Dianne Lumaquin, Eleanor Johns, Emily Montal, Joshua M Weiss, David Ola, Abderhman Abuhashem, Richard M White
Lipid droplets are lipid storage organelles found in nearly all cell types from adipocytes to cancer cells. Although increasingly implicated in disease, current methods to study lipid droplets in vertebrate models rely on static imaging or the use of fluorescent dyes, limiting investigation of their rapid in vivo dynamics. To address this, we created a lipid droplet transgenic reporter in whole animals and cell culture by fusing tdTOMATO to Perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a lipid droplet structural protein. Expression of this transgene in transparent casper zebrafish enabled in vivo imaging of adipose depots responsive to nutrient deprivation and high-fat diet...
June 11, 2021: ELife
Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza, Esben Søndergaard, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Barbara Gisella Carranza Leon, Kelli A Lytle, Paola Ramos, James L Kirkland, Tamar Tchkonia, Michael D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue (AT) senescence is associated with AT dysfunction in rodents, but little is known about human AT senescence. The study goal was to define the distribution of senescent cells in two subcutaneous depots and understand relationships with adiposity and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty-three volunteers (48 females) underwent abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat biopsies. Fat cell size, senescent cells using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining per 100 nucleated cells (percentage), and mRNA expression of four cytokines were measured...
June 10, 2021: Obesity
Jun-Jie Zou, Jing-Qing Le, Bing-Chen Zhang, Ming-Yue Yang, Jia-Li Jiang, Juan-Fang Lin, Peng-Yu Wu, Chao Li, Lu Chen, Jing-Wei Shao
Diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by insufficient insulin secretion, action or resistance, in which insulin plays an irreplaceable role in the its treatment. However, traditional administration of insulin requires continuous subcutaneous injections, which is accompanied by inevitable pain, local tissue necrosis and hypoglycemia. Herein, a green and safe nanoformulation with unique permeability composed of insulin and ginsenosides is developed for transdermal delivery to reduce above-mentioned side effects...
June 7, 2021: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kiran Shabir, James E Brown, Islam Afzal, Seley Gharanei, Martin O Weickert, Thomas M Barber, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva
White adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that releases an array of adipokines, which play a key role in regulating metabolic homeostasis and multiple other physiological processes. An altered adipokine secretion profile from adipose tissue depots frequently characterizes obesity and related cardio-metabolic diseases. Asprosin is a recently discovered adipokine that is released in response to fasting. Following secretion, asprosin acts - via an olfactory G-protein coupled receptor and potentially via other unknown receptor(s) - on hepatocytes and agouti-related peptide-expressing neurons in the central nervous system to stimulate glucose secretion and promote appetite, respectively...
May 28, 2021: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Severin Ruoss, Scott T Ball, Shanelle N Dorn, Jesal N Parekh, Alexander J Whitehead, Adam J Engler, Samuel R Ward
Biologically augmented surgical treatments of orthopaedic conditions are increasingly popular. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate is a key orthobiologic tissue source, and the field is moving from the standard iliac crest marrow aspiration toward local aspirations of marrow depots that are accessible during the standard-of-care procedures in an attempt to reduce morbidity, surgery time, and cost. Here, we present the aspiration of the standard iliac marrow depot, but through a novel acetabular approach during total hip arthroplasty...
June 9, 2021: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Geneviève Marcelin, Karine Clément
While obesity is defined as an excessive fat accumulation conferring a risk to metabolic health, increased adipose mass by itself does not fully explain obesity's propensity to promote metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue regulates multiple processes critical for energy homeostasis and its dysfunction favors the development and perpetuation of metabolic diseases. Obesity drives inflammatory leucocyte infiltration in adipose tissue and fibrotic transformation of the fat depots. Both features associate with metabolic alterations such as impaired glucose control and resistance to fat mass loss...
