Alessandro Alberto Rossi, Stefania Mannarini, Michelle Semonella, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa
BACKGROUND: Among the dysfunctional eating behaviors associated with excessive food intake, a construct that is gaining increasing attention is grazing-the constant, continuous, compulsive, and repetitive consumption of small/moderate amounts of food. Furthermore, in some cases, grazing seems to indicate a dependence on food and/or eating. Currently, the Repetitive Eating Questionnaire (Rep(Eat)-Q) appears to be the only questionnaire that comprehensively measures grazing, including its repetitive and compulsive eating component...
March 26, 2024: Nutrients
Guoqiang Hou, Mei Hao, Jiawen Duan, Ming-Hu Han
The midbrain dopamine system is a sophisticated hub that integrates diverse inputs to control multiple physiological functions, including locomotion, motivation, cognition, reward, as well as maternal and reproductive behaviors. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that binds to G-protein-coupled receptors. Dopamine also works together with other neurotransmitters and various neuropeptides to maintain the balance of synaptic functions. The dysfunction of the dopamine system leads to several conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction...
March 30, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diana Carreño, Antonella Facundo, My Trang Thi Nguyen, Shahrdad Lotfipour
We previously demonstrated that a genetic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2304297) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the human CHRNA 6 gene has sex- and genotype-dependent effects on nicotine-induced locomotion, anxiety, and nicotine + cue-induced reinstatement in adolescent rats. This study aims to investigate how the CHRNA 6 3'-UTR SNP influences dopaminergic and noradrenergic tissue levels in brain reward regions during baseline and after the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Naïve adolescent and adult rats, along with those undergoing nicotine + cue reinstatement and carrying the CHRNA 6 3'-UTR SNP, were assessed for dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and metabolites in reward pathway regions...
March 26, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Monika Biernat, Mariola Kuczer, Anna Adamska-Bartłomiejczyk, Alicja Kluczyk
Pain affects one-third of the global population and is a significant public health issue. The use of opioid drugs, which are the strongest painkillers, is associated with several side effects, such as tolerance, addiction, overdose, and even death. An increasing demand for novel, safer analgesic agents is a driving force for exploring natural sources of bioactive peptides with antinociceptive activity. Since the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in pain modulation, the discovery of new peptide ligands for GPCRs is a significant challenge for novel drug development...
March 29, 2024: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rossella Bruno, Anello Marcello Poma, Martina Panozzi, Alessandra Lenzini, Gianmarco Elia, Carmelina Cristina Zirafa, Vittorio Aprile, Marcello Carlo Ambrogi, Editta Baldini, Marco Lucchi, Franca Melfi, Antonio Chella, Andrea Sbrana, Greta Alì
Early-stage (ES) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. The preferred treatment is surgery, but a significant proportion of patients experience recurrence. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy has a limited clinical benefit. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy have recently opened new therapeutic scenarios. However, only a few data are available about the ES-NSCLC molecular landscape and the impact of oncogene addiction on therapy definition. Here, we determined the prevalence of the main lung cancer driver alterations in a monocentric consecutive cohort...
April 3, 2024: Cancers
Nicola Black, Sophie Chung, Calvert Tisdale, Luz Sousa Fialho, Apinun Aramrattana, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Alex Blaszczynski, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Wim van den Brink, Adrian Brown, Qiana L Brown, Linda B Cottler, Maury Elsasser, Marica Ferri, Maria Florence, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Ryan Hampton, Suzie Hudson, Peter J Kelly, Nicholas Lintzeris, Lynette Murphy, Abhijit Nadkarni, Joanne Neale, Daniel Rosen, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Brian Rush, Gabriel Segal, Gillian W Shorter, Marta Torrens, Christopher Wait, Katherine Young, Michael Farrell
Background: In 1990, the United States' Institute of Medicine promoted the principles of outcomes monitoring in the alcohol and other drugs treatment field to improve the evidence synthesis and quality of research. While various national outcome measures have been developed and employed, no global consensus on standard measurement has been agreed for addiction. It is thus timely to build an international consensus. Convened by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM), an international, multi-disciplinary working group reviewed the existing literature and reached consensus for a globally applicable minimum set of outcome measures for people who seek treatment for addiction...
