C Loureiro, M A R Buzalaf, F R N Moraes, T M O Ventura, V T Pelá, J P Pessan, R C Jacinto
AIM: To quantitatively and qualitatively compare the host proteomic profile in samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AP) using nano Liquid Chromatography Electron Spray Tandem Mass Spectrometry. METHODOLOGY: Samples were obtained from 18 patients with radiographically evident AP, divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (nine per group) according to clinical characteristics. After sample collection, protein extraction, purification and quantification of the samples were performed, which were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry...
January 22, 2021: International Endodontic Journal
Ivana Ponjavić, Kruno Vukušić, Iva M Tolić
The mitotic spindle is a dynamic and complex cellular structure made of microtubules and associated proteins. Although the general localization of most proteins has been identified, the arrangement of the microtubules in the mitotic spindle and precise localization of various proteins are still under intensive research. However, techniques used previously to decipher such puzzles are resolution limited or require complex microscopy systems. On the other hand, expansion microscopy is a novel super-resolution microscopy technique that uses physical expansion of fixed specimens to allow features closer than the diffraction limit of light (~250nm) to become resolvable in the expanded specimen on a conventional confocal microscope...
2021: Methods in Cell Biology
Bruno Martins, Simona Sorrentino, Wen-Lu Chung, Meltem Tatli, Ohad Medalia, Matthias Eibauer
The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes, such as cell motility, cytokinesis, and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Revealing the polarity of individual actin filaments in intact cells would foster an unprecedented understanding of cytoskeletal processes and their associated mechanical forces. Cryo-electron tomography provides the means for high-resolution structural imaging of cells. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio of cryo-tomograms obscures the high frequencies, and therefore the polarity of actin filaments cannot be directly measured...
January 11, 2021: Structure
Michael J Burgum, Martin J D Clift, Stephen J Evans, Nicole Hondow, Afshin Tarat, Gareth J Jenkins, Shareen H Doak
BACKGROUND: Toxicological evaluation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is essential for occupational health and safety, particularly where bulk manufactured ENMs such as few-layer graphene (FLG) are concerned. Additionally, there is a necessity to develop advanced in vitro models when testing ENMs to provide a physiologically relevant alternative to invasive animal experimentation. The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of non-functionalised (neutral), amine- and carboxyl-functionalised FLG upon both human-transformed type-I (TT1) alveolar epithelial cell monocultures, as well as co-cultures of TT1 and differentiated THP-1 monocytes (d...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Ganesh Chandra Jagetia
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiations trigger the formation of free radicals that damage DNA and cause cell death. DNA damage may be simply evaluated by micronucleus assay and the pharmacophores that impede free radicals could effectively reduce the DNA damage initiated by irradiation. Therefore, it was desired to determine the capacity of curcumin to alleviate micronuclei formation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) exposed to 0-4 Gy of γ-radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPBLs were exposed to 3 Gy after 30 minutes of 0...
January 19, 2021: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Xihan Guo, Chunlei Wang, Weimeng Tian, Xueqin Dai, Juan Ni, Xiayu Wu, Xu Wang
Bulbus of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC), an outstanding antitussive and expectorant herbal drug used in China and many other countries, has potential but less understood genotoxicity. Previously, we have reported that aqueous extract of BFC compromised the spindle assembly checkpoint and cytokinesis in NCM460 cells. Here, we found that one remarkable observation in BFC-treated NCM460 cells was multipolar mitosis, a trait classically compromises the fidelity of chromosome segregation. More detailed investigation revealed that BFC induced spindle multipolarity in metaphases and ana-telophases in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting BFC-induced multipolar spindle conformation was not transient...
January 15, 2021: Mutagenesis
Katrina L Randall, Hsei Di Law, Andrew F Ziolkowski, Rushika C Wirasinha, Christopher C Goodnow, Stephen R Daley
Objective: To define the effect of DOCK8 deficiency on thymic tolerance in mice. Methods: Thymocytes from wild-type ( Dock8+/+ ) and DOCK8-deficient ( Dock8pri/pri ) mice were examined by flow cytometry. Some mice had transgenic expression of the BCL2 anti-apoptotic protein in haemopoietic cells. Some mice expressed the transgenic 3A9 T-cell receptor (TCR), which triggers thymocyte deletion in mice also expressing hen egg lysozyme under the insulin promoter. Results: In Dock8pr/pri mice, the proportion of thymocytes induced to acquire tolerance at the immature CCR7- stage was normal...
