Frederic Been, Erik Emke, João Matias, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Tim Boogaerts, Sara Castiglioni, Marina Campos-Mañas, Alberto Celma, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Félix Hernández, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Thomas Ter Laak, Malcolm Reid, Noelia Salgueiro-González, Ruud Steenbeek, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Ettore Zuccato, Lubertus Bijlsma
The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to introduce severe restrictive measures to contain its spread. In particular, physical distancing and restriction of movement have had important consequences on human behaviour and potentially also on illicit drug use and supply. These changes can be associated with additional risks for users, in particular due to reduced access to prevention and harm reduction activities. Furthermore, there have been limitations in the amount of data about drug use which can be collected due to restrictions...
March 26, 2021: Environment International
Slava Yakubenko
In early 2020 the world was struck by the epidemic of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like many others, German government has introduced severe contact restrictions to limit the spread of infection. This paper analyses effects of weather on the spread of the disease under the described circumstances. We demonstrate that regions reported lower growth rates of the number of the infection cases after days with higher temperatures, no rain and low humidity. We argue that this effect is channelled through human behaviour...
April 1, 2021: Economics and Human Biology
Iis Inayati Rakhmat, Yudith Yunia Kusmala, Dewi Ratih Handayani, Henny Juliastuti, Eka Noneng Nawangsih, Arief Wibowo, Michael Anthonius Lim, Raymond Pranata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use...
April 1, 2021: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Gouda H Attia, Yasmine S Moemen, Mahmoud Youns, Ammar M Ibrahim, Randa Abdou, Mohamed A El Raey
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus (COVID-19), is the virus responsible for over 69,613,607 million infections and over 1,582,966 deaths worldwide. All treatment measures and protocols were considered to be supportive only and not curative. During this current coronavirus pandemic, searching for pharmaceutical or traditional complementary and integrative medicine to assist with prevention, treatment, and recovery has been advantageous. These phytopharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals can be more economic, available, safe and lower side effects...
March 26, 2021: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
G Morgan, M Tagliamento, M Lambertini, B Devnani, B Westphalen, R Dienstmann, I Bozovic-Spasojevic, A Calles, C Criscitiello, A Curioni, A M Garcia, A Lamarca, S Pilotto, M Scheffler, M Strijbos, R Wong, E de Azambuja, S Peters
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all aspects of modern-day oncology, including how stakeholders communicate through social media. We surveyed oncology stakeholders in order to assess their attitudes pertaining to social media and how it has been affected during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 40-item survey was distributed to stakeholders from 8 July to 22 July 2020 and was promoted through the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the OncoAlert Network...
April 7, 2021: ESMO Open
Eldon R Rene, Manivannan Sethurajan, Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Thi Ngoc Bao Dung, Kathirvel Brindhadevi, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi
The growing population and increased disposal of end-of-life (EoL) electrical and electronic products have caused serious concerns to the environment and human health. Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing problem because the quantity and the rate at which it is generated has increased exponentially in the last 5 years. The rapid changes or upgradation in technologies, IT requirements for working or learning from home during COVID-19, manufacturers releasing new electronic gadgets and devices that serves the consumers comfort and a declension in services has contributed to an increase in the e-waste or waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generation rates...
March 16, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Kadir Küçükceran, Mustafa Kürşat Ayrancı, Abdullah Sadık Girişgin, Sedat Koçak, Zerrin Defne Dündar
INTRODUCTION: Due to the high mortality and spread rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are currently serious challenges in emergency department management. As such, we investigated whether the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/albumin ratio (BAR) predicts mortality in the COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. METHODS: A total of 602 COVID-19 patients who were brought to the emergency department within the period from March to September 2020 were included in the study...
April 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Terry F McGrath, Simon A Haughey, Marivil Islam, Christopher T Elliott
Fraud in the food supply system will be exacerbated by shortages caused by climate change and COVID-19's impact. The dried herbs market exemplifies complex supply chains attractive to criminals seeking financial gain. Real-time remote testing is achievable through development of globally accessible chemometric models for portable near infrared devices, deployed throughout supply chains. This study describes building of models for detection of oregano adulteration, on portable near infrared devices, and comparison to a laboratory-based Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy method...
November 29, 2020: Food Chemistry
I-Chun Tsai, Chen-Ying Lee, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Chih-Wen Su
In recent years, many surveillance cameras have been installed in the Greater Taipei Area, Taiwan; traffic data obtained from these surveillance cameras could be useful for the development of roadway-based emissions inventories. In this study, web-based traffic information covering the Greater Taipei Area was obtained using a vision-based traffic analysis system. Web-based traffic data were normalized and applied to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to study the impact of vehicle emissions on air quality in the Greater Taipei Area...
March 23, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Cynthia Gibas, Kevin Lambirth, Neha Mittal, Md Ariful Islam Juel, Visva Bharati Barua, Lauren Roppolo Brazell, Keshawn Hinton, Jordan Lontai, Nicholas Stark, Isaiah Young, Cristine Quach, Morgan Russ, Jacob Kauer, Bridgette Nicolosi, Don Chen, Srinivas Akella, Wenwu Tang, Jessica Schlueter, Mariya Munir
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a source of ongoing challenges and presents an increased risk of illness in group environments, including jails, long-term care facilities, schools, and residential college campuses. Early reports that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was detectable in wastewater in advance of confirmed cases sparked widespread interest in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a tool for mitigation of COVID-19 outbreaks. One hypothesis was that wastewater surveillance might provide a cost-effective alternative to other more expensive approaches such as pooled and random testing of groups...
