T Wu, H Shi, J Niu, X Yin, X Wang, Y Shen
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 165 million children aged <5 years are at risk of low height-for-age. This study explored whether water quality and distance to water source affected short- and long-term growth, and the critical time windows of such effects. STUDY DESIGN: This study used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), which was a cohort study performed in 15 Chinese provinces. METHODS: Data from the CHNS between 1989 and 2011 were examined...
April 7, 2021: Public Health
Pallavi Dubey, Sireesha Y Reddy, Luis Alvarado, Sharron L Manuel, Alok K Dwivedi
OBJECTIVE: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted...
March 26, 2021: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Esther Santana Vaz Rezende, Glaucia Carielo Lima, Maria Margareth Veloso Naves
Dietary fiber is a group of heterogeneous substances that are neither digested nor absorbed in the small intestine. Some fibers can be classified as prebiotics if they are metabolized by beneficial bacteria present in the hindgut microbiota. The aim of this review was to specify the prebiotic properties of different subgroups of dietary fibers (resistant oligosaccharides, non-starch polysaccharides, resistant starches, and associated substances) to classify them by prebiotic categories. Currently, only resistant oligosaccharides (fructans [fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose, and inulin] and galactans) are well documented as prebiotics in the literature...
February 26, 2021: Nutrition
Zi Yang, Jingyi Mi, Yu Wang, Lamei Xue, Jinxin Liu, Mingcong Fan, Duo Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: With the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, it is urgent to find a suitable treatment. Recently, the ketogenic diet has shown beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose, but some concerns have been raised about its probable side effects, such as hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Because a low-carbohydrate diet replaces part of the fat with carbohydrates on the basis of the ketogenic diet, we would like to know whether it does better in treating type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of a low-carbohydrate diet as a substitute for a ketogenic diet intervention in mice with type 2 diabetes...
March 4, 2021: Nutrition
Alessandra da Silva, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Helen Hermana M Hermsdorff, Aline Marcadenti, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Bernardete Weber, Josefina Bressan
OBJECTIVES: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) has been introduced as a useful tool to quantify the antioxidant content of a diet. However, few studies have evaluated the association of dTAC with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with established CVD events. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of an association between dTAC values, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with previous CVD in a Brazilian multicenter study...
February 19, 2021: Nutrition
André M Almeida, Syed Azmal Ali, Fabrizio Ceciliani, P David Eckersall, Lorenzo E Hernandez-Castellano, Rongwei Han, Jaka J Hodnik, Shalini Jaswal, John D Lippolis, Mark McLaughlin, Ingrid Miller, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Vladimir Mrljak, Jarlath E Nally, Paolo Nanni, Jeffrey E Plowman, Mirele D Poleti, David M Ribeiro, Pedro Rodrigues, Bernd Roschitzki, Ralph Schlapbach, Jože Starič, Yongxin Yang, Maya Zachut
Animal production and health are of significant economic importance, particularly regarding the world food supply. Animal and veterinary sciences have evolved immensely in the past six decades, particularly in genetics, nutrition, housing, management and health. To address major challenges such as those posed by climate change or metabolic disorders, it is of utmost importance to use state-of-the-art research tools. Proteomics and the other post-genomic tools (transcriptomics or metabolomics) are among them...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Proteomics
Manisha J Oza, Ankit P Laddha, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad, Shrikant R Mulay, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Insufficient insulin secretion and insulin action are two major causes for the development of diabetes, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood glucose level. Diet and sedentary life style play pivotal role in development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Dietary modification is associated with a reprogramming of nutrient intake, which are proven to be effective for the management of diabetes and associated complications...
