Kavinash Loganathan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho
Over the years, various models have been proposed to explain the psychology and biology of drug addiction, built primarily around the habit and compulsion models. Recent research indicates drug addiction may be goal-directed, motivated by excessive valuation of drugs. Drug consumption may initially occur for the sake of pleasure but may transition to a means of escaping withdrawal, stress and negative emotions. In this hypothetical paper, we propose a value-based neurobiological model for drug addiction. We posit that during dependency, the value-based decision-making system in the brain is not inactive but has instead prioritized drugs as the reward of choice...
January 7, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Audrey Hang Hai, Sehun Oh, Abdulaziz Alsolami, Michael G Vaughn
PURPOSE: The present study aims to examine trends in cannabis views and use among US adults who are alcohol abstainers, non-binge drinkers, and binge drinkers. METHODS: We used data from the 2002-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (US adults ages 18 and older, n = 664,152). Consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, we conducted survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to examine the significance of survey year in relation to cannabis views/use while controlling for demographic factors...
January 7, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Andrew W Hertel, Scott A Baldwin, Kirsten P Peterson, Kristen P Lindgren
Cross-sectional research has demonstrated that endorsing, or acknowledging, and frequently thinking about having a drinking identity are uniquely and positively associated with alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking. In the current investigation, we evaluated whether these facets of drinking identity indicated a latent drinking identity variable. We also investigated whether greater identification with drinking predicted subsequent increases in alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking, and whether higher levels of these drinking behavior variables predicted subsequent increases in identification with drinking...
December 24, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Mauro Pettorruso, Giulia Testa, Roser Granero, Giovanni Martinotti, Giacomo d'Andrea, Massimo di Giannantonio, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Laura Moragas, Isabel Baenas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutierrez, Ester Codina, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, Francesca Zoratto, Susana Valero-Solís, Elías Guillen-Guzmán, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling Disorder (GD) is considered a heterogeneous, multidimensional pathology with high personal and social consequences. The transition time (TT) between problematic gaming and pathological gambling, which varies significantly across patients, may predict the disorder's severity. As only limited studies have investigated the factors implicated in the TT, the current study set out to identify its predictors and their relationships with GD severity. METHODS: Correlation were performed in 725 male GD patients to identify factors associated to TT and GD severity, including: age of onset of gambling behaviors, alcohol/drug use, personality traits and gambling preferences (i...
December 31, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Carolina Escobar
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Individuals ailing from night eating syndrome (NES) consume more than 25% of their daily food intake during the normal sleep time, delaying their sleep or waking up in the middle of the night to eat. This study explored two experimental conditions resembling NES in Wistar rats by offering palatable food during the sleep phase, alone or combined with sleep delay. Also we explored their impact on addiction-like changes in the brain and behavior. METHODS: Experiment 1 explored the brain response after a first NES-like event; experiment 2 and 3 explored addiction-like behaviors c-Fos and FosB/ΔFosB in corticolimbic regions after 4 weeks exposition to NES-like conditions and after one week of withdrawal, respectively...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, S Claudio-Neto, E Oliveira, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Tobacco smoke during gestation is associated with increased consumption of palatable foods by the offspring in humans and rats. Postpartum relapse is observed in lactating women who quit smoking during pregnancy, putting their children at risk of adverse health outcomes caused by secondhand smoke. Nicotine is transferred through milk and alters the dopaminergic reward system of adult male rats, reducing dopamine action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we evaluated the long-term effects of nicotine-only exposure during lactation on eating behavior, anxiety, locomotion, dopaminergic system, hypothalamic leptin signaling and nicotinic receptor in the adult female rat progeny...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
Yingqi Wang, Yan Pan, Zhangyin Cai, Chao Lei, Xinli Guo, Dongyang Cui, Yu Yuan, Bin Lai, Ping Zheng
Drug relapse can be mainly ascribed to the retrieval of drug withdrawal memory induced by conditioned context. Previous studies have shown that the central nucleus of the amygdala lateral division (CeL) could be activated by conditioned context. However, what source of input that activates the CeL during conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory remains unknown. In this study, using retrograde labeling, immunohistochemistry, local microinjection and chemogenetic technologies, we found that (1) Conditioned context induced an activation of the CeL and the inhibition of the CeL inhibited the context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory; (2) the inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT) or PVT-CeL projection neurons caused an attenuation of the activation of the CeL by conditioned context and conditioned place aversion (CPA); (3) the inhibition of the locus coeruleus (LC) or LC-CeL projection neurons decreased the activation of the CeL by conditioned context and CPA...
