Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Zsófia Bognár, Katinka Tóth, Vivien Reicher, Anna Kis, Enikő Kubinyi
The shape of the cranium is one of the most notable physical changes induced in domestic dogs through selective breeding and is measured using the cephalic index (CI). High CI (a ratio of skull width to skull length > 60) is characterized by a short muzzle and flat face and is referred to as brachycephaly. Brachycephalic dogs display some potentially harmful changes in neuroanatomy, and there are implications for differences in behavior, as well. The path from anatomy to cognition, however, has not been charted in its entirety...
September 24, 2023: Brain Structure & Function
V E Khomutov, I V Kolesnikova, E N Mingazova, Yu A Bespyatykh
The phenomenon of déjà vu (DV) is of interest, occurring in 97% of healthy individuals, while DV can be a manifestation of a number of pathologies, such as Charles Bonnet syndrome, depression, schizophrenia, or temporal lobe epilepsy. Most cases of DV type epiphenomena are associated with hippocampal sclerosis, while up to 90% of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis are drug resistant. Despite the success of pharmacotherapy, the frequency of «uncontrolled» epilepsy in industrialized countries that adhere to modern standards of treatment is from 30 to 40%, and this percentage is higher among patients with symptomatic and cryptogenic forms than among patients with idiopathic epilepsy (respectively: 40% and 26%)...
August 2023: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Bipin Thapa, Suman Sapkota, Anil Khanal, Binod Kumar Aryal, Yifei Hu
BACKGROUND: Medical undergraduates are more prone to emotional distress in comparison to the general population and non-medical undergraduates. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among undergraduate medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 204 medical students in a medical institute in Kathmandu. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-42 was used to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms...
September 8, 2023: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Tonguc Demir Berkol, Ipek Özönder Ünal
The comorbidity between the major depressive disorder (MDD) and the social anxiety disorder (SAD) is significantly prevalent, necessitating a nuanced understanding of their overlapping clinical characteristics and shared etiological factors, including inflammatory biomarkers. To address this, we conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2021 to June 2022, encompassing 204 outpatients diagnosed with MDD-SAD comorbidity. We employed various psychometric assessments, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)...
September 23, 2023: Biomol Biomed
Sara Pind Pilegaard, Lone Schmidt, Sacha Stormlund, Emily Koert, Jeanette Wulff Bogstad, Lisbeth Prætorius, Henriette Svarre Nielsen, Nina la Cour Freiesleben, Negjyp Sopa, Anna Klajnbard, Peter Humaidan, Christina Bergh, Anne Lis Mikkelsen Englund, Kristine Løssl, Anja Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is the psychosocial wellbeing affected in women and men shortly after allocation to a freeze-all strategy with postponement of embryo transfer compared to a fresh transfer strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: In general, psychosocial wellbeing (i.e. emotional reactions to the treatment, quality-of-life, infertility-related stress, and marital benefit) was similar in women and men allocated to a freeze-all versus those allocated to a fresh-transfer strategy 6 days after disclosure of treatment strategy (i...
September 23, 2023: Human Reproduction
Matthew D Campbell, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, David J Marcinek
Mitochondria adapt to increased energy demands during muscle contraction by acutely altering metabolite fluxes and substrate oxidation. With age, an impaired mitochondrial metabolic response may contribute to reduced exercise tolerance and decreased skeletal muscle mass, specific force, increased overall fatty depositions in the skeletal muscle, frailty and depressed energy maintenance. We hypothesized that elevated energy stress in mitochondria with age alters the capacity of mitochondria to utilize different substrates following muscle contraction...
September 23, 2023: Journal of Physiology
Klaudia Paula Czorniej, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Wojciech Kułak
BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are currently among the most common psychiatric diagnoses. This study aimed to analyze self-assessment of anxiety disorders, depression, and quality of life among healthcare personnel working during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on sociodemographic sources and psychological indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study covered a group of 318 healthcare professionals from Poland. The study used a self-created questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, WHOQOL-BREF, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), and Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale...
September 24, 2023: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jun-Ya Wang, Wen-Cai Weng, Ting-Qi Wang, Yue Liu, De-Lai Qiu, Mao-Cheng Wu, Chun-Ping Chu
The noradrenergic fibers of the locus coeruleus, together with mossy fibers and climbing fibers, comprise the three types of cerebellar afferents that modulate the cerebellar neuronal circuit. We previously demonstrated that noradrenaline (NA) modulated synaptic transmission in the mouse cerebellar cortex via adrenergic receptors (ARs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of NA on facial stimulation-evoked cerebellar molecular layer interneuron (MLI)-Purkinje cell (PC) synaptic transmission in urethane-anesthetized mice using an in vivo cell-attached recording technique and a pharmacological method...
September 23, 2023: Scientific Reports
Desiree Eide, Rebecca McDonald, Aleksi Hamina, Thomas Clausen, Ingvild Odsbu, Svetlana Skurtveit
BACKGROUND: Among individuals receiving buprenorphine or methadone as opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants, including prescription drugs, can increase risk of overdose. We aimed to 1) determine the prevalence of use of high-risk prescription drugs (opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-related drugs, and gabapentinoids) among OMT patients, 2) calculate its associations with different mental health and pain-related diagnoses, and 3) compare prevalence of concomitant use with the general population...
September 21, 2023: International Journal on Drug Policy
Wenhua Lu, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2023: Journal of Pediatrics
Vanessa Pitre, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R Bouchard
Exercise is the single most effective strategy to reduce the risk of falls. Online classes have grown in popularity, but the benefits of online classes remain unknown. Zoomers on the Go is a peer-led 12-week exercise program offered twice weekly to adults 50+ years old. The main outcome was lower body strength measured by the 30-s chair stand test. Other outcomes included dropout, attendance, balance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and perceived health. A total of 74 participants (age 66.3 ± 7.1 years) in the online group and 84 participants in the in-person group (age 67...
