Irritable bowel

Ellen Wilms, Freddy J Troost, Montserrat Elizalde, Bjorn Winkens, Paul de Vos, Zlatan Mujagic, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Ad A M Masclee
Animal studies have shown that intestinal barrier function is compromised with aging. We aimed to assess the effects of aging on intestinal barrier function in humans in vivo and ex vivo. In this cross-sectional study, healthy subjects and subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) of older (65-75 years) and young adult age (18-40 years) were compared. In vivo gastrointestinal site-specific permeability was assessed by a multi-sugar test, taking into account potential confounders. Sigmoid biopsies were collected from subgroups of healthy young adults and elderly for ex vivo Ussing chamber experiments, gene transcription of barrier-related genes and staining of junctional proteins...
January 16, 2020: Scientific Reports
Massimo Bellini, Sara Tonarelli, Attila G Nagy, Andrea Pancetti, Francesco Costa, Angelo Ricchiuti, Nicola de Bortoli, Marta Mosca, Santino Marchi, Alessandra Rossi
Food is often considered to be a precipitating factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, And Polyols), which can be found in many common foods. A low FODMAP diet (LFD) is increasingly suggested for IBS treatment. However, long-term, large, randomized controlled studies are still lacking, and certainties and doubts regarding LFDs have grown, often in a disorderly and confused manner. Some potential LFD limitations and concerns have been raised, including nutritional adequacy, cost, and difficulty in teaching the diet and maintaining it...
January 4, 2020: Nutrients
Yonghoon Choi, Nayoung Kim, Gi Tark Noh, Ju Yup Lee, Dong Ho Lee
<b>Background/Aims:</b> The <i>Flos Lonicera</i> extract GCWB104 has been shown to have significant protective effects against gastritis and gastric ulcers <i>in vivo</i>. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of GCWB104 in subjects with functional dyspepsia (FD). <b>Methods:</b> In this single-center, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 92 subjects diagnosed with FD using the Rome III criteria were allocated to either the test group (300 mg of GCWB104, containing 125 mg of <i>Flos Lonicera</i> extract, twice daily) or the placebo group (300 mg placebo, twice daily)...
January 15, 2020: Gut and Liver
Cintia Folgueira, Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal, Daniel Beiroa, Verónica Pena-León, Natália Da Silva Lima, Edward Milbank, Ana Senra, Omar Al-Massadi, Miguel López, Carlos Diéguez, Luisa M Seoane, Rubén Nogueiras
Linaclotide is a synthetic peptide approved by the FDA for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation. Linaclotide binds and activates the transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase 2C (Gucy2c). Uroguanylin is a 16 amino acid peptide that is mainly secreted by enterochromaffin cells in the duodenum and proximal small intestine. Uroguanylin is the endogenous ligand of Gucy2c and decreases body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice via the activation of the thermogenic program in brown adipose tissue...
January 17, 2020: Neuroendocrinology
Caitlin A Selway, Raphael Eisenhofer, Laura S Weyrich
The human microbiome can play key roles in disease, and diagnostic testing will soon have the ability to examine these roles in the context of clinical applications. Currently, most diagnostic testing in pathology applications focuses on a small number of disease-causing microbes and dismisses the whole microbial community that causes or is modulated by disease. Microbiome modifications have already provided clinically relevant insights in gut and oral diseases, such as irritable bowel disease, but there are currently limitations when clinically examining microbiomes outside of these body sites...
January 15, 2020: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Georgios Katinios, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Susanna A Walter, Maria Vicario, Ana M González-Castro, Olga Bednarska, Johan D Söderholm, Henrik Hjortswang, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND: Barrier dysfunction is recognized as a pathogenic factor in ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but it is unclear to what extent the factors related to barrier dysfunction are disease-specific. The aim of this study was to compare these aspects in UC patients in remission, IBS patients, and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Colonic biopsies were collected from 13 patients with UC in remission, 15 patients with IBS-mixed, and 15 HCs...