April 7, 2021: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jacaline K Parkman, Kristiana Sklioutovskaya-Lopez, Kalhara R Menikdiwela, Logan Freeman, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Jung Han Kim
Obesogenic and diabetogenic high fat (HF) diets can influence genetic factors in disease development with sexual dimorphic responses. We investigated potential protective effects of tart cherry (TC), fish oil (FO) and TC+FO supplementation in TALLYHO/Jng (TH) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice fed HF diets. Male and female TH and B6 mice were weaned onto five different diets; low fat (LF), HF, and HF supplemented with TC, FO, or TC+FO and maintained. For both males and females on LF, TH mice were heavier and fatter than B6, which was accentuated by HF in males, but not in females...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Zhiwang Zhang, Siqi Liu, Yilin Qi, Zhier Aluo, Lifang Zhang, Lin Yu, Qiang Li, Zupeng Luo, Zheng Sun, Lei Zhou, Yixing Li
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disease affecting the health of many people worldwide. Previous studies have shown that dietary calcium supplementation may alleviate NAFLD, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this study investigating the effect of calcium on hepatic lipid metabolism, 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 6): (a) mice given a normal chow containing 0.5% calcium (CN0.5), (b) mice given a normal chow containing 1.2% calcium (CN1.2), (c) mice given a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 0...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo, Adriana Cassina, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Mariela Santos, Emiliano Trias, Eric E Kelley, Homero Rubbo, Andrés Trostchansky
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive liver fat deposition in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Since extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) reduces fat accumulation, we analyzed the involvement of nitro-fatty acids (NO2 -FA) on the beneficial effects of EVOO consumption on NAFLD. Nitro-fatty acids formation was observed during digestion in mice supplemented with EVOO and nitrite. Mice fed with a high-fat diet (HF) presented lower plasma NO2 -FA levels than normal chow, and circulating concentrations recovered when the HF diet was supplemented with 10% EVOO plus nitrite...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Veda Krishnan, Debarati Mondal, Bejoy Thomas, Archana Singh, Shelly Praveen
Starch bioavailability which results in eliciting postprandial glycaemic response, is a trait of great significance and is majorly influenced by the physical interaction among the matrix components governed by their molecular structure as well as dynamics. Among physical interactions limiting starch bioavailability, starch and any guest molecules like lipid interact together to alter the molecular structure into a compact V-type arrangement endorsing the processed crystallinity, thus limiting carbolytic enzymatic digestion and further bioavailability...
April 7, 2021: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rebecca D Russell, Lucinda J Black, Andrea Begley
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with no known cure. Numerous diets are promoted to reduce symptoms or even cure MS, despite insufficient evidence for any therapeutic diet. There are few qualitative studies exploring the experiences of people with MS in relation to diet, and no use of theory to explain the findings. PURPOSE: To explore the experiences of adults with MS when navigating dietary advice, their attitudes when making dietary decisions, and their needs regarding dietary resources and education...
April 10, 2021: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Isabel Potani, Carolyn Spiegel-Feld, Garyk Brixi, Jaden Bendabenda, Nandi Siegfried, Robert H J Bandsma, André Briend, Allison I Daniel
Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) containing less dairy may be a lower-cost treatment option for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to understand the effectiveness of RUTF containing alternative sources of protein (nondairy), or <50% of protein from dairy products, compared with standard RUTF in children with SAM. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched using terms relating to RUTF. Studies were eligible if they included children with SAM and evaluated RUTF with <50% of protein from dairy products compared with standard RUTF...
April 10, 2021: Advances in Nutrition
Susan B Roberts, Rachel E Silver, Sai Krupa Das, Roger A Fielding, Cheryl H Gilhooly, Paul F Jacques, Jennifer M Kelly, Joel B Mason, Nicola M McKeown, Meaghan A Reardon, Sheldon Rowan, Edward Saltzman, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Caren E Smith, Allen A Taylor, Dayong Wu, Fang Fang Zhang, Karen Panetta, Sarah Booth
The amount of time spent in poor health at the end of life is increasing. This narrative review summarizes consistent evidence indicating that healthy dietary patterns and maintenance of a healthy weight in the years leading to old age are associated with broad prevention of all the archetypal diseases and impairments associated with aging including: noncommunicable diseases, sarcopenia, cognitive decline and dementia, osteoporosis, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, hearing loss, obstructive sleep apnea, urinary incontinence, and constipation...
