Rory O'Connor, Marcel Van De Wouw, Gerard M Moloney, Ana Paula Ventura-Silva, Ken O'Riordan, Anna Golubeva, Timothy G Dinan, Harriët Schellekens, John F Cryan
The BTBR mouse model has been shown to be associated with deficits social interaction and a pronounced engagement in repetitive behaviours. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental condition globally. Despite its ubiquity, most research into the disorder remains focused on childhood, with studies in adulthood and old age relatively rare. To this end, we explored the differences in behaviour and immune function in an aged BTBR T + Itpr3tf/J mouse model of the disease compared to a similarly aged C57bl/6 control...
November 20, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Kazunari Yoshida, Emiko Koyama, Clement C Zai, Joseph H Beitchman, James L Kennedy, Yona Lunsky, Pushpal Desarkar, Daniel J Müller
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often receive psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics and antidepressants to treat aberrant behaviors and mood symptoms, frequently resulting in polypharmacy and drug-related adverse effects. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) studies with ASD and/or ID (ASD/ID) have been scarce despite the promise of optimizing treatment outcomes. We reviewed the literature on PGx studies with antipsychotics and antidepressants (e...
November 23, 2020: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Chunyan Hao, Zefeng Gao, XianJun Liu, Zhijiang Rong, Jingjing Jia, Kaiqi Kang, Weiwei Guo, Jianguo Li
Propionate has been reported to exert antidepressant effects, but high-dose propionate may induce autism-like symptoms in experimental animals through induction of dysbiosis of neurotransmitters. The bi-directional effects of propionate seem to be dose-dependent. However, due to the pathological discrepancies between depression and autism, conclusions drawn from autism may not be simply transferable to depression. The effect and underlying action mechanisms of high-dose propionate on depression remains undetermined...
November 16, 2020: Scientific Reports
Michael Fleming, Ehsan E Salim, Daniel F Mackay, Angela Henderson, Deborah Kinnear, David Clark, Albert King, James S McLay, Sally-Ann Cooper, Jill P Pell
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental conditions commonly coexist in children, but compared to adults, childhood multimorbidity attracts less attention in research and clinical practice. We previously reported that children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression have more school absences and exclusions, additional support needs, poorer attainment, and increased unemployment. They are also more likely to have coexisting conditions, including autism and intellectual disability...
October 2020: PLoS Medicine
Courtney Romba, Marisa Perez-Reisler
Psychotropic medications are an essential component of treating pediatric mental health disorders, and pediatricians are increasingly likely to prescribe them. Commonly used psychotropic medications include stimulants and nonstimulants used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); antidepressants used in the treatment of anxiety and depression; and antipsychotics indicated for use in autism, schizophrenia, mood disorders, severe impulsivity, and aggression. Stimulants are commonly associated with appetite suppression and initial insomnia and nonstimulants for ADHD are associated with sedation...
October 1, 2020: Pediatric Annals
Shoumitro Deb, Tom Nancarrow, Bharati Limbu, Rory Sheehan, Mike Wilcock, David Branford, Ken Courtenay, Bhathika Perera, Rohit Shankar
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of adults with intellectual disabilities are prescribed off-licence antipsychotics in the absence of a psychiatric illness. The National Health Service in England launched an initiative in 2016, 'Stopping over-medication of people with a learning disability [intellectual disability], autism or both' (STOMP), to address this major public health concern. AIMS: To gain understanding from UK psychiatrists working with adults with intellectual disabilities on the successes and challenges of withdrawing antipsychotics for challenging behaviours...
September 17, 2020: BJPsych Open
Rebecca Rodrigues, Meng-Chuan Lai, Adam Beswick, Daniel A Gorman, Evdokia Anagnostou, Peter Szatmari, Kelly K Anderson, Stephanie H Ameis
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are common and impairing in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder(ASD). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to (a) evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of ADHD symptoms in ASD and (b) distil findings for clinical translation. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and clinical trial registries (1992 onwards)...
August 26, 2020: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Faruk Uguz
This article reviewed the results of 21 recent meta-analyses examining the relationship between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and negative outcomes in newborns and children. PubMed was searched for meta-analyses published in English between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2019, by using combinations of the keywords pregnancy, antidepressants, review, meta-analysis, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal outcomes, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), preterm birth, low birth weight, spontaneous abortion, persistent pulmonary hypertension, infant, newborn, children, and offspring...
August 24, 2020: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Andrea Botturi, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Andrea Boscutti, Bianca Viscardi, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Magnesium is an essential cation involved in many functions within the central nervous system, including transmission and intracellular signal transduction. Several studies have shown its usefulness in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Furthermore, it seems that magnesium levels are lowered in the course of several mental disorders, especially depression. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we wish to evaluate the presence of a relationship between the levels of magnesium and the presence of psychiatric pathology as well as the effectiveness of magnesium as a therapeutic supplementation...
