Ramdas Ransing, Prerna Kukreti, Pracheth Raghuveer, Mahesh Mahadevaiah, Manju Puri, Harish Pemde, Ravichandra Karkal, Suvarna Patil, Abhay Nirgude, Dinesh Kataria, Shraddha Sagvekar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Lack of recognition in national programs, poor referral system, and non-availability of trained human resources are the important barriers for the delivery of perinatal depression (PND) services in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). To address this there is an urgent need to develop an integrative and non-specialist-based stepped care model. As part of its research thrust on target areas of India's National Mental Health Programme (NMHP), the Indian Council of Medical Research funded a research project on the outcome of PND at four sites...
October 24, 2020: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Deborah Benevenuto, Kirti Saxena, Gabriel R Fries, Samira S Valvassori, Ramandeep Kahlon, Johanna Saxena, Sherin Kurian, Cristian P Zeni, Iram Kazimi, Giselli Scaini, Jair C Soares, João Quevedo
BACKGROUND: There has been growing scientific evidence in recent years that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with alterations in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. However, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on adults. Thus, this preliminary study investigated differences in the peripheral levels of KYN metabolites in children and adolescents with BD, unaffected offspring of parents with BD, and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 49 youths with BD, 19 bipolar offspring, and 31 HCs...
October 24, 2020: Bipolar Disorders
Nashwa M Saied, Gehan S Georgy, Rokaya M Hussien, Wafaa A Hassan
Anti-inflammatory products may represent the future for depressive disorder therapies. Curcumin (CUR) is a polyphenol and an active component of the turmericplant Curcuma longa. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CUR,as a natural anti-inflammatory agent, on neuro-inflammation related to depression and compare it with the effects of fluoxetine (FLX) and estradiol (E2 ) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.The experimental animals were divided into the following five treatment groups (n=10): sham-operated, OVX, OVX-E2 (100 μg/kg, i...
October 24, 2020: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Fabiana Monteiro, Ana Fonseca, Marco Pereira, Maria C Canavarro
OBJECTIVE: Exploring a wide range of factors associated with flourishing and with the absence of depressive symptoms among postpartum women. METHODS: A sample of 661 postpartum women completed a set of questionnaires assessing sociodemographic and infant-related data, flourishing, psychological flexibility, self-compassion, resilience, and maternal confidence. RESULTS: Younger infant age, higher levels of maternal confidence, and resilience increased the likelihood of flourishing...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Roger S McIntyre
A concatenation of study findings published during the last decade have brought into cold clarity the predominance and debilitating nature of depressive symptoms in adults with bipolar disorders (BD). For example, results from longitudinal, naturalistic studies in BD have concluded that for the majority of affected individuals, depressive symptoms manifest as "polarity first" and "polarity predominant" 1 . A separate body of literature indicates that the depressive symptoms of the adult with BD are the principal detractor of quality of life, mediator of psychosocial and workplace impairment, and identified by persons with life lived with BD as a priority therapeutic target...
October 24, 2020: Bipolar Disorders
Preeya J Patel, Christian Weidenfeller, Andrew P Jones, Jens Nilsson, Jay Hsu
INTRODUCTION: A post hoc analysis of a double-blind (DB) active control trial and an open-label extension (OLE) study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of lurasidone in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: In the DB trial, patients were randomised to receive lurasidone or risperidone for 12 months. In OLE, all patients received lurasidone for an additional 6 months. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated. Efficacy assessments included relapse rate (DB trial only), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale...
October 24, 2020: Neurology and Therapy
Rosa Marcos-Nájera, María Fe Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ma Asunción Lara, Laura Navarrete, Huynh-Nhu Le
The prevalence and risk factors associated with prenatal depression among Spanish-speaking women in Spain and Mexico are examined and compared through a cross-cultural study. The study utilizes secondary data from 563 participants who received prenatal care in Madrid (N = 283) and in Mexico City (N = 280), assessed with the PHQ-9 and the PDPI-R. Spanish women reported a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms (10.0%) than Mexican women (20.3%). Regression analyses showed that previous prenatal anxiety and lack of family emotional support were common risk factors to the two countries...
October 24, 2020: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Tiffany R Glynn, Noelle A Mendez, Deborah L Jones, Sannisha K Dale, Adam W Carrico, Daniel J Feaster, Allan E Rodriguez, Steven A Safren
Individuals living with HIV report disproportionately high levels of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, both which have been associated with suboptimal ART adherence. Often conflated, the question arises as to which construct is driving subsequent HIV self-care behavior. Given the HIV disparities among Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals, and that Miami is a geographic region with a high racial/ethnic minority make up and a unique socioeconomic environment, it is important to explore factors related to HIV outcomes in Miami to mitigate its uncontrolled epidemic...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Ragnhild Stokke Lundetræ, Ingvild West Saxvig, Sverre Lehmann, Bjørn Bjorvatn
PURPOSE: The objective was to assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized a decrease in symptoms at follow-up, but that improvement relied on CPAP adherence. METHODS: The sample comprised 468 patients (mean age 55.5 years (SD = 12.0), 72% men) with OSA who received CPAP at a Norwegian hospital. OSA was diagnosed according to standard respiratory polygraphy...
October 24, 2020: Sleep & Breathing
Jessica Mayumi Maruyama, Iná S Santos, Tiago Neuenfeld Munhoz, Alicia Matijasevich
There is growing evidence that adolescent positive attributes and social aptitudes are associated with beneficial outcomes, including higher educational attainment and lower risk of later psychiatric disorder. Although maternal depression is a well-known risk factor for a variety of offspring adverse outcomes, less is known on its repercussion on children's positive behavioral traits. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of maternal depression trajectories on offspring positive attributes and social aptitudes, testing sex-moderated models for the studied association...
