Elias S J Arnér
The mammalian thioredoxin system is driven by NADPH through the activities of isoforms of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD, TrxR), which in turn help to keep thioredoxins (TXN, Trx) and further downstream targets reduced. Due to a wide range of functions in antioxidant defense, cell proliferation, and redox signaling, strong cellular aberrations are seen upon the targeting of TrxR enzymes by inhibitors. However, such inhibition can nonetheless have rather unexpected consequences. Accumulating data suggest that inhibition of TrxR in normal cells typically yields a paradoxical effect of increased antioxidant defense, with metabolic pathway reprogramming, increased cellular proliferation, and altered cellular differentiation patterns...
August 8, 2020: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Seyyed Ali Moezi Bady, Maryam Soltani, Toba Kazemi, Saeede Khosravi Bizhaem, Nazanin Hanafi Bojd, Neda Partovi, Hamid Reza Mashreghimoghadam, Fatemeh Hamidi, Nahid Azdaki
Background: Diabetes mellitus is recognized as one of the most common, serious, and costly chronic diseases. Opium addiction is also a common health problem in Iran. Given the high prevalence of opium use in South Khorasan Province and the increasing prevalence of opioid abuse in the community, this study was performed to investigate the effect of opioid abuse on the extent of disease in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in the cardiology department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Birjand city, South Khorasan Province, Iran...
2020: Journal of Addiction
Daniela Vrinceanu, Mihai Dumitru, Adrian Stefan, Adriana Neagos, Gabriela Musat, Elena Adriana Nica
A case is presented of a male with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome induced by carbamazepine intake. The patient presented all the elements of DRESS syndrome: Skin reaction, fever, enlargement of the lymph nodes, increased eosinophils and lymphocytes, with associated organ dysfunctions. The patient was admitted with acute laryngeal edema and imminence of respiratory insufficiency. The escalation of symptoms for this syndrome is typical, even after the administering of the the culprit medicine has ceased...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Meredith S Berry, Meredith A Repke, Alexander L Metcalf, Kerry E Jordan
Research within psychology and other disciplines has shown that exposure to natural environments holds extensive physiological and psychological benefits. Adding to the health and cognitive benefits of natural environments, evidence suggests that exposure to nature also promotes healthy human decision-making. Unhealthy decision-making (e.g., smoking, non-medical prescription opioid misuse) and disorders associated with lack of impulse control [e.g., tobacco use, opioid use disorder (OUD)], contribute to millions of preventable deaths annually (i...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Seoyeon Hong, Sookwang Klive Oh
This study linked the big five personality traits with motivational factors to leave Facebook based on a survey of 218 former Facebook users. The big five were related with eight main factors retrieved from existing literature. Results showed that neuroticism was positively related to addiction, banality, peer pressure, and privacy while conscientiousness was negatively related to peer pressure, addiction, annoyance, and emergence of new platforms. Openness was positively related with banality but negatively with addiction and peer pressure...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Lei Xia, Feng Jiang, Jeffrey Rakofsky, Yulong Zhang, Kai Zhang, Tingfang Liu, Yuanli Liu, Huanzhong Liu, Yi-Lang Tang
Objectives: Mental health professionals (MHPs) play an important role in treating patients with nicotine addiction. However, data on MHPs' cigarette smoking habits are scarce. This survey aimed to collect such data and to examine the correlates of smoking among MHPs working in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all 41 provincial, tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and MHPs from these hospitals were targeted. An anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect socio-demographic and occupational factors, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey was used to assess burnout...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lisa Schäfer, Ricarda Schmidt, Silke M Müller, Arne Dietrich, Anja Hilbert
Background: A growing body of research demonstrated impaired executive functions in individuals with severe obesity, including increased sensitivity to reward and impulsive decision making under risk conditions. For the assessment of decision making in patients with severe obesity, studies widely used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) or the Delay Discounting Task (DDT), which cover short-term or long-term consequences of decisions only. A further development originating from the field of addiction research is the Cards and Lottery Task (CLT), in which each decision made has conflicting immediate and long-term consequences at the same time...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rosa Jurado-Barba, Ana Sion, Andrés Martínez-Maldonado, Isabel Domínguez-Centeno, Julio Prieto-Montalvo, Francisco Navarrete, María Salud García-Gutierrez, Jorge Manzanares, Gabriel Rubio
Addiction management is complex, and it requires a bio-psycho-social perspective, that ought to consider the multiple etiological and developmental factors. Because of this, a large amount of resources has been allocated to assess the vulnerability to dependence, i.e., to identify the processes underlying the transition from substance use to dependence, as well as its course, in order to determine the key points in its prevention, treatment, and recovery. Consequently, knowledge \from neuroscience must be taken into account, which is why different initiatives have emerged with this objective, such as the "Research Domain Criteria" (RDoC), and the "Addiction Neuroclinical Assessment" (ANA)...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yinzhi Kang, Shuai Liu, Lulu Yang, Bixia Xu, Lianhong Lin, Likai Xie, Wanling Zhang, Jihui Zhang, Bin Zhang
Background: Mobile phone addiction behaviors (MPAB) are extensively associated with several mental and sleep problems. Only a limited number of bidirectional longitudinal papers have focused on this field. This study aimed to examine the bidirectional associations of MPAB with mental distress, sleep disturbances, and sleep patterns. Methods: A total of 940 and 902 (response rate: 95.9%) students participated at baseline and one-year follow-up, respectively. Self-reported severity of mobile phone addiction was measured using Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ)...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kurosh Gharagozli, Elham Lotfalinezhad, Fatemeh Amini, Vida Saii, Devender Bhalla
Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate fear related to epilepsy and its treatment among those with idiopathic epilepsy. Our secondary objective was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief Bhalla-Gharagozli Fear in epilepsy Questionnaire (BG-FEQ). Methods: We conducted patient-finding exercise in our study areas through various means to obtain subjects with idiopathic epilepsy. We carefully examined each patient through a detailed case-history examination...