April 8, 2024: Journal of Clinical Medicine
George Farmer, Joanne Lloyd
Video gamers can play to negate the psychological impact of stress, which may become problematic when users over-rely on the stress relief potential of gaming. This study used a repeated measures experimental design to investigate the relationships between stress, video gaming, and problematic video gaming behaviours in a convenience sample of 40 students at a UK university. The results indicated that positive affect increased and negative affect decreased, whilst a biological stress measure (instantaneous pulse rate) also decreased after a short video gaming session ( t (36) = 4...
April 2, 2024: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Florian De Meyer, Amine Zerrouk, Clara De Ruysscher, Wouter Vanderplasschen
INTRODUCTION: Research has established natural recovery (NR) as an important pathway to substance use recovery. Studies investigating correlates of NR have mainly focused on demographic and substance use variables rather than life circumstances. This study seeks to better understand the phenomenon of natural recovery by (i) validating the international scientific literature concerning demographic and substance use indicators of NR in Flanders and (ii) assessing the additional explanatory power of recovery strengths and barriers during active addiction, controlling for demographic and substance use covariates...
April 12, 2024: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Qi-Yi Zhang, Wen Ding, Jian-Shan Mo, Shu-Min Ou-Yang, Zi-You Lin, Ke-Ren Peng, Guo-Pin Liu, Jin-Jian Lu, Pei-Bin Yue, Jin-Ping Lei, Yan-Dong Wang, Xiao-Lei Zhang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of tumors, leading to resistance and poor prognosis. Activation of STAT3 signaling is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but potent and less toxic STAT3 inhibitors have not been discovered. Here, based on antisense technology, we designed a series of stabilized modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting STAT3 mRNA (STAT3 ASOs). Treatment with STAT3 ASOs decreased the STAT3 mRNA and protein levels in HCC cells...
April 12, 2024: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Emily F Galper, Nisha Gottfredson O'Shea, Caroline Ritchie, Alex Kresovich, Haijing Ma, Erin L Sutfin, Paschal Sheeran, Seth M Noar
Use of e-cigarettes and vapes among adolescents continues to be a major public health concern. Health communication efforts can discourage e-cigarette use among adolescents by influencing beliefs and behavior. However, to do so, studies need to identify the most promising themes and messages based on the latest evidence about the harms of e-cigarettes and vaping. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,603 US adolescents aged 13-17 years, recruited in the summer of 2022. Adolescents were randomly assigned to view 7 vaping prevention statements (one from each theme: nicotine addiction, chemical harms, health symptoms, mental health, organ effects, cosmetic effects, and monetary cost) and 1 control statement (vape litter theme) from a pool of 46 statements that were developed through a systematic process...
April 3, 2024: Social Science & Medicine
Stephen Hebard, GracieLee Weaver, William B Hansen, Scarlett Ruppert
BACKGROUND: Overprescription of opioids has led to increased misuse of opioids, resulting in higher rates of overdose. The workplace can play a vital role in an individual's intentions to misuse prescription opioids with injured workers being prescribed opioids, at a rate 3 times the national average. For example, health care workers are at risk for injuries, opioid dispensing, and diversion. Intervening within a context that may contribute to risks for opioid misuse while targeting individual psychosocial factors may be a useful complement to interventions at policy and prescribing levels...
April 12, 2024: JMIR Formative Research
Xinyu Zheng, Weiqing Jiang, Shuyi Peng, Qianyu Liu, Yitong He, Cuihong Huang, Yilin Hua, Ciyong Lu, Lan Guo
IMPORTANCE: Nonheterosexual and gender-nonconforming (GNC) individuals tend to report adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) more frequently compared with heterosexual and gender-conforming individuals, and individuals who have experienced ACEs, identify as nonheterosexual, or exhibit moderate to high levels of GNC are more prone to engaging in problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, there is limited school-based data among adolescents regarding this matter. OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations between ACEs and PSU among adolescents across different sexual orientation and gender expression groups...
April 1, 2024: JAMA Network Open
Sophie Köhne, Thomas Hillemacher, Alexander Glahn, Patrick Bach
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) poses an ongoing significant global health burden. AUD is highly prevalent and affects not only the individuals with AUD, but also their communities and society at large. Even though pharmacotherapy is an integral part of AUD treatment, the few available substances show limited efficacy and limited clinical impact. Thus, there is a need for new innovative pharmacotherapeutic approaches. AREAS COVERED: This paper provides a comprehensive review of drugs approved for the treatment of AUD as well as those currently in phase II and III development...