September 23, 2023: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Eva Courtois, Jaqueline Wendland
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the childbirth experience by primiparous fathers living in France on their level of postnatal depression, parental self-efficacy, and postnatal sense of security. METHODS: 250 men answered sociodemographic questions and filled up the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the First-Time Father Questionnaire (FTFQ), the Parent Expectations Survey (PES) and the Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security Instrument (PPSSi)...
September 21, 2023: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Carlijn Gn Voorend, Marjolijn van Buren, Noeleen C Berkhout-Byrne, Angèle Pm Kerckhoffs, Mathijs van Oevelen, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Edo Richard, Willem Jan W Bos, Simon P Mooijaart
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Apathy reflects diminished motivation, goal-directed behavior, and emotions, as well as less engagement in social interactions. Apathy overlaps with depression and is associated with cognitive decline. In the older individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), both depression and cognitive impairments are common, but apathy symptoms have been underreported. We investigated the occurrence of apathy symptoms and their associations with physical- and cognitive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and mortality in older patients with CKD...
September 21, 2023: American Journal of Kidney Diseases
Hassan Amouzad Mahdirejei, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Forouzan Fattahi Masrour
Major depression disorder is a debilitating psychiatric disease affecting millions of people worldwide. This disorder is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine are first-line drugs for treating depression-related disorders, but not all patients respond well to these antidepressants. This study aimed to evaluate whether fluoxetine combined with aerobic exercise can affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, and brain inflammation in mice...
September 21, 2023: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Teresa Treacy, Yvvonne O'Meara, Alasdair L Henry, Sarah F Lensen, Michaela J Higgins, Martha Hickey, Donal J Brennan
AIMS: This study will assess the efficacy of digital CBT for insomnia (dCBT-I) compared to sleep hygiene education (SHE) for the management of insomnia in women with cancer. BACKGROUND: 30% of patients with cancer meet insomnia diagnostic criteria and this can be detrimental to health outcomes. Insomnia disorder comprises a dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality characterized by difficulty initiating sleep, frequent awakenings, or early morning wakening without the ability to return to sleep, at least 3 nights per week, for at least 3 months, causing significant impairment or distress in areas of functioning...
September 21, 2023: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Shujie Zhang, Zitian Liu, Han Zhang, Xiaonian Zhou, Xiuming Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaofan Miao, Yao Zhu, Weimin Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qing Gan Zi Shen Decoction (QGZS) is a traditional Chinese formula. It has been extensively used for decades in the treatment of hypertension combined with metabolic diseases, but its cardioprotective effects and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of QGZS in an animal model of obese hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were utilized as an animal model to examine the effects of a high-fat diet and two concentrations of QGZS...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Min-Zhe Zhang, Jun-Xia Shi, Hui Li, Rui Chen, Miao-Bing Zheng, Li-Jing Yan, Neng-Jian Wu, Qi-Qiang He
BACKGROUND: There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). However, studies on the lifestyle-based interventions in patients with SMD are limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of an educational lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological health among Chinese community-dwelling overweight/obese patients with SMD. METHODS: Community-dwelling overweight/obese patients with SMD was recruited from Shenzhen, China in October 2020...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xin-Yu Hao, Yong-Xin Guo, Jing-Sheng Lou, Jiang-Bei Cao, Liu Miao, Tian-Yue Mi, Ao Li, Shao-Hua You, Fu-Yang Cao, Yan-Hong Liu, Hao Li, Zhi-Kang Zhou, Jun-Mei Xu, Qing-Ping Wu, Xiao-Ping Gu, Di-Fen Wang, Yu-Ming Peng, Li-Bin Ma, Li-Yun Wang, Li Tong, Wei-Dong Mi
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has a heavy impact on the mental health of elderly surgical patients worldwide. In particular, the elderly patients faced considerable psychological stress due to various environmental and medical factors during the outbreak. This study aims to examine changes in mental health trends among non-cardiac surgical patients aged 65 and above in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This multi-center, convenient sampling, longitudinal observational study was conducted from April 1, 2020 to April 30, 2022...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
SuHyuk Chi, Young Eun Mok, Jong-Ha Lee, Sang-Il Suh, Changsu Han, Moon-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to gather a homogeneous sample of adolescent patients to analyze the differences in functional connectivity and brain network parameters between suicidal and non-suicidal major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using a data-driven whole-brain approach. METHODS: Patients recruited at the psychiatry department of Korea University Guro Hospital from November 2014 to March 2020 were diagnosed with MDD, were 13-18 years old, had IQ scores >80, had no family history of psychotic or personality disorders, had no smoking or alcohol consumption history, and were drug-naïve to psychotropic medication...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jennifer A Mattera, Allegra X Campagna, Sherryl H Goodman, Maria A Gartstein, Gregory R Hancock, Zachary N Stowe, D Jeffrey Newport, Bettina T Knight
BACKGROUND: Developmental shifts in infant temperament predict distal outcomes including emerging symptoms of psychopathology in childhood. Thus, it is critical to gain insight into factors that shape these developmental shifts. Although parental depression and anxiety represent strong predictors of infant temperament in cross-sectional research, few studies have examined how these factors influence temperament trajectories across infancy. METHODS: We used latent growth curve modeling to examine whether mothers' and fathers' anxiety and depression, measured in two ways - as diagnostic status and symptom severity - serve as unique predictors of developmental shifts in infant temperament from 3 to 12 months...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
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