March 30, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmet Doblan, Mehmet Erkan Kaplama, Semih Ak, Nazlı Basmacı, Emine Zeynep Tarini, Şeniz Engür Göktaş, Süleyman Güler, Togay Müderris
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 disease emerged in Wuhan province of China in November 2019 and spread across the world in a short time, resulting in a pandemic. The first case in Turkey was detected on March 11, 2020. The aim of the current study was to reveal the effects of COVID-19 on cranial nerves by monitoring people infected with the disease based on repeated examinations and surveys. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The data of 356 patients with a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test who received treatment between June 2020 and August 2020 in our hospital were prospectively evaluated after the study was approved by the relevant ethics committee...
March 26, 2021: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Ling Xue, Shuanglin Jing, Wei Sun, Maoxing Liu, Zhihang Peng, Huaiping Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic expanded its geographic distribution through the movement of humans and caused subsequent local outbreaks. Hence, it is essential to investigate how human mobility and travel ban affect the transmission and spatial spread while minimizing the impact on social activities and national economics. METHODS: We developed a mobility network model for spatial epidemics, explicitly taking into account time-varying inter-province and inner-province population flows, spatial heterogeneity in terms of disease transmission, as well as the impact of media reports...
April 7, 2021: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Sarah DeLozier, Lisa Bastarache, Sarah Bland, Melissa McPheeters, Quinn Wells, Eric Farber-Eger, Cosmin A Bejan, Daniel Fabbri, Trent Rosenbloom, Dan Roden, Kevin B Johnson, Wei-Qi Wei, Josh Peterson
From the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have looked to electronic health record (EHR) data as a way to study possible risk factors and outcomes. To ensure the validity and accuracy of research using these data, investigators need to be confident that the phenotypes they construct are reliable and accurate, reflecting the healthcare settings from which they are ascertained. We developed a COVID-19 registry at a single academic medical center and used data from March 1 to June 5, 2020 to assess differences in population-level characteristics in pandemic and non-pandemic years respectively...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ariel Kenig, Yuval Ishay, Fadi Kharouf, Limor Rubin
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, receiving background anti-CD20 therapy, were treated with convalescent plasma or plasma-based products. Eight patients were included in the study, presenting with prolonged disease course and delayed viral clearance. CP/plasma-based products were offered as an add-on therapy to standard medical treatment. All patients showed remarkable clinical and laboratory improvement. In addition, polymerase chain reaction from nasopharyngeal swabs rapidly converted to negative following plasma administration...
April 7, 2021: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava, Goar Egoryan, Daniela Patricia Trelles-Garcia, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, Ricardo Murguia-Fuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2021: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Baris Mustafa Poyraz, Evren Doruk Engin, Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are the major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and chronic exposure is recognized to enhance respiratory system complications. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 was found to be associated with the PMs, the mechanism by which exposure to DEP increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under discussion. However, diesel fine PM (dPMs) elevate the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it coincides with the increase in the number of ACE2 receptors. Expression of ACE2 and its colocalized activator, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the alveolar epithelial cells exposed to dPM...
April 7, 2021: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Valeria Lallai, Letizia Manca, Christie D Fowler
Evidence in humans suggests a correlation between nicotine smoking and severe respiratory symptoms with COVID-19 infection. In lung tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears to mechanistically underlie viral entry. Here, we investigated whether e-cigarette vapor inhalation alters ACE2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in male and female mice. In male lung, nicotine vapor inhalation induced a significant increase in ACE2 mRNA and protein, but surprisingly, these differences were not found in females...
April 7, 2021: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Joshuan J Barboza, Diego Chambergo-Michilot, Mariana Velasquez-Sotomayor, Christian Silva-Rengifo, Carlos Diaz-Arocutipa, Jose Caballero-Alvarado, Franko O Garcia-Solorzano, Christoper A Alarcon-Ruiz, Leonardo Albitres-Flores, German Malaga, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can be asymptomatic in a substantial proportion of patients. The assessment and management of these patients constitute a key element to stop dissemination. AIM: To describe the assessment and treatment of asymptomatic infection in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched five databases and search engines for preprints/preproofs, up to August 22, 2020. We included cohort, cross-sectional, and case series studies, reporting the assessment and management of asymptomatic individuals...
April 7, 2021: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Zhen Zhu, Enzo Weber, Till Strohsal, Duaa Serhan
BACKGROUND: Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g., countries, states) exist during the reopening phases, given their own choice of domestic control measures. METHODS: We propose a SUIHR model, which has built-in imported risk and (1-tier) contact tracing to study the cross-border spreading and control of COVID-19. Under plausible parameter assumptions, we examine the effectiveness of border control policies, in combination with internal measures, to confine the virus and avoid reverting back to more restrictive life styles again...
April 7, 2021: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Maryam Azimi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Hanie Ahmadi, Mehrdad Gholamzad, Sara Ghorbanpour, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: In this study, the ability of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a treatment approach and adjuvant therapy using Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles (Cur@PLGA-NPs) to inactivate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in plasma was investigated. Furthermore, to verify whether the quality requirement of aPDT-treated plasma is acceptable, the differences of the levels of clotting factors, total plasma proteins, and anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies titrations in plasma of patient before and after aPDT treatment were investigated...
April 7, 2021: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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