2021: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Keisho Maeda, Takumi Higaki
Phragmoplasts, which comprise microtubules, actin filaments, and membrane vesicles, are responsible for cell plate formation and expansion during plant cytokinesis. Our previous research using the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin B (LatB) to investigate the role of actin filaments suggested the existence of two types of microtubules: 1) initial microtubules sensitive to LatB but unassociated with NACK1 kinesin and 2) later LatB-insensitive, NACK1-associated microtubules. The organization of initial phragmoplast microtubules might have been disrupted by the LatB treatment; this hypothesis remained unverified, however, as the exact timing of cell plate membrane accumulation could not be determined...
January 11, 2021: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Reema Chaudhary, Shruti Mishra, Swathi Kota, Hari Misra
Bacterial cell cycle is divided into well-coordinated phases; chromosome duplication and segregation, cell elongation, septum formation, and cytokinesis. The temporal separation of these phases depends upon the growth rates and doubling time in different bacteria. The entire process of cell division starts with the assembly of divisome complex at mid-cell position followed by constriction of the cell wall and septum formation. In the mapping of mid-cell position for septum formation, the gradient of oscillating Min proteins across the poles plays a pivotal role in several bacteria genus...
January 11, 2021: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
J Lovy, R P E Yanong, J M Stilwell, T B Waltzek, J P Shelley, D B Pouder, J C Wolf, A C Camus
A novel microsporidial disease was documented in two ornamental fish species, black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi Boulenger 1895 and cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz 1956. The non-xenoma-forming microsporidium occurred diffusely in most internal organs and the gill, thus referring to the condition as tetra disseminated microsporidiosis (TDM). The occurrence of TDM in black tetra was associated with chronic mortality in a domestic farmed population, while the case in cardinal tetra occurred in moribund fish while in quarantine at a public aquarium...
January 8, 2021: Parasitology Research
Vilena Kašuba, Mirta Milić, Davor Želježić, Marin Mladinić, Alica Pizent, Zorana Kljaković-Gašpić, Melita Balija, Irena Jukić
Manufacture of lead-containing products has long been associated with various health risks. To get an insight into the related genotoxic risks, we conducted a biomonitoring study in 50 exposed workers and 48 matched controls using a battery of endpoints that sensitively detect the extent of genome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The levels of primary DNA damage were estimated with the alkaline comet assay, while cytogenetic abnormalities were determined with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay...
December 31, 2020: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Sanford P Bishop, Yang Zhou, Yuji Nakada, Jianyi Zhang
The failure of adult cardiomyocytes to reproduce themselves to repair an injury results in the development of severe cardiac disability leading to death in many cases. The quest for an understanding of the inability of cardiac myocytes to repair an injury has been ongoing for decades with the identification of various factors which have a temporary effect on cell-cycle activity. Fetal cardiac myocytes are continuously replicating until the time that the developing fetus reaches a stage of maturity sufficient for postnatal life around the time of birth...
January 5, 2021: Journal of the American Heart Association
Helber A Negreiros, Kariely G de Moura, Maria L L B do Nascimento, Débora C N Rodrigues, Paulo M P Ferreira, Débora C Braz, Marlene G de Farias, Layde S Corrêia, Ana R S Pereira, Lubna K B Santos, Juan C R Gonçalves, Anderson N Mendes, Felipe C C da Silva, Ana A C Melo-Cavalcante, João M de Castro E Sousa
BACKGROUND: Alpha-terpineol is a monoterpene alcohol with anti-tumor activity against different tumor cell lines (lung, breast, leukemias and colorectal) through blockage of NF-kB expression, which play an important role in tumor cells growth. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the antitumor activity of alpha-terpineol in murine Sarcoma 180 cell line Methods: For the tests, different cytotoxic and genotoxic assays were used, including Trypan blue, cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay, comet assay, agarose gel DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and cell viability using fluorescence...