June 8, 2021: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Usama Bin Zubair, Roy Brown
OBJECTIVE: To study the documentation of relevant components of forensic history on admission form for male patients admitted in psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU)/OAK ward of Phoenix Care Center. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical audit. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Psychiatric intensive care unit/OAK ward of Phoenix Care Center, from August 2019 to July 2020. METHODOLOGY: Charts of all patients admitted in PICU from August 2019 to July 2020 were analysed, and admission forms were reviewed for documentation of relevant parameters of forensic history...
June 2021: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Marc Blair, Jeremy Slagley, N Cody Schaal
Noise exposure has traditionally been considered the primary risk factor for hearing loss. However, ototoxicants commonly found in occupational settings could affect hearing loss independently, additively, or synergistically when combined with noise exposures. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the combined effect of metal and solvent ototoxicants, continuous noise, and impulse noise on hearing loss. Noise and ototoxicant exposure and pure-tone audiometry results were analyzed for U.S. Air Force personnel (n = 2,372) at a depot-level aircraft maintenance activity at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma...
June 8, 2021: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Hui-Min Ho, Chiung-Yi Huang, Yu-Jhen Cheng, I-Hua Chen, Shih-Jen Liu, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Ming-Hsi Huang
This study describes the assessment of mucosal adjuvant activity of a squalene-based nanoemulsion (SQ@NE) following intravaginal delivery in mice. After immunization, a high level of recruitment of CD11b/c+ granulocytes and F4/80+ macrophages was observed in the vaginal mucosal tissues of the mice immunized with a model protein ovalbumin (OVA) formulated with SQ@NE, and then downstream regulated the expression of MHC II and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 on CD11c+ cells harvested from the associated draining lymph node...
June 4, 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Lowell B Anthony, Thomas M O'Dorisio
Octreotide acetate (octreotide) is the most prescribed and most studied somatostatin congener, or analogue, for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and carcinoid syndrome, the latter of which may be characterized by debilitating diarrhea and flushing. Approved in the United States more than 30 years ago, octreotide is widely used to control the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and has been shown to demonstrate anti-proliferative activity. The two formulations available in the United States include a subcutaneous immediate-release (IR) injection introduced in 1989 and a long-acting repeatable (LAR) intramuscular injection approved in 1999...
June 7, 2021: Oncologist
Mauro Galli, Ahsan Hameed, Arkadiusz Żbikowski, Piotr Zabielski
Aquaporins (AQPs) are part of the family of the integral membrane proteins. Their function is dedicated to the transport of water, glycerol, ammonia, urea, H2 O2 , and other small molecules across the biological membranes. Although for many years they were scarcely considered, AQPs have a relevant role in the development of many diseases. Recent discoveries suggest, that AQPs may play an important role in the process of fat accumulation and regulation of oxidative stress, two crucial aspects of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
May 27, 2021: Redox Biology
M Churakov, J Karlsson, A Edvardsson Rasmussen, K Holtenius
Most dairy cows experience negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation because energy demand for milk synthesis is not met by energy intake. Excessive NEB may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. To optimize herd management, it is useful to detect cows in NEB in early lactation, but direct calculation of NEB is not feasible in commercial herds. Alternative methods rely on fat-to-protein ratio in milk or on concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in blood...
June 2, 2021: Animal
Yiqiang Zhang, Wen-Jun Shen, Shuo Qiu, Pinglin Yang, Garrett Dempsey, Lei Zhao, Qin Zhou, Xiao Hao, Dachuan Dong, Andreas Stahl, Fredric B Kraemer, Lawrence L Leung, John Morser
Apart from its role in inflammation and immunity, chemerin is also involved in white adipocyte biology. To study the role of chemerin in adipocyte metabolism, we examined the function of chemerin in brown adipose tissue. Brown and white adipocyte precursors were differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of Chemerin siRNA. Chemerin-deficient (Chem-/- ) mice were compared to wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Chemerin is expressed during brown adipocyte differentiation and knock down of chemerin mRNA results in decreased brown adipocyte differentiation with reduced fatty acid uptake in brown adipocytes...
