István Takács, András Szekeres, Ákos Takács, Dávid Rakk, Miklós Mézes, Ágnes Polyák, Lóránt Lakatos, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, Dezső Csupor, Krisztina J Kovács, Szilamér Ferenczi
Intestinal α -glucosidase and α -amylase break down nutritional poly- and oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and their activity significantly contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia. Competitive inhibitors of these enzymes, such as acarbose, are effective antidiabetic drugs, but have unpleasant side effects. In our ethnopharmacology inspired investigations, we found that wild strawberry ( Fragaria vesca ), blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus ), and European blueberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ) leaf extracts inhibit α -glucosidase and α -amylase enzyme activity in vitro and are effective in preventing postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo ...
May 25, 2020: Planta Medica
Na Youn Lee, Yerin Kim, Yoo Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Lewis P Rubin, Yuri Kim
The tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of stromal fibroblasts, immune cells, cancer cells and other cell types, plays a crucial role in cancer progression and metastasis. M2 macrophages and activated fibroblasts (AFs) modulate behavior of cancer cells in the TME. Since nutritional effects on cancer progression, including colorectal cancer (CRC), may be mediated by alterations in the TME, we determined the ability of β-carotene (BC) to mediate anti-cancer effects through regulation of macrophage polarization and fibroblast activation in CRC...
April 24, 2020: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lorenzo Barnaba, Federica Intorre, Elena Azzini, Donatella Ciarapica, Eugenia Venneria, Maria Stella Foddai, Francesca Maiani, Anna Raguzzini, Angela Polito
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality of an Italian population through the use of the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS) and its relation to clinical and biochemical nutritional markers. METHODS: The study was conducted on healthy participants ages 18 to 86 y living in central Italy. Adherence to the Mediterranean food pattern was evaluated by a semiquantitative food frequency, using the MDSS. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses of nutritional interest were performed according to the standardized procedure...
March 18, 2020: Nutrition
Eugenia Vila, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Claudia Lareo, Verónica Saravia
Statistical experimental designs were used to formulate a culture medium for zeaxanthin production by an Antarctic Flavobacterium sp. P8 strain. Eleven nutritional factors were assayed in shaken flasks. The effect of temperature on zeaxanthin and carotenoid production was also studied. Peptone, yeast extract, and sodium chloride were the nutrients that caused the principal impact on the biomass growth. These components were further studied to enhance zeaxanthin and total carotenoid concentrations. Although a high production rate of zeaxanthin and carotenoids was achieved, the aerobic characteristics of the bacterial strain and the oxygen requirements for zeaxanthin biosynthesis incorporate a factor that requires additional consideration...
May 22, 2020: Journal of Biotechnology
Marianne Nordstrøm, Kjetil Retterstøl, Sigrun Hope, Svein Olav Kolset
Several features and comorbidities in Down syndrome have nutritional implications and consequences. In infancy and early childhood, children with Down syndrome have a high risk of oral motor difficulties and pharyngeal dysphagia with aspiration, which both require systematic attention. To improve nutritional status in children who are underweight and who have clinical signs of feeding problems, further evaluation of underlying causes is required. Clinical interventions should promote swallowing safety and development of feeding abilities...
June 2020: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Xolisile W Qaku, Adeoluwa Adetunji, Bhekisisa C Dlamini
Processing functionality in terms of fermentability and nutritional characteristics of Mahewu (a sorghum-based nonalcoholic beverage product) supplemented with different proportions of Bambara groundnut (BGN) (80:20 and 70:30, respectively) was investigated to develop a sorghum-based beverage product with improved nutritional quality. Sorghum-BGN Mahewu blends showed a rapid reduction in pH and significantly (P < 0.05) lower final pH (4.3) after 24 hr compared to the control (pH 5.1) (100% Sorghum Mahewu)...
