Emma Gowen, Rachel Taylor, Thomas Bleazard, Anat Greenstein, Peter Baimbridge, Daniel Poole
There has been growing awareness of the concern expressed by autism communities that the majority of research conducted does not reflect the priorities or needs of autistic people and their families. Further, many autistic people report that they feel unable to influence research and desire greater involvement in the research process. Our research generated practical guidelines for researchers to consider when conducting autism research, in order to increase involvement, collaboration and trust between researchers and the autism community...
September 9, 2019: Autism Policy Pract
Fateheya M Metwally, Hend Rashad, Hala M Zeidan, Adel F Hashish
Early developmental exposures to endocrine disruptors including bisphenol A (BPA) may affects the body's endocrine system producing adverse neurologic, reproductive, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune effects in humans. Many studies show the effect of BPA on human reproduction at lower concentrations than that of the safety limit recommendations. However, limited studies have been associated between environmental exposure of BPA and gonadotropic hormone levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
April 2020: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Boli Cheng, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Min Guo, Xi Lai, Qiu Li, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and many individuals with ASD have gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities. Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in brain development and GI function. METHODS: A total of 323 children with ASD and 180 control children were enrolled in this study. Symptoms of ASD were assessed with the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)...
March 30, 2020: Pediatric Research
Maria Yamasaki, Takashi Makino, Seik-Soon Khor, Hiromi Toyoda, Taku Miyagawa, Xiaoxi Liu, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yukiko Kano, Takafumi Shimada, Toshiro Sugiyama, Hisami Nishida, Nagisa Sugaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Takeshi Otowa, Yuji Okazaki, Hisanobu Kaiya, Yoshiya Kawamura, Akinori Miyashita, Ryozo Kuwano, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisashi Tanii, Tsukasa Sasaki, Makoto Honda, Katsushi Tokunaga
BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been reported to be associated with diseases, traits, and evolution. However, it is hard to determine which gene should have priority as a target for further functional experiments if a CNV is rare or a singleton. In this study, we attempted to overcome this issue by using two approaches: by assessing the influences of gene dosage sensitivity and gene expression sensitivity. Dosage sensitive genes derived from two-round whole-genome duplication in previous studies...
March 29, 2020: BMC Medical Genomics
Nanette Elster, Kayhan Parsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Robert Chapman, Walter Veit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Kenneth A Richman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Ryan H Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
William D Graf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Holly K Tabor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2020: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Amro M S Arqoub, Kiera G Flynn, Luis A Martinez
Postnatal administration of high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) is an established and effective treatment option for refractory epilepsy, with more recently identified therapeutic potential across a wide range of preclinical models of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of gestational exposure to a KD (GKD) on offspring development remains unclear. Previous work has found that GKD exposure reduces depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in CD-1 mice, whereas postnatal KD improves sociability in several different rodent models of autism...
March 30, 2020: Behavioral Neuroscience
Alessandra Tesei, Maria Nobile, Paola Colombo, Federica Civati, Sandra Gandossini, Elisa Mani, Massimo Molteni, Nereo Bresolin, Grazia D'Angelo
BACKGROUND: Living with a progressive disease as muscular dystrophy (MD) can be challenging for the patient and the entire family from both emotional and practical point of view. We aimed to extend our previously published data about mental health in patients with MDs, also investigating coping profiles of both themselves and their parents. Furthermore, we wanted to verify whether psychological adaptation of patients can be predicted by coping strategies, taking also into account physical impairment, cognitive level and socioeconomic status...
March 28, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Stephanie Dunn, Myles Jones
An imbalance in cortical excitation and inhibition (E/I) may underlie both social and non-social symptoms of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Recent work suggests that an E/I imbalance may underlie some of the sensory differences that are characteristic of ASCs such as anomalous perception. Binocular rivalry dynamics are thought to reflect the balance of E/I in the brain and could serve as a behavioural biomarker for ASC. Previous studies of clinical ASC populations have found a slower rate of binocular rivalry transitions; increased duration of the mixed percept and reduced perceptual suppression...
March 25, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Sanem Pinar Uysal, Mustafa Sahin
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder that is characterized by cellular and tissue dysplasia in With the advent of genetic and molecular techniques, mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes were discovered to be responsible for mTOR overactivation, which is the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. TSC is a highly heterogenous clinical entity with variable presentations and severity of disease. The brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidneys, and lungs are commonly involved in this syndrome, with the neurologic symptoms comprising a significant source of morbidity and mortality...
March 28, 2020: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Stephanie Luallin, Zhaoxing Pan, Giulia Righi, Robin L Gabriels, Carla Mazefsky
There is a wide range of emotion regulation (ER)-related impairment observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems. Although the importance of ER is widely acknowledged in the ASD literature, little is known about factors associated with variability in ER impairment. Given the identified gender differences in ASD, gender may be a potential contributor to ER. This study examined gender differences in ER in an ASD inpatient psychiatric sample (n = 722; 146 females) aged 4-20 years, collected as part of the Autism Inpatient Collection...
March 28, 2020: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Deborah Fein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2020: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Alexandra Hendry, Emily J H Jones, Rachael Bedford, Linn Andersson Konke, Jannath Begum Ali, Sven Bӧlte, Karin C Brocki, Ellen Demurie, Mark Johnson, Mirjam K J Pijl, Herbert Roeyers, Tony Charman
Autism is frequently associated with difficulties with top-down attentional control, which impact on individuals' mental health and quality of life. The developmental processes involved in these attentional difficulties are not well understood. Using a data-driven approach, 2 samples (N = 294 and 412) of infants at elevated and typical likelihood of autism were grouped according to profiles of parent report of attention at 10, 15 and 25 months. In contrast to the normative profile of increases in attentional control scores between infancy and toddlerhood, a minority (7-9%) showed plateauing attentional control scores between 10 and 25 months...
March 27, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Anna R Docherty, Andrey A Shabalin, Daniel E Adkins, Frank Mann, Robert F Krueger, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Andrew M McIntosh, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: Subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms in the general population may be associated with molecular genetic risk for psychosis. This study sought to optimize the association of risk symptoms with genetic risk for psychosis in a large population-based cohort in the UK (N = 9104 individuals 18-65 years of age) by properly accounting for population stratification, factor structure, and sex. METHODS: The newly expanded Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study includes 5391 females and 3713 males with age M [SD] = 45...
March 27, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
James Bird, Zoe Marshman
Data sources MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science.Study selection Two reviewers independently selected observational studies which compared caries experience between children with learning disabilities (CLD) and children with no learning disabilities (CNLD). Data extraction and synthesis DMFT/dmft, Care Index (CI) and Restorative Index (RI) data was extracted from each study. Meta analyses were conducted on the overall data and then on the following subgroups: Down's syndrome, autism and mixed learning disabilities...
March 2020: Evidence-based Dentistry
Tina R Kilburn, Merete J Sørensen, Mikael Thastum, Ronald M Rapee, Charlotte U Rask, Kristian B Arendt, Anders H Carlsen, Per H Thomsen
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programs adapted to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) effectively reduce anxiety when run in university clinics. Forty-nine children aged 8-14 years participated in a waitlist controlled study in a general child psychiatric hospital setting. Post-treatment 30% of the children were free of their primary anxiety diagnoses and 5% were free of all anxiety diagnoses. No statistically significant difference between the two trial conditions were found on primary outcomes...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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