Aneta Lew-Koralewicz, Anna Gagat-Matuła
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders are a diagnostic unit predisposing the occurrence of challenging behaviors. Depending on their frequency and severity, behavioral problems may significantly limit the developmental possibilities of people with ASD, and also significantly affect family life and the therapeutic process. Aggressive, self-injury, destructive or stereotypic behaviors require intervention based on individualized support, the basis of which should be a functional assessment...
July 19, 2021: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Thea S Skogheim, Kjell Vegard F Weyde, Heidi Aase, Stephanie M Engel, Pål Surén, Merete G Øie, Guido Biele, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Line S Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Bonnie Auyeung, Gro D Villanger
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental deficits and disorders, but evidence is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFAS were associated with childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study and included n = 821 ADHD cases, n = 400 ASD cases and n = 980 controls...
July 19, 2021: Environmental Research
Isaac S Kohane
Successes in neuroscience using a genetics-first approach to characterizing disorders such as autism have eclipsed the scientific and clinical value of a comprehensive phenotype-first-clinical or molecular-approach. Recent high-throughput phenotyping techniques using machine learning, electronic medical records, and even administrative databases show the value of a synthesis between the two approaches.
July 21, 2021: Neuron
Ana Kostic, Joseph D Buxbaum
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and etiologically diverse developmental condition characterized by diminished social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. Recent advances in ASD genetics pave the way for implementation of precision medicine in clinical management of autism.
July 21, 2021: Neuron
Zhuo Fu, Yue-Xin Jia, Jun-Xian Fu, Tian-Xia Li, Jing-Jing Zhao, Ting Wang, Zhi-Dong Qiao, Xiao-Yang Liu, Rong Tang, Ting Lv, Guang-Lu Yang
BACKGROUND: The chromosomal 15q11-q13 regions are structurally complex, and their abnormalities are associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, Angelman syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old child was admitted to the hospital as a result of an "epileptic status" showing ASD, intractable epilepsy, and total developmental retardation. Chromosome gene detection showed repetitive variation in the 15q11-q13 regions, and the video electroencephalogram was abnormal...
July 21, 2021: Brain and Behavior
Karl Lundin Remnélius, Janina Neufeld, Johan Isaksson, Sven Bölte
This study investigated the association between autism and self-reported eating problems and the influence of gender on the association, in a sample of adolescent and adult twins (N = 192). Autistic traits and autism diagnosis were associated with both total and specific eating problems, including selective eating and sensory sensitivity during mealtimes. Interaction effects indicated a stronger association between autistic traits and total eating problems in females, as well as more difficulties with eating in social contexts among autistic females...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Hidenobu Sumioka, Taro Muramatsu, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Jiro Shimaya, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Masaru Mimura
Sensory overresponsivity (SOR) emerges before anxiety and positively predicts subsequent increasing levels of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sensory seeking behavior occurs as compensation for SOR, and individuals may seek sensory input in one sensory domain to compensate for SOR. Tactile seeking behavior is sufficient to decrease social anxiety in communicating with unfamiliar people. We assessed the effectiveness of hugging a huggable device before a conversation for reducing the psychological stress associated with speaking to an unfamiliar person or robot...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Emma K Baker, Sheena Arora, David J Amor, Perrin Date, Meagan Cross, James O'Brien, Chloe Simons, Carolyn Rogers, Stephen Goodall, Jennie Slee, Chris Cahir, David E Godler
The study characterised differences in costs associated with raising a child between four rare disorders and examined the associations between these costs with clinical severity. Caregivers of 108 individuals with Prader-Willi, Angelman (AS), Chromosome 15q Duplication and fragile X (FXS) syndromes completed a modified Client Services Receipt Inventory and participants completed intellectual/developmental functioning and autism assessments. AS incurred the highest yearly costs per individual ($AUD96,994), while FXS had the lowest costs ($AUD33,221)...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Patrick Dwyer, Xiaodong Wang, Rosanna De Meo-Monteil, Fushing Hsieh, Clifford D Saron, Susan M Rivera
Although prior studies have compared sensory event-related potential (ERP) responses between groups of autistic and typically-developing participants, it is unclear how heterogeneity contributes to the results of these studies. The present study used examined individual differences in these responses. 130 autistic children and 81 typically-developing children, aged between 2 and 5 years, listened to tones at four identity levels while 61-channel electroencephalography was recorded. Hierarchical clustering was used to group participants based on rescaled ERP topographies between 51 and 350 ms...
July 22, 2021: Brain Topography
Zhaowei Tu, Chen Wang, Ashley K Davis, Mengwen Hu, Chuntao Zhao, Mei Xin, Q Richard Lu, Yi Zheng
The Chd8 gene encodes a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family of SNF2H-like adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeler, the mutations of which define a subtype of autism spectrum disorders. Increasing evidence from recent studies indicates that ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling genes are involved in the control of crucial gene-expression programs in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) regulation. In this study, we identified CHD8 as a specific and essential regulator of normal hematopoiesis...