May 25, 2020: Journal of Food Science
Xuehua Jin, Chen Chen, Shuntang Guo, Hui Zhang
Soymilk has a complicated system, and its sensory and physicochemical characteristics are influenced by the components of the soybean seeds. Thirty-five soybean cultivars were selected, and correlation analysis and clustering analysis were applied to determine the significant correlations between soybean seed traits and soymilk physiochemical properties. Four sensory quality attributes of soymilk, including taste, odor, appearance, and mouthfeel, were quantified in numerical values and scored based on a weighting criterion which was constructed via the fuzzy logic technique...
May 25, 2020: Journal of Food Science
Nada Ahmad Hindiyeh, Niushen Zhang, Mallory Farrar, Pixy Banerjee, Louise Lombard, Sheena K Aurora
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a disabling primary headache disorder often associated with triggers. Diet-related triggers are a common cause of migraine and certain diets have been reported to decrease the frequency of migraine attacks if dietary triggers or patterns are adjusted. OBJECTIVE: The systematic literature review was conducted to qualitatively summarize evidence from the published literature regarding the role of diet patterns, diet-related triggers, and diet interventions in people with migraine...
May 25, 2020: Headache
Soledad Henriquez, Bertrand Dunogué, Raphael Porcher, Alexis Régent, Pascal Cohen, Alice Berezne, Sami Kolta, Claire Le Jeunne, Luc Mouthon, Christian Roux, Loïc Guillevin, Karine Briot, Benjamin Terrier
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been associated with poor outcomes in various medical and surgical conditions. However, its impact in systemic necrotizing vasculitides (SNV) had never been characterized. We aimed to assess the prevalence, associated factors and prognostic impact of sarcopenia in SNV. METHODS: Patients with SNV were successively included in a prospective longitudinal study assessing comorbidities. At inclusion, we evaluated sarcopenia by assessing skeletal muscle mass index using DXA and muscle strength using handgrip strength...
January 31, 2020: Rheumatology
Hussien Al-Shebli, Sameer Al-Shayyab, Moh'd Nour Bani Younes, Sinan Badwan, Mohammed Obeidat, Amani Alshawabkeh, Areej Almanaseer, Razan Fannoun
BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the clinical impacts of the early administration of trophic doses of a glutamine/arginine enriched enteral nutrition formula (ENF) with a high protein density to cachectic hypoalbuminemic hospitalized patients intolerant to enteral nutrition. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the nutritional and non-nutritional data of patients admitted to our institution from April 2017 through August 2019. Patients who died or were discharged before completing ≥1 weeks of hospital admission, or those whose data could not be obtained were excluded...
May 23, 2020: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine
Yue Ao, Chongrui Yang, Shengchen Wang, Qingyi Hu, Li Yi, Jibin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Minmin Cai, Chan Yu
The potential utility of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) to convert animal waste into harvested protein or lipid sources for feeding animal or producing biodiesel provides a new strategy for agricultural waste management. In this study, the taxonomic structure and potential metabolic and nutrient functions of the intestinal bacterial communities of BSFL were investigated in chicken and swine manure conversion systems. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in the BSFL gut in both the swine and chicken manure systems...
May 25, 2020: Microbial Biotechnology
James Hurford
This paper examines the Court of Protection decision in Briggs v Briggs . It considers whether the approach of the Court, which gave effective decisive weight to a patient's previously expressed wishes about whether he should be kept alive in a minimally conscious state, is a proper application of the 'best interests' test under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. It assesses whether the Briggs approach is effectively applying a 'substituted judgement' test and considers the difficulties in ascertaining what a person's actual wishes are...
May 23, 2020: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Marlène Voisinet, Aïna Venkatasamy, Hefzi Alratrout, Jean-Baptiste Delhorme, Cécile Brigand, Serge Rohr, Christian Gaiddon, Benoît Romain
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a preoperative feeding jejunostomy (FJ) on the occurrence of sarcopenia before and after preoperative chemotherapy for patients with an oesogastric adenocarcinoma (OGA). Forty-six patients with potentially resectable OGA were enrolled in a perioperative chemotherapy protocol. Sarcopenia was evaluated by measuring muscle surfaces (psoas, paraspinal and abdominal wall muscles) on abdominal CT images at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra. A FJ was placed in 31 patients (67...
