Jinglu Lu, Ziping Wu, Jing Peng, Shuguang Xu, Liheng Zhou, Yanping Lin, Yan Wang, Wenjin Yin, Jinsong Lu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PD-L1 gene are related to the response and adverse events of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy and to explore the mechanism. METHODS: Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms of PD-L1 were selected and tested among patients before neoadjuvant therapy. Four models were used in single nucleotide polymorphism genotype analysis: the addictive model compared TT vs TA vs AA; the dominant model compared TT vs TA+AA; the recessive model compared TT+TA vs AA; and the over-dominant model compared TT+AA vs TA (A as the minor allele)...
October 19, 2020: International Journal of Biological Markers
Zahra Amini Pozveh, Zeinab Saleh
Background: Substance abuse has turned into a great problem in the worldwide. Considering the increased prevalence of addiction in this study, we tried to assess the role of social skills aspects in tendency to addiction among the adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 high school students studying in the Isfahan City, Iran, from 2016 to 2018. The studied population was assessed using addiction tendency questionnaire and Matson's social skills questionnaire...
2020: Advanced Biomedical Research
Parastoo Hassani Abharian, Parvin Dehghan, Peyman Hassani-Abharian, Zahra Jabalameli
Background: Candida species are a group of coexistent microorganisms in the oral cavity that opportunistically cause disease in vulnerable people, including addicts. This study is aimed at identifying and determining the frequency of Candida species in the oral cavity of the addicts to inform the epidemiological panel and to warn to prevent the resistance of the species. Materials and Methods: In this study, sampling was done from the oral cavity of 83 addicts who referred to Addiction Treatment Centers in Isfahan, Iran, using moist sterile swab...
2020: Advanced Biomedical Research
Laura Micheli, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Elena Lucarini, Carmen Parisio, Alessandra Toti, Bruno Fiorentino, Maria Adele Rigamonti, Laura Calosi, Carla Ghelardini
Opioids are broad spectrum analgesics that are an integral part of the therapeutic armamentarium to combat pain in the clinical practice. Unfortunately, together with analgesia, a number of adverse effects can occur such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, gastrointestinal alterations and cognitive impairments. Naltrexone is a competitive antagonist of opioid receptors commonly used to treat opioid addiction; its oral use against agonists side effects is limited by the decrease of opioids-therapeutic efficacy and own adverse effects...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Amandine Billaud, Louise-Marie Chevalier, Mario Campone, Alain Morel, Frédéric Bigot
Genomic instability is one of the main properties of tumour development, promoting first the acquisition of genetic alterations and thus carcinogenesis. Then, the chronic and anarchic proliferation of cancer cells also supports and contributes to this instability allowing a continuous evolution of the tumour. The accumulation of mutations resulting from that instability contributes to tumour heterogeneity that occurs in a specific environment. The resulting diversity of oncogenic drivers further complicates the characterization of the origin of cancer cells dysfunction and consequently therapeutic decision...
October 15, 2020: Bulletin du Cancer
Te Zhang, Xuming Song, Zeyu Zhang, Qixing Mao, Wenjie Xia, Lin Xu, Feng Jiang, Gaochao Dong
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) relies on dysregulated gene expression to sustain its infinite growth and progression. Emerging evidence indicates that aberrant transcriptional program results from core transcriptional regulatory circuitry (CRC) which is driven by super-enhancers (SEs). In this study, by integrating profiles of H3K27Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) from normal adult lung and LUAD cell lines, we revealed that widespread alterations of the super-enhancer were presence during lung carcinogenesis...
October 17, 2020: Oncogenesis
Elwin Wu, Jennifer Villani, Alissa Davis, Naleef Fareed, Daniel R Harris, Timothy R Huerta, Marc R LaRochelle, Cortney C Miller, Emmanuel A Oga
BACKGROUND: With opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and opioid overdose deaths persisting at epidemic levels in the U.S., the largest implementation study in addiction research-the HEALing Communities Study (HCS)-is evaluating the impact of the Communities That Heal (CTH) intervention on reducing opioid overdose deaths in 67 disproportionately affected communities from four states (i.e., "sites"). Community-tailored dashboards are central to the CTH intervention's mandate to implement a community-engaged and data-driven process...
