Elena Dragioti, Marco Solmi, Angela Favaro, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Paola Dazzan, Trevor Thompson, Brendon Stubbs, Joseph Firth, Michele Fornaro, Dimitrios Tsartsalis, Andre F Carvalho, Eduard Vieta, Philip McGuire, Allan H Young, Jae Il Shin, Christoph U Correll, Evangelos Evangelou
Importance: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide. Yet, contrasting evidence on the safety of antidepressants is available from meta-analyses, and the credibility of these findings has not been quantified. Objective: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed the association between antidepressant use or exposure and adverse health outcomes. Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to April 5, 2019...
October 2, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Tamara Pringsheim, David G Stewart, Parco Chan, Ali Tehrani, Scott B Patten
Objective: The goal of this study was to characterize the frequency and trends of psychotropic drug prescribing in Canadian children from 2010 to 2016 and to compare these results with a previous study conducted between 2005 and 2009. Methods: Using a national physician panel survey database from IQVIA Canada, aggregated frequencies of written prescriptions and therapeutic indications for antipsychotics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications (psychostimulants and nonstimulants), and antidepressants were analyzed in children...
July 29, 2019: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Li-Hao Cheng, Yen-Wenn Liu, Chien-Chen Wu, Sabrina Wang, Ying-Chieh Tsai
Psychobiotics are a group of probiotics that affect the central nervous system (CNS) related functions and behaviors mediated by the gut-brain-axis (GBA) via immune, humoral, neural, and metabolic pathways to improve not only the gastrointestinal (GI) function but also the antidepressant and anxiolytic capacity. As a novel class of probiotics, the application of psychobiotics has led researchers to focus on a new area in neuroscience. In the past five years, some psychobiotics strains were reported to inhibit inflammation and decreased cortisol levels, resulting in an amelioration of the symptoms of anxiety and depression...
July 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Jong Yeob Kim, Min Ji Son, Chei Yun Son, Joaquim Radua, Michael Eisenhut, Florence Gressier, Ai Koyanagi, Andre F Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Theodor B Rais, Keum Hwa Lee, Andreas Kronbichler, Elena Dragioti, Jae Il Shin, Paolo Fusar-Poli
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified potential risk factors and biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder. We aimed to study the strength and validity of the suggested environmental risk factors or biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: We did an umbrella review and systematically appraised the relevant meta-analyses of observational studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for papers published between database inception and Oct 17, 2018, and screened the reference list of relevant articles...
July 2019: Lancet Psychiatry
C M Bond, J C Johnson, V Chaudhary, E M McCarthy, M L McWhorter, N S Woehrle
Perinatal antidepressant drug exposure increases risk for autism spectrum disorder, yet the molecular and neurobehavioral effects of maternal antidepressant drug use on offspring remain poorly understood. In this study, we administered the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine non-invasively to female mice throughout gestation and early lactation, and then examined social interaction behaviors in offspring. In addition, we measured whole brain gene expression levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), the primary metabolizing enzyme for serotonin...
June 3, 2019: Brain Research
Laura Fusar-Poli, Natascia Brondino, Matteo Rocchetti, Beatrice Petrosino, Davide Arillotta, Stefano Damiani, Umberto Provenzani, Carmelo Petrosino, Eugenio Aguglia, Pierluigi Politi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of life-long neurodevelopmental conditions with a prevalence of 1.5% in developed countries. Beside core symptomatology, ASD people are frequently affected by psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral problems. To date, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved for the pharmacological treatment of ASD-associated irritability in children and adolescents, while no guidelines exist for adults. The present cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and predictors of psychotropic medication use in 195 autistic subjects, aged between 14 and 58, treated in two Italian tertiary care centers...
April 11, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Yulong Cai, Lian Wang, Ivan Nalvarte, Rui Xiao, Xin Li, Xiaotang Fan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core symptoms: impaired social communication and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and/or restricted interests. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are involved in the genesis of ASD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to reduce repetitive behaviors and rescue social deficits in ASD mouse models and patients. In the present study, we examined the potential of citalopram (a representative selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on sociability and repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD...
August 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Kimberley Marie Kendall, Elliott Rees, Matthew Bracher-Smith, Sophie Legge, Lucy Riglin, Stanley Zammit, Michael Conlon O'Donovan, Michael John Owen, Ian Jones, George Kirov, James Tynan Rhys Walters
Importance: The role of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, but their association with common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of a group of 53 CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and burden of rare CNVs with risk of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used data from the UK Biobank study sample, which comprised 502 534 individuals living in the United Kingdom...
April 17, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Ardesheer Talati, Myrna M Weissman
The review by Sujan et al. asks a question of clinical and public health importance: are antidepressant medications safe to use during pregnancy from the perspective of their potential effects on the infant and growing child? They provide a thorough review of the animal and human literature to date, focusing primarily on offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes (autism spectrum disorder, ASD, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD). They conclude, based on their review, that antidepressant exposure in pregnancy does not substantially increase the risk of these outcomes, and that women should therefore be reassured about the safety of these medications when used in pregnancy...