April 10, 2021: Advances in Nutrition
Deane F Mosher, Bradford S Schwartz, Craig M Jackson
We sadly report that John Suttie died on December 21, 2020, at the age of 86. John made vital contributions to the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. His early work was key to showing the action of vitamin K on the subset of coagulation factors known to require vitamin K for activity. Subsequently, John led in studies of γ-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K oxidoreductase required for vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, inhibition of the reductase by coumarin anticoagulants, and nutritional needs for vitamin K in newborns and the elderly...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Aihui Zeng, Sai Li, Yan Zhou, Datong Sun
Heavy metals, including cadmium, are suspected to increase serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in both gender, but the evidences about this are inconclusive. To determine whether serum cadmium in American adults(≥19 years old) is associated with uric acid levels and risk of hyperuricemia, 2620 participants from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were recruited. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum UA concentration ≥ 416.4 μmol/L for men and ≥ 356.9 μmol/L for women. Regression analyses were used to analyze the association of cadmium with serum UA and hyperuricemia...
April 10, 2021: Biological Trace Element Research
Julián Andrés Castillo Vargas, Victória Fideles Silva Santos, Tamara Nayanne Matos Lustosa, Kaliandra Souza Alves, Raylon Pereira Maciel, Daiany Iris Gomes, Rafael Mezzomo
This study evaluated the multivariate relationship among the crude protein (CP) intake and digestibility, the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility, and the nitrogen excretion in hair sheep fed Mombasa grass silage mixed with açai palm seeds using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). For this purpose, a dataset was constructed using the information derived from a metabolic experiment with Santa Ines sheep (BW ± SE: 33.9 ± 1.37 kg) allocated into a 5 × 5 Latin square. The following two multivariate relationships were explored using CCA: (1) the N in both feces (Nfeces ) and urine (Nurine ) (canonical variate U) versus the intake of both CP (CPI) and NDF (NDFI) (canonical variate V)...
April 10, 2021: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ross Joseph, Nemat O Keyhani
Ambrosia beetles and their microbial communities, housed in specialized structures termed mycangia, represent one of the oldest and most diverse systems of mutualism and parasitism described thus far. Comprised of core filamentous fungal members, but also including bacteria and yeasts, the mycangia represent a unique adaptation that allows beetles to store and transport their source of nutrition. Although perhaps the most ancient of "farmers," the nature of these interactions remains largely understudied, with the exception of a handful of emerging pathosystems, where the fungal partner acts as a potentially devastating tree pathogen...
April 10, 2021: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pedro Marques, Friso de Vries, Olaf M Dekkers, Márta Korbonits, Nienke R Biermasz, Alberto M Pereira
CONTEXT: Serum inflammation-based scores reflect systemic inflammatory response and/or patients' nutritional status, and may predict clinical outcomes in cancer. While these are well-described and increasingly used in different cancers, their clinical usefulness in the management of patients with endocrine tumors is less known. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed using the terms "endocrine tumor", "inflammation", "serum inflammation-based score", "inflammatory-based score", "inflammatory response-related scoring", "systemic inflammatory response markers", "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio", "Neutrophil-to-platelet ratio", "Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio", "Glasgow Prognostic Score", "Neutrophil-Platelet Score", "Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index", and "Prognostic Nutrition Index" in clinical studies...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hiroshi Okabe, Shigeru Tsunoda, Hideki Sunagawa, Masashi Saji, Kenjiro Hirai, Masayuki Nakau, Eiji Tanaka, Kazutaka Obama
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is increasingly performed to expect lower complication rate compared to open esophagectomy. Studies of minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (MIILE) with circular staplers have reported better outcomes compared to MIE with cervical anastomosis, but frequent anastomotic complications have also been reported. MIILE with linear staplers is a promising alternative, but the long-term functional and oncological outcomes are uncertain...
April 9, 2021: Surgical Endoscopy
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