May 25, 2020: Nutrition and Cancer
Marissa McElrone, Sarah Colby, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D Olfert, Kendra K Kattelmann, Hillary N Fouts, Marsha Spence, Katie Kavanagh, Adrienne A White
Refugee-specific nutrition and cooking curricula addressing dietary acculturation barriers to food security are limited. A cooking curriculum was culturally adapted for Burundian and Congolese refugees to address their unique dietary acculturation experiences. A four-phase curriculum adaptation process (information gathering [literature review, researcher informed, and formative interviews; n = 18], preliminary adaptation design [data incorporation and steering committee; n = 5], pilot testing [ n = 10 youth/adult dyads], and refinement) was applied to the existing evidence-based iCook 4-H curriculum using a five-strategy (peripheral, evidential, linguistic, constituent-involving, and sociocultural) cultural adaptation framework...
May 25, 2020: Health Promotion Practice
Rebecca K Hodder, Kate M O'Brien, Flora Tzelepis, Rebecca J Wyse, Luke Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Testing the effects of interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, including those focused on specific child-feeding strategies or broader multicomponent interventions targeting the home or childcare environment is required to assess the potential to reduce this disease burden. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under...
May 25, 2020: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Szimonetta Lohner, Daniela Kuellenberg de Gaudry, Ingrid Toews, Tamas Ferenci, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Products sweetened with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are widely available. Many people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes use NNS as a replacement for nutritive sweeteners to control their carbohydrate and energy intake. Health outcomes associated with NNS use in diabetes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners in people with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Scopus, the WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials...
May 25, 2020: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
R S Dadwani, M R Skandari, M S GoodSmith, L S Philips, M K Rhee, N Laiteerapong
AIM: To evaluate the U.S. population-level impact of two alternatives for initial type 2 diabetes screening [opportunistic random plasma glucose (RPG) > 6.7 mmol/l and a 1-h 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) > 8.9 mmol/l] compared with American Diabetes Association (ADA)-recommended tests. METHODS: Using a sample (n = 1471) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 that represented 145 million U.S. adults at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, we simulated a two-test screening process...
May 24, 2020: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
José Alberto Domínguez-Alonso, David Conde-Estévez, David Bosch, Maria Pi-Figueras, Ignacio Tusquets
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most prevalent and lethal cancer among women. Forty-one percent of cases occur in people ≥ 70 years, hindering their treatment given its comorbidities and polypharmacy (PP). Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI) were analyzed in elderly breast cancer patients between daily and oncospecific treatments and their associations with Age, BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Frailty categorization, PP, and adverse effects. PATIENTS/METHODS: A cohort of 77 patients ≥ 70 years with breast cancer who underwent a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) were included...
May 24, 2020: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Gul Nawaz Khan, Shabina Ariff, Sumra Kureishy, Muhammad Sajid, Arjumand Rizvi, Cecilia Garzon, Mica Jenkins, Saskia de Pee, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of wheat soya blend plus (WSBP) provided during pregnancy and lactation on weight gain during pregnancy, reduction of low birthweight (LBW), and improvement in nutritional status in infants at 6 months of age in Thatta and Sujawal districts of Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: A cluster randomized-controlled trial was conducted in Thatta and Sujawal districts in Pakistan from August 2014 to December 2016. A total of 2030 pregnant women were enrolled in the study...
May 24, 2020: European Journal of Nutrition
Liat Ayalon, Sagit Lev, Gil Lev
OBJECTIVES: We thematically classified all titles of eight top psychological and social gerontology journals over a period of six decades, between 1961 and February, 2020. This was done in order to provide a broad overview of the main topics that interest the scientific community over time and place. METHODS: We used natural language processing in order to analyze the data. In order to capture the diverse thematic clusters covered by the journals, a cluster analysis, based on "topic detection" was conducted...
May 25, 2020: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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