January 13, 2021: Experimental Neurology
Huiping Ding, Mei-Chuan Ko
Preclinical opioid research using animal models not only provides mechanistic insights into the modulation of opioid analgesia and its associated side effects, but also validates drug candidates for improved treatment options for opioid use disorder. Non-human primates (NHPs) have served as a surrogate species for humans in opioid research for more than five decades. The translational value of NHP models is supported by the documented species differences between rodents and primates regarding their behavioral and physiological responses to opioid-related ligands and that NHP studies have provided more concordant results with human studies...
January 13, 2021: Experimental Neurology
Samriti Midha, Daniel J Rigden, Stefanos Siozios, Gregory D D Hurst, Andrew P Jackson
Bacterial endosymbiosis has been instrumental in eukaryotic evolution, and includes both mutualistic, dependent and parasitic associations. Here we characterize an intracellular bacterium inhabiting the flagellated protist Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida). We present a complete bacterial genome comprising a 1.39 Mb circular chromosome with 40.6% GC content. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation confirms that the endosymbiont is located adjacent to the nuclear membrane, and a detailed model of its intracellular niche is generated using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy...
January 15, 2021: ISME Journal
Ahmed A Abdelrahman, Mostafa Noaman, Mohamed Fawzy, Amira Moheb, Ahmed A Karim, Eman M Khedr
High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) is a widely applied treatment protocol for chronic smoking and major depressive disorder. However, no previous study has measured the effects of rTMS on both nicotine consumption and anxiety/depression in the same volunteers despite the relationship between them. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of 10 daily sessions of HF-rTMS over the L-DLPFC in chronic cigarette smokers' addiction and investigate the possible beneficial effects of this treatment procedure on symptoms of depression and anxiety in the same subjects...
January 15, 2021: Scientific Reports
Luisa Cortellazzo Wiel, Giorgio Cozzi, Egidio Barbi
Opioid-related mortality in adolescents is spreading in the US, with prescription opioids playing a crucial role in the development of addiction. We traced back to the process leading to the so called "opioid overflow", trying to identify any modifiable attitude.Since the late 1990s, pain was labelled as the "fifth vital sign" and its proper management was prompted, encouraging the use of opioids for any pain scored at a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of 7 or higher. This assumption has some remarkable limitations...
January 15, 2021: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Xiaoqing Zeng, Chuyi Tan
To explore the relationship between family functioning, psychological capital, life history strategy, and relapse tendency of individuals with drug addiction, 842 individuals with drug addiction completed a questionnaire. The results showed that (1) there was a significant negative correlation between the family functioning of individuals with drug addiction and their relapse tendency; (2) psychological capital played an intermediary role between family functioning and relapse tendency; and (3) life history strategy regulated the mediating effect of psychological capital...
January 13, 2021: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gabor Toth, Krisztian Kapus, David Hesszenberger, Marietta Pohl, Gabor Kosa, Julianna Kiss, Gabriella Pusch, Eva Fejes, Antal Tibold, Gergely Feher
The extensive availability of the internet has led to the recognition of problematic internet use, the so-called Internet Addiction (IA), mostly involving adolescents. Burnout can lead to substance abuse or addictive behaviour (such as internet addiction) as a coping method. There are insufficient data about internet addiction and its possible association with burnout in adults, especially among healthcare workers. The aim of our present study was to focus on prevalence and the risk factors of internet addiction and its possible association with burnout among healthcare workers in a single hospital applying a questionnaire-based survey...