July 22, 2021: Blood
Hasan Bozkurt, Şeref Şimşek, Serkan Şahin
Several studies demonstrated biological effects of cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on human metabolism and central nervous system. Our study investigated the serum levels of tPA along with BDNF and cortisol in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thirty three male children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 15 years were selected for the study group and 27 age-matched healthy male children were selected for the control group. The ASD severity was determined by the score on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)...
July 22, 2021: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jane Goodwin, Priyanka Rob, Mark Freeston, Deborah Garland, Victoria Grahame, Ashleigh Kernohan, Marie Labus, Malcolm Osborne, Jeremy R Parr, Catharine Wright, Jacqui Rodgers
Anxiety is common in autistic children. Research shows that this may be related to intolerance of uncertainty, which is a tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations. Understanding when, why and how autistic children respond to uncertainty is important in the development of anxiety programmes. We asked 53 (including 3 dyads) parents of autistic children about the types of uncertain situations that cause difficulties for their child and how uncertainty impacts on daily life for them and their families...
July 22, 2021: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Kate Cooper, Ailsa Russell, Steph Calley, Huilin Chen, Jaxon Kramer, Bas Verplanken
A core feature of autism is the tendency to do the same activity or behaviour repetitively. We wanted to find out if autistic people also experience repetitive thinking, for example, having the same thoughts repeatedly. We thought that there would be a link between repetitive behaviour and repetitive thinking. We asked 54 autistic people and 66 non-autistic people to complete questionnaires measuring repetitive behaviours and obsessive thinking. Next, participants were trained by a researcher to record their thoughts using a structured paper form...
July 22, 2021: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Alexandra Sturrock, Helen Chilton, Katie Foy, Jenny Freed, Catherine Adams
Subtle language and communication difficulties are experienced by many autistic individuals even when they do not have additional learning disabilities. These difficulties may affect a person's day-to-day living, social relationships and emotional well-being. However, currently, there is not much research into this topic. To date, no one has asked autistic children about their own language and communication difficulties or how they feel it affects them. Asking the children could provide valuable new insights...
July 22, 2021: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Michelle Dawson, Sue Fletcher-Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2021: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Vellingiri Balachandar, Kamarajan Rajagopalan, Kaavya Jayaramayya, Madesh Jeevanandam, Mahalaxmi Iyer
Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorder with no precise etiology. Deficits in cognitive functions uncover at early stages and are known to have an environmental and genetic basis. Since autism is multifaceted and also linked with other comorbidities associated with various organs, there is a possibility that there may be a fundamental cellular process responsible for this. These reasons place mitochondria at the point of interest as it is involved in multiple cellular processes predominantly involving metabolism...
September 2021: Genes & Diseases
Faisal A Nawaz, Meshal A Sultan
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of low birth weight and other perinatal risk factors in children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. This is one of the first studies in the Arabian Gulf region focused on the contribution of these factors toward the development of various disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and other mental disorders. This descriptive study was based on qualitative data analysis. We reviewed retrospective information from the electronic medical records of 692 patients in Dubai, United Arab Emirates...
2021: Global Pediatric Health
Laila Yousif Al-Ayadhi, Farah Ali Alghamdi, Lamees Abdula Altamimi, Luluh Yousef Alsughayer, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Dost Muhammad Halepoto
Objectives: To investigate the blood plasma levels of Fetuin-A protein in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and healthy controls that could offer novel diagnostic biomarkers of disease development in ASD. Another objective was to investigate the severity of autistic children by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Methods: This case control study was carried out at Autism Research and Treatment (ART) Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2019 to February 2020...
July 2021: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
David Q Beversdorf, Ayten Shah, Allison Jhin, Janelle Noel-MacDonnell, Patrick Hecht, Bradley J Ferguson, Danielle Bruce, Michael Tilley, Zohreh Talebizadeh
Background: Genetics and environment both are critical in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their interaction (G × E) is less understood. Numerous studies have shown higher incidence of stress exposures during pregnancies with children later diagnosed with ASD. However, many stress-exposed mothers have unaffected children. The serotonin transporter ( SERT ) gene affects stress reactivity. Two independent samples have shown that the association between maternal stress exposure and ASD is greatest with maternal presence of the SERT short (S)-allele (deletion in the promoter region)...
2021: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Janelle E Stanton, Sigita Malijauskaite, Kieran McGourty, Andreas M Grabrucker
Metal dyshomeostasis plays a significant role in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and many more. Like studies investigating the proteome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, etc., for years, metallomics studies have focused on data from their domain, i.e., trace metal composition, only. Still, few have considered the links between other "omes," which may together result in an individual's specific pathologies. In particular, ASD have been reported to have multitudes of possible causal effects...
2021: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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