October 1, 2020: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rosario Garcia-Campelo, Oscar Arrieta, Bartomeu Massuti, Delvys Rodriguez-Abreu, Ana Laura Ortega Granados, Margarita Majem, David Vicente, Pilar Lianes, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Amelia Insa, Manuel Dómine, Noemí Reguart, María Guirado, María Ángeles Sala, Sergio Vázquez-Estevez, Reyes Bernabé Caro, Ana Drozdowskyj, Ana Verdú, Niki Karachaliou, Miguel Angel Molina-Vila, Rafael Rosell
OBJECTIVES: Progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) varies in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven byEGFR mutations, suggesting that other genetic alterations may influence oncogene addiction. Low BRCA1 mRNA levels correlate with longer PFS in erlotinib-treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Since the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, may attenuate and/or prevent BRCA1 expression, the addition of olaparib to gefitinib could improve outcome in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC...
October 3, 2020: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Gene Y Im, Jessica L Mellinger, Adam Winters, Elizabeth S Aby, Zurabi Lominadze, John Rice, Michael R Lucey, Juan P Arab, Aparna Goel, Loretta L Jophlin, Courtney B Sherman, Richard Parker, Po-Hung Chen, Deepika Devuni, Sandeep Sidhu, Winston Dunn, Gyongyi Szabo, Ashwani K Singal, Vijay H Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: While abstinence-promoting behavioral and pharmaco-therapies are part of the therapeutic foundation for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), these therapies, along with alcohol screening and education, are often underutilized. Our aim was to examine provider attitudes and practices for alcohol screening, treatment and education in patients with liver disease. METHODS: We conducted a survey of primarily (89%) hepatology and gastroenterology providers within (80%) and outside the US (20%)...
October 15, 2020: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Wei Lei, Kezhi Liu, Zhen Zeng, Xuemei Liang, Chaohua Huang, Ke Gong, Wenying He, Bo Xiang, Jin Zhang, Xiaojiao Zheng, Jing Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Kathryn Biernacki, Mei-Heng Lin, Travis E Baker
BACKGROUND: Theoretical and empirical work suggest that addictive drugs potentiate dopaminergic reinforcement learning signals and disrupt the reward function of its neural targets, including the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and the basal ganglia. Here, we aim to use prefrontal 10-Hz TMS to enhance aMCC reward activity and reward learning by the basal ganglia in problematic substance users. METHODS: 22 problematic substance users were randomized into an Active and SHAM (coil flipped) TMS group...
October 14, 2020: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 7th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This series focuses on personal behavior patterns, including substance use disorders, physical inactivity/obesity, and non-adherence with medical regimens, which are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and premature death. This 7th issue includes 17 commentaries, reviews, and original empirical studies, 16 of which are devoted to current tobacco control and regulatory science research and policy, topics critically important to protecting the public health from the longstanding and devastating harms of tobacco use...
October 14, 2020: Preventive Medicine
Sabrine Sediri, Yosra Zgueb, Sami Ouanes, Uta Ouali, Soumaya Bourgou, Rabaa Jomli, Fethi Nacef
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a situation of general distress. Although the focus has been initially more on the physical health during the pandemic, mental health concerns linked to the lockdown have quickly risen. This study aims to assess the effect of the COVID-19-related lockdown on Tunisian women's mental health and gender-based violence. An online survey was conducted, using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Facebook Bergen Addiction Scale (FBAS). We chose a female-exclusive social group on Facebook and used the snowball sampling method...
October 17, 2020: Archives of Women's Mental Health
John Drake, Gowon O McMichael, Eric Sean Vornholt, Kellen Cresswell, Vernell Williamson, Chris Chatzinakos, Mohammed Mamdani, Siddharth Hariharan, Kenneth S Kendler, Gursharan Kalsi, Brien P Riley, Mikhail Dozmorov, Michael F Miles, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Vladimir I Vladimirov
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) have been implicated in the etiology of alcohol use. Since lncRNA provide another layer of complexity to the transcriptome, assessing their expression in the brain is the first critical step towards understanding lncRNA functions in alcohol use and addiction. Thus, we sought to profile lncRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens in a large postmortem alcohol brain sample. METHODS: LncRNA and protein-coding genes (PCG) expressions in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) from 41 subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) and 41 controls was assessed via a regression model...