October 24, 2020: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Azadeh Ghaheri, Reza Omani-Samani, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Mostafa Hosseini, Saman Maroufizadeh
Background: The most common mental disorders in infertile patients are depression and anxiety. The four-item Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is a widely used tool that consists of the PHQ-2 depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) scales. Given that PHQ-4 has not been validated in infertile patients, this study aimed to examine its reliability and validity in this population. Materials and Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 539 infertile patients from a referral fertility centre in Tehran, Iran...
October 2020: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Nana Matoba, Michael I Love, Jason L Stein
Human brain structure traits have been hypothesized to be broad endophenotypes for neuropsychiatric disorders, implying that brain structure traits are comparatively "closer to the underlying biology." Genome-wide association studies from large sample sizes allow for the comparison of common variant genetic architectures between traits to test the evidence supporting this claim. Endophenotypes, compared to neuropsychiatric disorders, are hypothesized to have less polygenicity, with greater effect size of each susceptible SNP, requiring smaller sample sizes to discover them...
October 24, 2020: Human Brain Mapping
Chelsey Solar, Allison M Halat, R Ross MacLean, Haseena Rajeevan, David A Williams, Sarah L Krein, Alicia A Heapy, Matthew J Bair, Robert D Kerns, Diana M Higgins
Internet-based interventions for chronic pain have demonstrated efficacy and may address access barriers to care. Participant characteristics have been shown to affect engagement with these programs; however, limited information is available about the relationship between participant characteristics and engagement with internet-based programs for self-management of chronic pain. The current study examined relationships between demographic and clinical characteristics and engagement with the Pain EASE program, a self-directed, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for veterans with chronic low back pain (cLBP)...
October 24, 2020: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Jia-Luo Huang, Run-Zhu Fan, Yi-Hong Zou, Lei Zhang, Sheng Yin, Gui-Hua Tang
Acute lung injury (ALI) involves series of inflammatory pathologies and cause high morbidity. Salviplenoid A (SA) was a new sesquiterpenoid from the traditional inflammatory herb Salvia plebeia. In our previous study, SA exhibited antiinflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. However, the extensive effects of SA in human cells and in vivo and the active mechanisms are unclear. Thus, in this study, we sought to access its effects in vitro and in vivo and to investigate its mechanisms. SA was proved to inhibit the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human cell types, including pulmonary epithelial cells and endothetial cells...
October 23, 2020: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Adi H Khassawneh, Abdallah Alzoubi, Aws G Khasawneh, Nour Abdo, Dania Abu-Naser, Abdel-Hameed Al-Mistarehi, Malak F Albattah, Khalid A Kheirallah
BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and clinical depression. However, little is known about the effect of treating one condition on the control of the other. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and to assess the efficacy and feasibility of escitalopram treatment of depression on their metabolic control parameters. METHODS: T2DM patients attending primary care clinics in the North of Jordan were enrolled in a cross-sectional study during the period from February to December 2019 (n=157)...
October 23, 2020: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Ye Cao, Adrian Ujin Yap, Jie Lei, Min-Juan Zhang, Kai-Yuan Fu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in psychological states and sleep quality in patients with various Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subtypes, and to ascertain the relationships between TMD duration with psychological and sleep impairments. METHODS: A total of 830 TMD patients were recruited categorized into pain-related (PT), intra-articular (IT), and combined (CT) TMD groups. Each group was further divided into acute and chronic subtypes. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess emotional states and sleep problems...
October 23, 2020: Oral Diseases
Moon-Jong Kim, Jihoon Kim, Hong-Seop Kho
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of medication therapies in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to identify the clinical characteristics that may affect the efficacy of prescribed medications. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 769 patients with oral burning sensations. Of these patients, 420 patients diagnosed as the primary BMS received an "Initial Approach" that involved a detailed explanation about its etiopathophysiology, self-care instruction, and use of an oral lubricant...
October 24, 2020: Oral Diseases
Osvaldo P Almeida, Hema Patel, Rachael Kelly, Andrew Ford, Leon Flicker, Suzanne Robinson, Ricardo Araya, Simon Gilbody, Sandra Thompson
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test if a behavioural activation (BA) program was more effective than usual care at reducing the risk of conversion to major depression over 52 weeks among adults aged 65 years or older living in rural Western Australia. Secondary aims were to test if participants assigned to the BA intervention experienced greater decline in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms than older adults treated with usual care over 26 and 52 weeks, as well as greater improvement in physical and mental health-related quality of life...
October 23, 2020: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Shanshan Zhang, Ying Zong, Zhonggan Ren, Juntao Hu, Xinyuan Wu, Honglei Xiao, Song Qin, Guomin Zhou, Yuanyuan Ma, Yaodong Zhang, Jin Yu, Kaidi Wang, Guocai Lu, Qiong Liu
In the brain, NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome is mainly expressed in microglia located in the hippocampus and other mood-regulated regions, which are particularly susceptible to stress. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of activation products may contribute to the development of depressive disorder and memory deficits. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key factor mediating inflammation and major depressive disorder (MDD)...
October 23, 2020: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tadashi Shin, Yuichi Hiraoka, Tokiwa Yamasaki, Jamey D Marth, Josef M Penninger, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Kohichi Tanaka, Satoshi Kofuji, Hiroshi Nishina
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are constitutively activated in mammalian brains and are indispensable for their development and neural functions. MKK7 is an upstream activator of all JNKs. However, whether the common JNK signaling pathway regulates the brain's control of social behavior remains unclear. Here, we show that female mice in which Mkk7 is deleted specifically in mature neurons (Mkk7flox/flox Syn-Cre mice) give birth to a normal number of pups but fail to raise them due to a defect in pup retrieval...
October 23, 2020: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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