January 16, 2020: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michael Camilleri
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology and mechanisms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involve both central and peripheral mechanisms that result in altered perception, as well as changes in bowel functions. These dysfunctions are associated with motor, sensory, immune, barrier, and intraluminal perturbations, including the microbiota, and their products and endogenous molecules with bioactive properties. There is evidence that these mechanisms are altered in both females and males. However, there is also increasing evidence that sex is a biological variable that impacts a number of aspects of the mechanisms, epidemiology, and manifestations of IBS...
January 13, 2020: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Konstantinos E Keramaris, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Lukas H Margaritis, Athanassios D Velentzas, Issidora S Papassideri, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Phloroglucinol (1,3,5 tri-hydroxy-benzene) (PGL), a natural phenolic substance, is a peroxidase inhibitor and has anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, radio-protective, spasmolytic and anti-cancer activities. PGL, as a medicine, is administered to patients to control the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and acute renal colic, in clinical trials. PGL, as a phenolic substance, can cause cytotoxic effects. Administration of PGL up to 300 mg/kg (bw) is well tolerated by animals, while in cell lines its toxicity is developed at concentrations above the dose of 10 μg/ml...
January 14, 2020: Scientific Reports
Karen E Hoffman, David F Penson, Zhiguo Zhao, Li-Ching Huang, Ralph Conwill, Aaron A Laviana, Daniel D Joyce, Amy N Luckenbaugh, Michael Goodman, Ann S Hamilton, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Lisa E Paddock, Antoinette Stroup, Matthew R Cooperberg, Mia Hashibe, Brock B O'Neil, Sherrie H Kaplan, Sheldon Greenfield, Tatsuki Koyama, Daniel A Barocas
Importance: Understanding adverse effects of contemporary treatment approaches for men with favorable-risk and unfavorable-risk localized prostate cancer could inform treatment selection. Objective: To compare functional outcomes associated with prostate cancer treatments over 5 years after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1386 men with favorable-risk (clinical stage cT1 to cT2bN0M0, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤20 ng/mL, and Grade Group 1-2) prostate cancer and 619 men with unfavorable-risk (clinical stage cT2cN0M0, PSA of 20-50 ng/mL, or Grade Group 3-5) prostate cancer diagnosed in 2011 through 2012, accrued from 5 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program sites and a US prostate cancer registry, with surveys through September 2017...
January 14, 2020: JAMA
William D Chey, Anthony J Lembo, David P Rosenbaum
OBJECTIVES: Tenapanor is a first-in-class, minimally absorbed, small-molecule inhibitor of the gastrointestinal sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of tenapanor 50 mg b.i.d. for the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind study ( identifier NCT02621892), patients with IBS-C were randomized to tenapanor 50 mg b...
January 13, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Tomica Milosavljeviĉ, Giovanni Brandimarte, Neil Stollman, Giovanni Barbara, Adi Lahat, Carmelo Scarpignato, Angel Lanas, Valerio Papa, Antonio Tursi, Gerardo Nardone
In this session several critical issues in diverticular disease were considered, including "It is Symptomatic Diverticular Disease or Irritable Bowel Syndrome?", "What do determine evolution to diverticulitis, bowel habits alteration or inflammation?", and "Prevention of acute diverticulitis: Is it at all possible?". The first talking compared symptoms and laboratory findings between Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease  (SUDD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Although both disease share some symptoms, and although IBS can occur in patients having diverticulosis,  SUDD and IBS can be differentiate using a combination of symptoms and laboratory tools...
January 8, 2020: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Facundo Iriarte, Agustin Buero, Daniel Enrique Pirchi, Walter Sebastian Nardi, Matias Mihura Irribarra
We present the case of a pericaecal hernia treated successfully with a laparoscopic approach and full recovery after surgery. A 53-year-old female patient with a personal history of depression, osteoporosis and irritable bowel syndrome consulted to the emergency department for abdominal pain and distension in the last 12 h, associated with one episode of vomit and diminished frequency in the passage of stools. The right abdomen was tender to palpation, and blood work revealed no leucocytosis. A computed tomography scan showed small bowel loops distended and displaced to the right parietocolic recess, lateral to the ascending colon...