April 2019: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Anne Baudry, Mathea Pietri, Jean-Marie Launay, Odile Kellermann, Benoit Schneider
Serotonin transporter, SERT ( SLC64A for solute carrier family 6, member A4), is a twelve transmembrane domain (TMDs) protein that assumes the uptake of serotonin (5-HT) through dissipation of the Na+ gradient established by the electrogenic pump Na/K ATPase. Abnormalities in 5-HT level and signaling have been associated with various disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and autism spectrum disorder. Since the 50s, SERT has raised a lot of interest as being the target of a class of antidepressants, the Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), used in clinics to combat depressive states...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rinad S Beidas, Kevin G Volpp, Alison N Buttenheim, Steven C Marcus, Mark Olfson, Melanie Pellecchia, Rebecca E Stewart, Nathaniel J Williams, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Molly Candon, Zuleyha Cidav, Jessica Fishman, Adina Lieberman, Kelly Zentgraf, David Mandell
BACKGROUND: Efficacious psychiatric treatments are not consistently deployed in community practice, and clinical outcomes are attenuated compared with those achieved in clinical trials. A major focus for mental health services research is to develop effective and cost-effective strategies that increase the use of evidence-based assessment, prevention, and treatment approaches in community settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this program of research is to apply insights from behavioral economics and participatory design to advance the science and practice of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) for individuals with psychiatric disorders across the life span...
February 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Meagan A Quinlan, Danielle Krout, Rania Katamish, Matthew J Robson, Catherine Nettesheim, Paul J Gresch, Deborah Mash, Keith Henry, Randy D Blakely
The antidepressant-sensitive serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) dictates rapid, high-affinity clearance of the neurotransmitter in both the brain and periphery. In a study of families with multiple individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we previously identified several, rare, missense coding variants that impart elevated 5-HT transport activity, relative to wildtype SERT, upon heterologous expression as well as in ASD subject lymphoblasts. The most common of these variants, SERT Ala56 located in the transporter's cytosolic N-terminus, has been found to confer in transgenic mice hyperserotonemia, an ASD-associated biochemical trait, an elevated brain 5-HT clearance rate, and ASD-aligned behavioral changes...
January 22, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Caroline Croteau, Leila Ben Amor, Drigissa Ilies, Laurent Mottron, Jean-Eric Tarride, Marc Dorais, Sylvie Perreault
BACKGROUND: Obesity in children on the autism spectrum (AS) is becoming a significant health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of obesity in a cohort of AS youth and to assess the impact of psychoactive medication use while exploring the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) dose-response curve. STUDY DESIGN: A nested case-control study was conducted using Quebec public administrative databases. Subjects with AS <18 years [≥2 diagnoses International Classification of Diseases: 9th revision (ICD-9): 299...
January 22, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Madoka Yamamoto-Sasaki, Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Yusuke Ogawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Koji Kawakami
Background: Studies using data from Western countries have raised concerns that treating pregnant women with antidepressants may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in their offspring. However, to date, the studies are inconclusive. We therefore examined the association between antidepressant use and ASD using claims data collected in Japan. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on claims data from mothers and their children from January 2005 to July 2014, obtained from the Japan Medical Data Center...
2019: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ashley E Mason, Jonathan M Adler, Eli Puterman, Ava Lakmazaheri, Matthew Brucker, Kirstin Aschbacher, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Chronic caregiving stress may accelerate biological aging; however, the ability to integrate the meaning of caregiving through self-awareness, adaptation, and growth can buffer the negative effects of stress. Narrative researchers have shown that people who coherently integrate difficult experiences into their life story tend to have better mental health, but no prior study has examined the prospective association between narrative identity and biological indicators, such as telomere length...
December 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ayesha C Sujan, A Sara Öberg, Patrick D Quinn, Brian M D'Onofrio
Children of women treated with antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to develop neurodevelopmental problems than are unexposed children. Associations between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental problems could reflect a causal effect or could be partially or fully explained by other factors that differ between exposed and unexposed offspring, including having mothers with conditions requiring antidepressant treatment (e.g. depression), environmental risk factors, and/or genetic risk factors shared across disorders...
April 2019: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Zainab Fatima, Aqeela Zahra, Maria Ghouse, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
Antidepressants are extensively used during pregnancy and associated with severe outcomes, including innate malformations, prematurity, and low birth weight, etc. A recent study suggested that prenatal exposure to antidepressants may impair child neurodevelopment process. Thus, the aim of this review is to investigate the potential association between prenatal use of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Twelve studies related to the linkage between SSRI exposure during pregnancy and ASD in children were explored and compiled...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Debra J Barnette, Christopher Hanks, Weiyi Li, Kyle Porter
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience polypharmacy. However, there is limited understanding of how to quantify medication complexity in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: This study examined medication administration difficulty using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool in adolescents and adults with ASD. The outcomes compared the mean total MRCI score with the medication count, described MRCI contributions for over-the-counter medication (OTC), and compared MRCI scores by patient characteristics...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Katrina Wilcox Hagberg, Annelies L Robijn, Susan Jick
Background: Results of some studies suggest that prenatal antidepressant exposure increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring, while other studies suggest that depression independently increases the risk of having a child with ASD. Thus, confounding by indication is a concern. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of ASD in offspring of women who were exposed to antidepressants and/or had depression during pregnancy compared to unexposed women...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
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