2020: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Arielle R Deutsch, Arielle S Selya
The association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and CPD-calibrated polygenic risk scores (CPD-PGS) is positive, however, the shape of the association is unknown. CPD measurement is inconsistent across studies and different measurement can lead to different results. The pattern shape may also patterns may change over time, given differences in genetic influence on smoking. This study examines the dynamic pattern between number of cigarettes smoked and PGS-CPD over adolescence and young adulthood. A time-varying effects model in which CPD was the continuous dynamic variable, was estimated for ever-smokers in a nationally representative study tracking partiicpants over adolescence and young adulthood...
July 23, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Mopileola Tomi Adewumi, Nam Vo, Daniel Tritz, Jason Beaman, Matt Vassar
BACKGROUND: Credible research emphasizes transparency, openness, and reproducibility. These characteristics are fundamental to promoting and maintaining research integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current state of reproducibility in the field of addiction science. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. MEASUREMENTS: The National Library of Medicine catalog was searched for all journals using the subject terms tag: Substance-Related Disorders [ST]...
July 15, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Marcela Konjevod, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Suzana Uzun, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Oliver Kozumplik, Lucija Tudor, Ninoslav Mimica, Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Edward F Domino, Nela Pivac
Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. The underlying neurobiology of nicotine addiction is complex. Rewarding effects of nicotine from cigarettes are associated, among others, with mu-opioid receptors encoded by the OPRM1 gene. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between two OPRM1 gene polymorphisms, rs1799971 and rs510769, and tobacco smoking in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and healthy control subjects. The study included 1058 Caucasians (277 patients with schizophrenia, 359 patients with alcohol dependence, and 422 healthy control subjects), subdivided according to the nicotine dependence into smokers (i...
July 3, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Shoshana V Aronowitz, Peggy Compton, Heath D Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder and overdose have reached unprecedented levels in many countries across the globe, including the United States, and pain is one of the most common reasons American adults seek healthcare. To address the interrelated public health crises of opioid use disorder and chronic pain, it is vital that clinicians practicing in diverse roles and settings possess the ability and knowledge to effectively manage pain, responsibly prescribe and monitor opioid analgesics, educate patients about harm reduction techniques, and treat opioid use disorder...
August 3, 2020: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Haywood L Brown
Pregnant and postpartum women with opiate use disorder present a challenge in perinatal care. It is important for health care teams to provide sensitive and compassionate evidence-based care for these women, who often are stigmatized during the prenatal, delivery, and postpartum periods. Women with opiate use disorder are at risk for inadequate prenatal and postpartum care and for complications. Infants are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome and are expected to require neonatal intensive care. Pain management during labor and for cesarean delivery requires consultation and collaboration with providers who have expertise in management of addiction...
September 2020: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Maura MacPhee, Geoffrey Wong, Ruth Abrams, Katelyn Merrett
To provide effective, comprehensive care to increasingly complex patients in Canadian communities, healthcare providers are shifting from solo providers of primary care to interprofessional, team-based primary healthcare services. Team-based care is considered one of the most effective means of caring for complex patients, including frail elders and individuals with chronic illness, mental health issues and addictions. Team-based care relies on effective team processes, the social or relational processes that enhance team collaboration and decision making...
July 2020: Healthcare Quarterly
Michael J Petersen, Kathryne W Adams, Nicole F Siparsky
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain patients at risk of addiction can be identified through pre-prescription screening with the opioid risk tool (ORT); there is no equivalent for surgical patients. Our aims were to validate the ORT in the surgical population and assess the impact of patient education on compliance with proper storage and disposal (S&D) of unused opioid therapy (UOT). METHODS: Each subject completed the ORT, prevideo and postvideo surveys, educational video viewing, and compliance survey...
August 7, 2020: American Surgeon
Lei Yang, Zhiwu Wang, Pingping Jiang, Guozheng Yan, Dasheng Liu, Ding Han, Kai Zhao
A wearable wireless health monitoring system for drug addicts in compulsory rehabilitation centers was proposed. The system can continuously monitor multiple physiological parameters of drug addicts in real time, and issue early warning information when abnormal physiological parameters occur, so as to play the role of timely medical practice. In addition, this study proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN)model, which can evaluate the health status of drug addicts based on multiple physiological parameters...
April 8, 2020: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Małgorzata Frankowska, Fernando M Jesus, Christiane Mühle, Jéssica V N Pacheco, Rafael S Maior, Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Irena Smaga, Marcin Piechota, Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Małgorzata Filip, Christian P Müller, Marilia Barros
Cocaine addiction is a severe psychiatric condition for which currently no effective pharmacotherapy is available. Brain mechanisms for the establishment of addiction-related behaviors are still not fully understood, and specific biomarkers for cocaine use are not available. Sphingolipids are major membrane lipids, which shape neuronal membrane composition and dynamics in the brain. Here, we investigated how chronic cocaine exposure during establishment of addiction-related behaviors affects the activity of the sphingolipid rheostat controlling enzymes in the brain of rats...
August 5, 2020: Addiction Biology
Samuel J Harp, Mariangela Martini, Wendy J Lynch, Emilie F Rissman
The organizational/activational hypothesis suggests that gonadal steroid hormones like testosterone and estradiol are important at two different times during the lifespan when they perform two different functions. First steroids "organize" brain structures early in life and during puberty, and in adults these same hormones "activate" sexually dimorphic behaviors. This hypothesis has been tested and proven valid for a large number of behaviors (learning, memory, social and sexual behaviors)...
August 6, 2020: Endocrinology
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