October 17, 2020: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael J Silverberg, Tory Levine-Hall, Nicole Hood, Alexandra N Anderson, Stacey E Alexeeff, Jennifer O Lam, Sally B Slome, Jason A Flamm, C Bradley Hare, Thekla Ross, Amy Justice, Jonathan A C Sterne, Andrew Williams, Kendall J Bryant, Constance M Weisner, Michael A Horberg, Stacy A Sterling, Derek D Satre
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy alcohol use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is linked to significant morbidity and use of alcohol services may differ by HIV status. Our objective was to compare unhealthy alcohol use screening and treatment by HIV status in primary care. METHODS: Cohort study of adult (≥18 years) PLWH and HIV-uninfected participants frequency-matched 20:1 to PLWH by age, sex, and race/ethnicity who were enrolled in a large integrated healthcare system in the United States, with information ascertained from an electronic health record...
October 17, 2020: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jia Yu, Permeen Akhtar Bt Mohamed Yuso, Daniëlle T J Woutersen, Pamela Goh, Nathan Harmston, Ron Smits, David Epstein, David M Virshup, Babita Madan
A subset of Wnt-addicted cancers are sensitive to targeted therapies that block Wnt secretion or receptor engagement. RNF43 loss-of-function mutations that increase cell surface Wnt receptor abundance cause sensitivity to Wnt inhibitors. However, it is not clear which of the clinically identified RNF43 mutations affect its function in vivo. Here we assayed 119 missense and 45 truncating RNF43 mutations found in human cancers using a combination of cell-based reporter assays, genome editing, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 16, 2020: Cancer Research
Craig T Werner, Rachel D Altshuler, Yavin Shaham, Xuan Li
A growing body of evidence from the past 15 years implicates epigenetic mechanisms in the behavioral effects of addictive drugs. The main focus of these studies has been epigenetic mechanisms of psychomotor sensitization and drug reinforcement, as assessed by the conditioned place preference and drug self-administration procedures. Some of these studies have documented long-lasting changes in the expression of epigenetic enzymes and molecules that persist for weeks after the last drug exposure. These observations have inspired more recent investigations on the epigenetic mechanisms of relapse to drug seeking after prolonged abstinence...
August 14, 2020: Biological Psychiatry
M Shahid Mansuri, Gang Peng, Rashaun S Wilson, TuKiet T Lam, Hongyu Zhao, Kenneth R Williams, Angus C Nairn
Many neurological disorders and diseases including drug addiction are associated with specific neuronal cell types in the brain. The striatum, a region that plays a critically important role in the development of addictive drug-related behavior, provides a good example of the cellular heterogeneity challenges associated with analyses of specific neuronal cell types. Such studies are needed to identify the adaptive changes in neuroproteomic signaling that occur in response to diseases such as addiction. The striatum contains two major cell types, D1 and D2 type dopaminoceptive medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose cell bodies and processes are intermingled throughout this region...
October 13, 2020: Proteomes
Shane N Glackin, Tom Roberts, Joel Krueger
In addiction, apparently causally significant phenomena occur at a huge number of levels; addiciton is affected by biomedical, neurological, pharmacological, clinical, social, and politico-legal factors, among many others. In such a complex, multifaceted field of inquiry, it seems very unlikely that all the many layers of explanation will prove amenable to any simple or straightforward, reductive analysis; if we are to unify the many different sciences of addiction while respecting their causal autonomy, then, what we are likely to need is an integrative framework...
October 13, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Jihyeon Ha, Wanjoo Park, Sang In Park, Chang-Hwan Im, Laehyun Kim
Recently, the World Health Organization included "gaming disorder" in its latest revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-11). Despite extensive research on internet gaming disorder (IGD), few studies have addressed game-related stimuli eliciting craving, which plays an important role in addiction. Particularly, most previous studies did not consider personal preferences in games presented to subjects as stimuli. In this study, we compared neurophysiological responses elicited for favorite game (FG) videos and non-favorite game (NFG) videos...
October 16, 2020: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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