April 12, 2024: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Dylan K Richards, Felicia R Tuchman, Kevin A Hallgren, Henry R Kranzler, Henri-Jean Aubin, Stephanie S O'Malley, Karl Mann, Arnie Aldridge, Raymond F Anton, Katie Witkiewitz
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the validity of World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking level reductions as meaningful endpoints for clinical practice and research. This study examined whether such reductions were associated with a lower likelihood of a current alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis and fewer AUD criteria. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis to address these objectives using data from a multisite randomized controlled trial of gabapentin enacarbil extended release in treating moderate to severe AUD among adults (N = 346)...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Steven L Bernstein, Jessica E Yager, Keith Sigel, Elizabeth Porter, Tina Do, Erika Payne, Krysten Bold, David Ledgerwood, E Jennifer Edelman
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco contributes to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (PWHs). Nonetheless, medications for tobacco use disorder are widely underused, particularly among PWHs. We sought to characterize the extent to which insurance barriers impacted access to medications for tobacco use disorder and, in comparison, to access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data on individuals enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to address tobacco use involving nicotine replacement therapy and, for some, additionally, varenicline or bupropion...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Antonio Vita, Stefano Barlati, Matteo Porcellana, Elisa Sala, Jacopo Lisoni, Luisa Brogonzoli, Mauro Emilio Percudani, Rosaria Iardino
INTRODUCTION: The Patient Journey Project aimed to analyze the scenario among Italian Mental Health Services (MHS) to understand the clinical interventions that are properly implemented and the ones deserving further implementation to design an effective treatment plan for patients living with schizophrenia (PLWS). METHODS: The 60-items survey was co-designed with all the stakeholders (clinicians, expert patients and caregivers) involved in the Patient Journey and focused on three phases of schizophrenia course: early detection and management, acute phase management, long-term management/continuity of care...
2024: Frontiers in Psychiatry
John S Hutton, Jessica Taylor Piotrowski, Kara Bagot, Fran Blumberg, Turhan Canli, Jason Chein, Dimitri A Christakis, Jordan Grafman, James A Griffin, Tom Hummer, Daria J Kuss, Matthew Lerner, Stuart Marcovitch, Martin P Paulus, Greg Perlman, Rachel Romeo, Moriah E Thomason, Ofir Turel, Aviv Weinstein, Gregory West, Pamela Hurst-Della Pietra, Marc N Potenza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incorporation of digital technologies and their use in youth's everyday lives has been increasing rapidly over the past several decades with possible impacts on youth development and mental health. This narrative review aimed to consider how the use of digital technologies may be influencing brain development underlying adaptive and maladaptive screen-related behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: To explore and provide direction for further scientific inquiry, an international group of experts considered what is known, important gaps in knowledge, and how a research agenda might be pursued regarding relationships between screen media activity and neurodevelopment from infancy through childhood and adolescence...
2024: Current Addiction Reports
Gabriella Gálffy, Éva Morócz, Réka Korompay, Réka Hécz, Réka Bujdosó, Rita Puskás, Tímea Lovas, Eszter Gáspár, Kamel Yahya, Péter Király, Zoltán Lohinai
The complex therapeutic strategy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed significantly in recent years. Disease-free survival increased significantly with immunotherapy and chemotherapy registered in perioperative treatments, as well as adjuvant registered immunotherapy and targeted therapy (osimertinib) in case of EGFR mutation. In oncogenic-addictive metastatic NSCLC, primarily in adenocarcinoma, the range of targeted therapies is expanding, with which the expected overall survival increases significantly, measured in years...
2024: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Shuangyi Qu, Ruiyu Li, Jianfeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent comorbidity of affective and addictive disorders, the significance of affective dysregulation in problematic pornography use (PPU) is commonly disregarded. The objective of this study is to investigate whether individuals with PPU demonstrate increased sensitivity to negative emotional stimuli in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Electrophysiological responses were captured via event-related potentials (ERPs) from 27 individuals with PPU and 29 HCs...
2024: Frontiers in Psychology
Husain Abbas, Nazish Rasheed, Utsav A Mani, Mukesh Kumar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The 21st century has witnessed a surge in global internet usage, particularly in developing nations like India. Internet addiction, also known as pathological internet use (PIU) or internet addiction (IA), has emerged as a mental health concern, especially among university students. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IA among MBBS students in a medical college in Delhi, India, and explore the association of IA with sociodemographic and internet usage patterns...
February 2024: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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