January 13, 2021: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Terril L Verplaetse, MacKenzie R Peltier, Walter Roberts, Brian Pittman, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: Rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have increased in women in the last decade. Women may be more likely to engage in alcohol use to regulate stress and negative affect compared to men. Findings from our group found that life event stress was more strongly associated with new AUD in women vs. men. Our aim was to extend these findings to psychological distress, a potentially related construct to stress, using a second nationally representative dataset. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; 2008-2017, total n = 562,072), we examined time-varying associations between gender and past year serious psychological distress (SPD; Kessler-6 distress scale: scores > 13 yes, <13 no) with past year vs...
January 6, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
C Kervran, D Shmulewitz, F Serre, C Denis, P Roux, M Jauffret-Roustide, L Lalanne, D Hasin, M Auriacombe
AIM: To examine differences in the psychometric characteristics of diagnostic criteria for Substance Use Disorders (SUD) between substance users in harm reduction settings (HR) and substance users seeking treatment (Tx). METHODS: Differential Item and Test Functioning (DIF & DTF) analysis were performed to examine differences in the difficulty of endorsement and in discrimination of the 11 diagnostic criteria and to test if the criteria set as a whole (the "test") functioned differently by care settings (Tx vs...
December 25, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Pauline Texier, Patricia Bordes, Jyotsna Nagpal, Ambre Julie Sala, Moise Mansour, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Xibing Xu, David Andrew Dougan, Pierre Genevaux
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a deleterious toxin and its antagonistic antitoxin. They are widespread in bacterial genomes and mobile genetic elements, and their functions remain largely unknown. Some TA systems, known as TAC modules, include a cognate SecB-like chaperone that assists the antitoxin in toxin inhibition. Here, we have investigated the involvement of proteases in the activation cycle of the TAC system of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We show that the deletion of endogenous AAA+ proteases significantly bypasses the need for a dedicated chaperone and identify the mycobacterial ClpXP1P2 complex as the main protease involved in TAC antitoxin degradation...
January 12, 2021: Journal of Molecular Biology
Jesús Castro-Calvo, Daniel L King, Dan J Stein, Matthias Brand, Lior Carmi, Samuel R Chamberlain, Zsolt Demetrovics, Naomi A Fineberg, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Murat Yücel, Sophia Achab, Atul Ambekar, Norharlina Bahar, Alexander Blaszczynski, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Xavier Carbonell, Elda Mei Lo Chan, Chih-Hung Ko, Philippe de Timary, Magali Dufour, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Hae Kook Lee, Susumu Higuchi, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Orsolya Király, Daria J Kuss, Jiang Long, Astrid Müller, Stefano Pallanti, Marc N Potenza, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, John B Saunders, Adriano Schimmenti, Seung-Yup Lee, Kristiana Siste, Daniel T Spritzer, Vladan Starcevic, Aviv M Weinstein, Klaus Wölfling, Joël Billieux
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following the recognition of 'internet gaming disorder' (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM-5, 'gaming disorder' (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). However, the proposed diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder remain the subject of debate, and there has been no systematic attempt to integrate the views of different groups of experts...
January 15, 2021: Addiction
Paul Griffiths, Jane Mounteney, Roumen Sedefov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2021: Addiction
Sophie Baumann, Andreas Staudt, Jennis Freyer-Adam, Gallus Bischof, Christian Meyer, Ulrich John
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence for efficacy of brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) is mostly limited to primary care and at-risk drinkers. The aim was to test the efficacy of a BAI addressing the full spectrum of alcohol use in a general population sample and across alcohol risk groups. DESIGN: Two-parallel-group randomized controlled trial (allocation ratio 1:1) with post-baseline assessments at months 3, 6, and 12. SETTING: One municipal registry office in Germany responsible for registration, passport and vehicle admission issues...
January 15, 2021: Addiction
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