July 2021: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Gijs van Woerden, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Thomas M Gorter, Vanessa P M van Empel, Martin E W Hemels, Eric J Hazebroek, Sophie L van Veldhuisen, Tineke P Willems, Michiel Rienstra, Berend Daan Westenbrink
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40%, but whether this is due to a regional or global effect of EAT remains unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Regional EAT is associated with alterations in local cardiac structure and function. METHODS: Patients with HF and LVEF >40% were studied. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance imaging was used to localize EAT surrounding the right ventricle (RV) and LV separately, using anterior- and posterior interventricular grooves as boundaries...
June 4, 2021: Clinical Cardiology
Jacob R Brooks, Devendra H Dusane, Kelly Moore, Tripti Gupta, Craig Delury, Sean S Aiken, Phillip A Laycock, Anne C Sullivan, Jeffrey F Granger, Matthew V Dipane, Edward J McPherson, Paul Stoodley
Introduction : Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor in chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and other orthopedic infection since they are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host immunity. Antibiotics are mixed into carriers such as bone cement and calcium sulfate bone void fillers to achieve sustained high concentrations of antibiotics required to more effectively manage biofilm infections through local release. The effect of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCS-B) in combination with PMMA bone cement spacers on the spread and killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 (PA-Xen41) biofilm was investigated using a "large agar plate" model scaled for clinical relevance...
2021: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Rajeev Ranjan, Santanu Nath, Chayan Kanti Manna, Gabby Sethi, Pankaj Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2021: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Irene C Jenkins, Joshua J Milligan, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are thermally responsive biopolymers that consist of a repeated amino acid motif derived from human tropoelastin. These peptides exhibit temperature-dependent phase behavior that can be harnessed to produce stimuli-responsive biomaterials, such as nanoparticles or injectable drug delivery depots. As ELPs are genetically encoded, the properties of ELP-based biomaterials can be controlled with a precision that is unattainable with synthetic polymers. Unique ELP architectures, such as spherical or rod-like micelles or injectable coacervates, can be designed by manipulating the ELP amino acid sequence and length...
June 3, 2021: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Guanqiang Gao, Yi Mei, Bin Xin, Ya-Hui Jia, Will N Browne
The multipoint dynamic aggregation (MPDA) problem of the multirobot system is of great significance for its real-world applications such as bush fire elimination. The problem is to design the optimal plan for a set of heterogeneous robots to complete some geographically distributed tasks collaboratively. In this article, we consider the dynamic version of the problem, where new tasks keep appearing after the robots are dispatched from the depot. The dynamic MPDA problem is a complicated optimization problem due to several characteristics, such as the collaboration of robots, the accumulative task demand, the relationships among robots and tasks, and the unpredictable task arrivals...
June 2, 2021: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Natassa Pippa, Maria Gazouli, Stergios Pispas
Vaccination is the most valuable and cost-effective health measure to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases. A significant number of infectious diseases and chronic disorders are still not preventable by existing vaccination schemes; therefore, new-generation vaccines are needed. Novel technologies such as nanoparticulate systems and adjuvants can enable safe and effective vaccines for difficult target populations such as newborns, elderly, and the immune-compromised. More recently, polymer-based particles have found application as vaccine platforms and vaccine adjuvants due to their ability to prevent antigen degradation and clearance, coupled with enhanced uptake by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
May 26, 2021: Vaccines
Ekaterina A Litus, Alexey S Kazakov, Evgenia I Deryusheva, Ekaterina L Nemashkalova, Marina P Shevelyova, Aliya A Nazipova, Maria E Permyakova, Elena V Raznikova, Vladimir N Uversky, Sergei E Permyakov
Prevention of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) deposition via facilitation of Aβ binding to its natural depot, human serum albumin (HSA), is a promising approach to preclude Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and progression. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of natural HSA ligands, fatty acids, to improve the affinity of this protein to monomeric Aβ by a factor of 3 (BBRC, 510(2), 248-253). Using plasmon resonance spectroscopy, we show here that another HSA ligand related to AD pathogenesis, serotonin (SRO), increases the affinity of the Aβ monomer to HSA by a factor of 7/17 for Aβ40 /Aβ42 , respectively...
May 31, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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