January 4, 2021: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Joseph O Magliozzi, James B Moseley
Polarized growth and cytokinesis are two fundamental cellular processes that exist in virtually all cell types. Mechanisms for asymmetric distribution of materials allow for cells to grow in a polarized manner. This gives rise to a variety of cell shapes seen throughout all cell types. Following polarized growth during interphase, dividing cells assemble a cytokinetic ring containing the protein machinery to constrict and separate daughter cells. Here, we discuss how cell polarity signaling pathways act on cytokinesis, with a focus on direct regulation of the contractile actomyosin ring (CAR)...
January 5, 2021: Cell Cycle
Hiroki Okada, Brittany MacTaggart, Yoshikazu Ohya, Erfei Bi
Cytokinesis is executed by protein networks organized into functional modules. Individual proteins within each module have been characterized to various degrees. However, the collective behavior and interplay of the modules remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted quantitative time-lapse imaging to analyze the accumulation kinetics of more than 20 proteins from different modules of cytokinesis in budding yeast. This analysis has led to a comprehensive picture of the kinetic landscape of cytokinesis, from actomyosin ring (AMR) assembly to cell separation...
January 22, 2021: IScience
Mingli Hu, Mei Bai, Ming Yang, Hong Wu
Magnolia, a basal angiosperm genus important for evolutionary and phylogenetic studies, is known to have male meiotic features not seen in the vast majority of angiosperms. However, knowledge about male meiosis in Magnolia is still fragmentary. Here, we report findings from an extensive investigation into male meiosis in Magnolia denudata using a combination of light and electron microscopy methods. Male meiosis in M. denudata was synchronous in prophase I but asynchronous in subsequent nuclear divisions. The polarized microspore mother cells from late prophase I onward had an elongated cell shape and thickened callose wall areas at the two smaller ends of the cell...
January 3, 2021: Protoplasma
Przemysław Zakrzewski, Marta Lenartowska, Folma Buss
Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, a differentiation process during which unpolarized spermatids undergo excessive remodeling that results in the formation of sperm. The actin cytoskeleton and associated actin-binding proteins play crucial roles during this process regulating organelle or vesicle delivery/segregation and forming unique testicular structures involved in spermatid remodeling. In addition, several myosin motor proteins including MYO6 generate force and movement during sperm differentiation...
January 2, 2021: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Xiaotao Xu, Yang Su, Kaixuan Wu, Fan Pan, Aizhong Wang
Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2), an atypical Rac activator, has important anti-inflammatory properties in blepharitis, enteric bacterial infection and colitis. However, the roles of DOCK2in macrophage activation and acute lung injury(ALI) are still poorly elucidated. In vitro studies demonstrated that DOCK2 was essential for the nucleotide-sensing Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammatory response in macrophages. We also confirmed that exposure of macrophages to LPS induced Rac activation through a TLR4-independent, DOCK2-dependent mechanism...
December 28, 2020: Biochemical Pharmacology
Lilia Gheghiani, Lei Wang, Youwei Zhang, Xavier T R Moore, Jinglei Zhang, Steven C Smith, Yijun Tian, Liang Wang, Kristi Turner, Colleen K Jackson-Cook, Nitai D Mukhopadhyay, Zheng Fu
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an essential cell cycle regulator that is frequently overexpressed in various human cancers. To determine whether Plk1 overexpression drives tumorigenesis, we established transgenic mouse lines that ubiquitously express increased levels of Plk1. High Plk1 levels were a driving force for different types of spontaneous tumors. Increased Plk1 levels resulted in multiple defects in mitosis and cytokinesis, supernumerary centrosomes, and compromised cell cycle checkpoints, allowing accumulation of chromosomal instability (CIN) which resulted in aneuploidy and tumor formation...
December 29, 2020: Cancer Research
Miho Okude, Junji Matsuo, Tomohiro Yamazaki, Kentaro Saito, Yoshokazu Furuta, Shinji Nakamura, Jeewan Thapa, Torahiko Okubo, Hideaki Higashi, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
We previously isolated a symbiotic environmental amoeba, harboring an environmental chlamydia, Neochlamydia S13. Interestingly, this bacterium failed to survive outside of host cells and was immediately digested inside other amoebae, indicating bacterial distribution via cytokinesis. This may provide a model for understanding organelle development and chlamydial pathogenesis and evolution; therefore, we assessed our hypothesis of Neochlamydia S13 distribution via cytokinesis by comparative analysis with other environmental chlamydiae (Protochlamydia R18 and Parachalmydia Bn9 )...
December 27, 2020: Microbiology and Immunology
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