Assessment
Tania T Von Visger, Diana Lee, Amy Lyons, Yu-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: The medical management of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) has advanced, with few evidence-based recommendations about psychosocial and behavioral health interventions. There is also a lack of comprehensive understanding of PH psychosocial and behavioral health needs. Some psychosocial and behavioral health interventions have been tested; however, there is a gap in the systematic evaluation of nonpharmacological complementary approaches to augment PH management when addressing psychosocial and behavioral health needs...
March 2021: Nursing Research
Patricia A Kinser, Leroy R Thacker, Amy Rider, Sara Moyer, Ananda B Amstadter, Suzanne E Mazzeo, Susan Bodnar-Deren, Angela Starkweather
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological and accessible therapies that engage individuals in self-management are needed to address depressive symptoms in pregnancy. The 12-week "Mindful Moms" intervention was designed to empower pregnant women with depressive symptomatology to create personal goals and engage in mindful physical activity using prenatal yoga. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal pilot study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of the "Mindful Moms" intervention in pregnant women with depressive symptoms...
March 2021: Nursing Research
Mary K Adams, Mary Byrn, Sue Penckofer, Fred Bryant, Angelica Almonte
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine 1) discrepancies between expectations of motherhood and the experience of motherhood in the first 6 to 12 weeks postpartum, 2) relationships between maternal quality of life, mood, parental attitudes, and expectations, and 3) predictors of quality of life. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a descriptive, correlational design. The sample consisted of first-time mothers who were at or beyond 34 weeks pregnant with no reported history of anxiety or depression...
March 2021: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
R Sommer, M Augustin, C Hilbring, S Ständer, M Hubo, H J Hutt, C C von Stülpnagel, N da Silva
BACKGROUND: 60-90 % of patients with psoriasis suffer from pruritus and 65 % report itching as one of the most burdensome symptoms, raising significant quality of life (QoL) impairments. However, pruritus is not only an intrapersonal symptom but also a psychosocial interactive phenomenon and little is known about the effects of itching on interpersonal experiences. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the disease burden and patient needs between patients with none/mild vs...
February 25, 2021: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Ragne G H Gjengedal, Suzanne E Lagerveld, Silje E Reme, Kåre Osnes, Kenneth Sandin, Odin Hjemdal
Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Return-to-Work Self-efficacy Questionnaire (RTW-SE) in a Norwegian sample of patients with common mental disorders. The secondary aim was to provide validated cut-off scores for the RTW-SE. Methods Among patients receiving work-focused therapy (N = 626), the RTW-SE was measured pre-and post-treatment, and work status was assessed up to one-year post-treatment. The factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity were assessed. Furthermore, post-treatment cut-off scores were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for patients on sick leave at baseline (n = 314) and at the end of treatment (n = 145)...
February 25, 2021: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Maria Molinaro, Heather R Adams, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Esau G Mbewe, Pelekelo P Kabundula, Milimo Mweemba, Gretchen L Birbeck, David R Bearden
Depression is common among people living with HIV. Multiple studies demonstrate a link between depression and cognitive dysfunction in adults with HIV, but the association has been minimally investigated in children and adolescents with HIV in Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis as part of the HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Zambia study, a prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia. We included 208 perinatally-infected children with HIV ages 8-17 taking antiretroviral therapy and 208 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) controls...
February 25, 2021: AIDS and Behavior
Deborah L Jones, Jamile Ballivian, Violeta J Rodriguez, Claudia Uribe, Diego Cecchini, Ana S Salazar, Isabel Cassetti, Maria L Alcaide
The COVID-19 pandemic poses a risk to mental health and may disproportionately affect people living with HIV (PLWH). This study examined the interaction of social support and resilient coping in predicting depressive symptoms among PLWH. PLWH residing in Buenos Aires, Argentina and in Miami, Florida (US) were asked to complete an anonymous survey on the impact of COVID-19. Statistical analysis included ordinary least squares regression. A total of 1,554 participants were included. Mean age was 47.30 years; 63...
February 25, 2021: AIDS and Behavior
Edmond D Shenassa, Lea G Widemann, Cole D Hunt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Informed by the evidence of links between physiology of stress and parturition, we review recent epidemiologic evidence (2015-2020) of antenatal depression as a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). We also explain racial/ethnic disparities in depression and preterm birth as a consequence of structural racism. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic evidence is consistent in linking antepartum depression with an elevated risk of PTB. Antidepressant usage has been linked with an elevated risk of PTB...
February 25, 2021: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rama S Singh, Karun K Singh, Shiva M Singh
Sexual dimorphism or sex bias in diseases and mental disorders have two biological causes: sexual selection and sex hormones. We review the role of sexual selection theory and bring together decades of molecular studies on the variation and evolution of sex-biased genes and provide a theoretical basis for the causes of sex bias in disease and health. We present a Sexual Selection-Sex Hormone theory and show that male-driven evolution, including sexual selection, leads to: (1) increased male vulnerability due to negative pleiotropic effects associated with male-driven sexual selection and evolution; (2) increased rates of male-driven mutations and epimutations in response to early fitness gains and at the cost of late fitness; and (3) enhanced female immunity due to antagonistic responses to mutations that are beneficial to males but harmful to females, reducing female vulnerability to diseases and increasing the thresholds for disorders such as autism...
February 25, 2021: Journal of Molecular Evolution
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