January 9, 2020: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Liqun Li, Jinjing Tan, Lijian Liu, Jianfeng Li, Guangwen Chen, Mingbing Chen, Jieru Xie, Qingzeng Song, Xiaoyan Huang, Sheng Xie
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have revealed the associations between H. pylori infection and various health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the strength and breadth of evidence on the associations. DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. SETTING: No settings. PARTICIPANTS: No patients involved. DATA SOURCES: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Databases, CNKI, VIP database and Wangfang database from inception to February 1, 2019...
January 9, 2020: BMJ Open
Mark Hearn, Peter J Whorwell, Dipesh H Vasant
This Review highlights the stigma associated with irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on patient care and clinical outcomes. Stigma around irritable bowel syndrome is prevalent among the general public, health-care professionals, and co-workers, and is often related to poor understanding of the condition. Furthermore, stigma is associated with unsatisfactory outcomes for people with irritable bowel syndrome, including increased health-care use, psychological distress, and impaired quality of life. Comparative studies suggest that stigma is much higher for irritable bowel syndrome than it is for inflammatory bowel disease, a so-called organic gastrointestinal disorder with overlapping symptomatology...
January 7, 2020: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fanny Matheis, Paul A Muller, Christina L Graves, Ilana Gabanyi, Zachary J Kerner, Diego Costa-Borges, Tomasz Ahrends, Philip Rosenstiel, Daniel Mucida
Enteric-associated neurons (EANs) are closely associated with immune cells and continuously monitor and modulate homeostatic intestinal functions, including motility and nutrient sensing. Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and immune cells are altered during disease processes such as neurodegeneration or irritable bowel syndrome. We investigated the effects of infection-induced inflammation on intrinsic EANs (iEANs) and the role of intestinal muscularis macrophages (MMs) in this context. Using murine models of enteric infections, we observed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms, including reduced motility and loss of excitatory iEANs, which was mediated by a Nlrp6- and Casp11-dependent mechanism, depended on infection history, and could be reversed by manipulation of the microbiota...
January 9, 2020: Cell
Ya-Fang Song, Li-Xia Pei, Lu Chen, Hao Geng, Meng-Qian Yuan, Wan-Li Xu, Jian Wu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Jian-Hua Sun
Post inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), a subset of IBS, is characterized by symptoms of visceral pain, bloating, and changed bowel habits that occur post initial episode of intestinal infection. Gut microbial dysbiosis or inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal hypersensitivity of PI-IBS. Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation results in an alleviated PI-IBS-associated symptom. This study investigated the effect of EA on IL-18 and gut microbial dysbiosis in one visceral hypersensitive rat models with PI-IBS...
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Olafur S Palsson, William Whitehead, Hans Törnblom, Ami D Sperber, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the population prevalence or demographic distributions of Rome IV functional bowel disorders (FBDs) or their effects on quality of life. We examined these in a multi-national survey. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based survey of adults in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom (5931 valid responders; 49.2% female; mean age, 47.4 years; range, 18-92 years). The survey included the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire, Rome III irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and constipation questions, and the SF-8 quality of life questionnaire...
January 6, 2020: Gastroenterology
Seung Yong Shin, Bong Ki Cha, Won-Seok Kim, Jae Yong Park, Jeong Wook Kim, Chang Hwan Choi
Background/Aims: We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of phloroglucinol in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods: Seventy-two patients with IBS-D who met Rome III criteria were 1:1 randomized in a parallel, double-blind design to receive phloroglucinol or placebo for 2 weeks. Patients were followed for 1 week after the end of treatment. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders, defined as those who answered "moderate or more of improvement" to the subject global assessment for at least 1 week of the 2-week treatment period...
January 30, 2020: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Elisabeth K Steinsvik, Jørgen Valeur, Trygve Hausken, Odd H Gilja
Background/Aims: Dyspeptic symptoms are common in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, and may be related to visceral hypersensitivity. We aim to explore the relation between visceral hypersensitivity by using an ultrasonographic meal test and questionnaires in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and/or functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: Patients (FD, n = 94; IBS, n = 88; IBS + FD, n = 66, healthy controls [HC], n = 30) were recruited consecutively and examined with ultrasound of the proximal and distal stomach after drinking 500 mL of a low caloric meat soup, and scored dyspeptic symptoms on a visual analogue scale (0-100 mm) before and after the meal...
January 30, 2020: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Hong Sub Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2020: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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