Q Leyrolle, F Decoeur, G Briere, C Amadieu, A R A A Quadros, I Voytyuk, C Lacabanne, A Benmamar-Badel, J Bourel, A Aubert, A Sere, F Chain, L Schwendimann, B Matrot, T Bourgeois, S Grégoire, J G Leblanc, A De Moreno De Leblanc, P Langella, G R Fernandes, L Bretillon, C Joffre, R Uricaru, P Thebault, P Gressens, J M Chatel, S Layé, A Nadjar
Maternal immune activation (MIA) and poor maternal nutritional habits are risk factors for the occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Human studies show the deleterious impact of prenatal inflammation and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake on neurodevelopment with long-lasting consequences on behavior. However, the mechanisms linking maternal nutritional status to MIA are still unclear, despite their relevance to the etiology of NDD. We demonstrate here that low maternal n-3 PUFA intake worsens MIA-induced early gut dysfunction, including modification of gut microbiota composition and higher local inflammatory reactivity...
August 11, 2020: Neuropsychopharmacology
Harshini Weerasinghe, Ana Traven
Immune cells, including macrophages and monocytes, remodel their metabolism and have specific nutritional needs when dealing with microbial pathogens. While we are just beginning to understand immunometabolism in fungal infections, emerging themes include recognition of fungal cell surface molecule driving metabolic remodelling to increase glycolysis, the critical role of glycolysis in the production of antifungal cytokines and fungicidal effector molecules, and the need for maintaining host glucose homeostasis to defeat fungal infections...
August 8, 2020: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Sul-U Park, Chan-Ju Lee, So-Eun Kim, Ye-Hoon Lim, Hyeong-Un Lee, Sang-Sik Nam, Ho Soo Kim, Sang-Soo Kwak
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] serves as a sustainable food source and ensures nutrition security in the face of climate change. Recently, farmers have developed increased interest in replacing rice with sweetpotato in paddy fields for higher income. However, sweetpotato is more susceptible to flooding stress than other abiotic stresses including drought and salinity. Here, we selected flooding tolerant sweetpotato cultivars based on biochemical characterization. Young seedlings of 33 sweetpotato cultivars were subjected to flooding stress for 20 days, and Yeonjami (YJM) was identified as the most flooding tolerant sweetpotato cultivar...
August 3, 2020: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mirjam Ea Scheffer-Rath, Annemieke M Boot
Vitamin D is important for skeletal growth, bone mineralization and dental health. Vitamin D deficiency is reported in many countries, may have several causes and can cause rickets in children. A guideline with recommendations of vitamin D supplementation to prevent nutritional rickets was published recently. The vitamin D receptor is present in many cells of the body including cells of the immune system. Many studies have been published on associations between vitamin D deficiency and extra skeletal effects, mainly without proof of causality in intervention studies...
August 2020: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Paulina Wawrzyniak, Nazek Noureddine, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Eliana Lucchinetti, Stefanie D Krämer, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Zaugg, Martin Hersberger
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic relapsing inflammation in the intestine. Given their role in regulation of inflammation, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) represent a potential supplementary therapeutic approach to current drug regimens used for IBD. Mechanistically, there is ample evidence for an anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effect of long-chain n-3 PUFAs after they incorporate into cell membrane phospholipids. They disrupt membrane rafts and when released from the membrane they suppress inflammatory signaling by activating PPAR-γ and FFA4; furthermore, they shift the lipid mediator profile from pro-inflammatory eicosanoids to specialized pro-resolving mediators...
August 11, 2020: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Martin Hoenigl, John Lin, Malcolm Finkelman, Yonglong Zhang, Maile Y Karris, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, Leah Burke, Byron Richard, Thaidra Gaufin, Stéphane Isnard, Jean-Pierre Routy, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: (1-3)-b-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and, in the absence of invasive fungal infection, a novel biomarker for microbial translocation of endogenous fungal products from the gastrointestinal tract into systemic circulation. However, its value as a marker of fungal translocation is limited by a concern that plant BDG-rich food influences blood BDG levels. METHODS: We conducted a pilot clinical trial to evaluate the impact of a standardized oral BDG challenge on blood BDG levels in participants with and without elevated microbial translocation...
August 11, 2020: Mycoses
Yueqin Xie, Jie Liu, Huan Wang, Junyi Luo, Ting Chen, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Jiajie Sun
Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum...
2020: PloS One
Priscila Berti Zanella, Camila Coutinho Àvila, Fernanda Cardoso Chaves, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Marli Maria Knorst, Carolina Guerini de Souza
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the value of phase angle (PhA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its association with nutritional and functional parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 77 patients under follow-up at the pulmonary outpatient clinic of a public hospital. Anthropometric measurements and functional assessments of physical and pulmonary capacity were performed, and a regular physical activity questionnaire was administered...
August 11, 2020: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Getrude Mphwanthe, Marsha Carolan, Dawn Earnesty, Lorraine Weatherspoon
Diet and physical activity are crucial to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management. However, socio-environmental, and cultural factors can impede lifestyle behaviours, and hence T2DM management. This study aimed to identify barriers, facilitators and support for diet and physical activity among adults with T2DM in Malawi selected from a larger clinical assessment study, conducted in urban and semi-urban public hospitals. Four focus group discussions were conducted, and audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, then organised and analysed using thematic analysis...
August 11, 2020: Global Public Health
Jéssica C P Petrine, Bruno Del Bianco-Borges
Functional foods have nutritional properties and organic functions, which are beneficial to health. Certain types of functional food components are so-called phytoestrogens, non-steroidal compounds derived from the metabolism of precursors contained in plants, which originate secondary metabotypes known to induce biological responses and by mimicry or modulating the action of endogenous estrogen. These molecules are involved in several physiological and pathological processes related to reproduction, bone remodeling, skin, cardiovascular, nervous, immune systems, and metabolism...