June 3, 2020: Nutrients
Susan E Maloney, Cynthia E Rogers, John N Constantino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
In observational studies, significant associations have often been identified between antidepressant drug prescription during pregnancy, on the one hand, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on the other. Interpreting these associations is problematic because they are based on analyses that could not adjust for inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown confounds. Recent clinical data suggest that a genetic relationship exists between depression and neurodevelopmental disorders...
May 26, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Peter C Gøtzsche, Olivia Dinnage
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are much used and have been tested for many conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the type of diagnoses in placebo-controlled trials apart from depression and anxiety. METHODS: This was a systematic review. RESULTS: We downloaded 5471 records from PubMed and excluded 3017 that contained depression or anxiety. After exclusion of non-eligible studies, meta-analyses and reviews, and records that were unclear, 1273 records remained...
2020: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Anna-Sophie Rommel, Veerle Bergink, Xiaoqin Liu, Trine Munk-Olsen, Nina Maren Molenaar
OBJECTIVE: Reviews on child outcomes following in utero antidepressant exposure have focused on short-term outcomes. However, several recent individual studies reported on adverse physical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric outcomes beyond infancy and early childhood. The objective of this systematic review was to establish the long-term effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure on physical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric outcomes in individuals aged 4 years and older. DATA SOURCES: Embase, MEDLINE Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for all relevant articles, written in English and published prior to November 8, 2018, using terms describing antidepressants, pregnancy, and developmental outcomes...
May 12, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Monica L Vega, Graham C Newport, Durim Bozhdaraj, Samantha B Saltz, Charles B Nemeroff, D Jeffrey Newport
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies of prenatal antidepressant safety are hindered by methodological concerns, including susceptibility to surveillance bias. Some studies address potential bias by using alternative strategies to operationalize study comparison groups. In a meta-analysis of the association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and autism risk, the authors examined the utility of comparison group operationalization in reducing surveillance bias. METHODS: A systematic search of multiple databases through August 2017 was conducted, selecting controlled observational studies of the association of prenatal antidepressant exposure with autism...
June 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
Many observational studies have found an association between antidepressant drug prescription during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability. The results of such studies cannot be considered conclusive because of the possible presence of inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown confounds. In this context, maternal anemia before or at but not after 30 weeks of gestation was recently associated with an increased risk of all 3 of these neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 31, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Andreia P Costa, Cathia Loor, Georges Steffgen
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of suicidality. However, the risk factors remain under-investigated. This study explored factors that increase suicidality risk in ASD. Through an online survey, 150 adults with ASD were compared to 189 control adults. Autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, alexithymia, and antidepressant intake were assessed on their contribution predicting suicidality. Among people with ASD, 63% scored above the cutoff for high suicidality risk. Increased autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant intake significantly predicted suicidality...
March 14, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jessica Salvador Areias de Araujo, Isabella Fernandes Delgado, Francisco José Roma Paumgartten
This study investigated whether antenatal exposure to antidepressants (ADs) increases the risks of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and cognitive and developmental deficits in infants or preschool children. PubMed, EMBASE, BIREME/BVS databases were searched to identify studies examining associations of ADs in pregnancy with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Twenty studies addressed ASD and/or ADHD risks while 30 focused on developmental and cognitive deficits in infants or preschool children...
2020: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Fereshteh Ansari, Hadi Pourjafar, Aydin Tabrizi, Aziz Homayouni
BACKGROUND: Probiotics and their nutrient sources (prebiotics) have been shown to have positive effects on different organs of the host. The idea of their potential benefits on Central Nervous Systems (CNS) and the incidence of Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer, Depression, Autism, and other mental disorders has proposed a new category of medicines called "psychobiotic" which is hoped to be of low-side effect anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety constitutes. OBJECTIVE: In the current review, we present valuable insights into the complicated interactions between the GI microbiota (especially in the colon), brain, immune and central nervous systems and provide a summary of the main findings of the effects of pro- and prebiotics on important mental disorders from the potential mechanisms of action to their application in clinical practice...
2020: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Antonio M Persico, Arianna Ricciardello, Francesca Cucinotta
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears in early childhood and is characterized by persistent deficits in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and unusual sensory issues. ASD can be idiopathic or syndromic, in the latter case representing one of the many manifestations of a genetic disorder, such as Rett syndrome. Psychopharmacology cannot directly ameliorate core autistic symptoms, but rather aims at treating comorbid disorders, such as ADHD, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness, seizures, and anxiety...
2019: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Scott Yang, Brian C Werner
BACKGROUND: Opioids are commonly used after posterior spinal instrumented fusion (PSIF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Prescription opioids use can potentially lead to misuse, abuse, dependence, and overdose death. Prolonged opioid use has not been extensively studied in the postoperative AIS population. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with prolonged opioid use after PSIF for AIS. METHODS: A large insurance database was queried for AIS patients undergoing PSIF...
November 2019: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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