August 11, 2020: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Teresa L Serafim, Teresa Cunha-Oliveira, Claudia M Deus, Vilma A Sardão, Ines M Cardoso, Shanshan Yang, John F Odhiambo, Adel B Ghnenis, Ashley M Smith, Junfei Li, Peter W Nathanielsz, Stephen P Ford, Paulo J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Changes in the nutritional environment in utero induced by maternal obesity (MO) lead to fetal metabolic dysfunction predisposing offspring to later-life metabolic diseases. Since mitochondria play a crucial role in hepatic metabolism and function, we hypothesized that MO prior to conception and throughout pregnancy programs fetal sheep liver mitochondrial phenotype. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ewes ate an obesogenic diet (150% requirements; MO), or 100% requirements (CTR) from 60 d prior to conception...
August 11, 2020: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gabriella Luongo, Kelly Skinner, Breanna Phillipps, Ziwa Yu, Debbie Martin, Catherine L Mah
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Describe the state of knowledge on how the retail food environment contributes to diet-related health and obesity among Indigenous populations, and assess how the literature incorporates Indigenous perspectives, methodologies and engagement throughout the research process. Outcomes included dietary behaviour (purchasing, intakes and diet quality) and diet-related health outcomes (weight-related outcomes, non-communicable diseases and holistic health or definitions of health as defined by Indigenous populations involved in the study)...
August 11, 2020: Current Obesity Reports
Junichiro Harada, Takahiro Kinoshita, Reo Sato, Eigo Akimoto, Mitsumasa Yoshida, Yukiko Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: Delta-shaped anastomosis (DA) has been widely accepted as a standard procedure for intracorporeal Billroth-I reconstruction after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. We introduced DA in 2010 at our hospital and later developed a modified DA method in which a stapled corner of the duodenal stump was removed simultaneously with closure of an entry hole to reduce postoperative complications. METHODS: The clinical data of 507 patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with DA from October 2010 through December 2018 were retrospectively collected from our in-house database...
August 11, 2020: Surgical Endoscopy
Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in the Korean adult population. METHODS: 10,710 participants in the 2014 and 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed in this study. Assessment of depressive symptoms was performed using the self-administered nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of clinically relevant depression (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) in the Korean adult population was 6...
August 11, 2020: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jakub Pečenka, Dorota Anna Tekielska, Maria Kacanova, Eliška Peňázová, Akila Berraf-Teball, Ales Eichmeier
Popularity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has been rising worldwide, due to their nutritional bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and polyphenols (Sinelli et al. 2008). These factors led to an increase of the demand for fresh blueberries in the Czech market, which resulted in increased blueberry planted in the Czech Republic. In spring 2018, about 200,000 1-year-old blueberry plants originally from the Netherlands were planted on 47 ha in the South Moravian region. In September 2019, wilting of leaves and shoots, bark necrosis and dieback of the plant were observed...
August 11, 2020: Plant Disease
Cíntia Ferreira-Pêgo, Joana Rodrigues, Adriana Costa, Bruno Sousa
BACKGROUND: Student life during the university period is characterized by many changes in eating behaviors and dietary patterns due to adaptation to a new environment, study stress, lack of proper time management, and busy class schedules. These unhealthy actions may be detrimental to cognitive processing and influence academic performance, which is related to professional success. AIM: To assess different eating patterns in Portuguese university students and relate them to several sociodemographic variables...
August 11, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Renata Stawerska, Marzena Kolasa-Kicińska, Anna Łupińska, Maciej Hilczer, Andrzej Lewiński
Ghrelin - a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue - presents a circadian rhythm with higher nocturnal than diurnal concentration (similar to GH). However, daily ghrelin production depends on food intake and nutritional state; it is increased in the fasting state and decreased after a meal. Since most past research concerning short stature children has relied on the morning ghrelin concentration for analyses, we decided to assess ghrelin concentration at the 60th and 90th minute after falling asleep and in the morning at 06:00 h, shortly after waking up from nighttime sleep (after 12 h of fasting)...
August 11, 2020: Chronobiology International
Meng Ye, Juping Yu, Xuexia Shi, Jingyi Zhu, Xiangdong Gao, Wei Liu
In recent years, the degradation processes of polysaccharides by human gut microbiota are receiving considerable attention due to the discoveries of the powerful function of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota has developed a sensitive, accurate, and complex system for sensing, capturing, and degrading different polysaccharides. Among the gut microbiota, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , a representative species of Bacteroides , is considered as the best degrader of polysaccharides and a potential probiotic in pharmaceutical and food industries...
August 11, 2020: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Randi N Smith, Keneeshia N Williams, Robert M Roach, Brett M Tracy
INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity (FI), defined as inadequate access to affordable and quality nutrition, has negative health consequences. FI and violence share similar root causes. The aim of this study was to determine the association of FI with gunshot injury (GSI) incidence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients from 2012 to 2018 who sustained a GSI. Food access data was abstracted from the US Department of Agriculture. We analyzed the impact of FI, low food access (LA), and low food access with no vehicle (LANV) on the incidence of GSI using Poisson regression...
August 11, 2020: American Surgeon
Xiaocong Yao, Jintao Hu, Xiuhua Kong, Zhongxin Zhu
Calcium is a requisite nutrient in maintaining bone health. High calcium intake has been recommended for osteoporosis prevention. However, the relationship of dietary calcium intake with bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly remained controversial. We aimd to evaluate the association between them in older adults. Using data from the Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES, 2001-2006), we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the association of dietary calcium intake with lumbar BMD in older adults...
August 11, 2020: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
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