Wan Seok Seo, Seong Ho Kim, Si Youn Song, Jian Hur, Jun Lee, Sunho Choi, Yoojung Lee, Dai Seg Bai
Active and prompt scale-up screening tests are essential to efficiently control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The goal of this work was to identify shortcomings in the conventional screening system (CSS) implemented in the beginning of the outbreak. To overcome these shortcomings, we then introduced a novel, independently developed system called the Yeungnam University type drive-through (YU-Thru), and distributed it nationwide in Korea. This system is similar to the drive-throughs utilized by fast food restaurants...
September 18, 2020: Yeungnam University journal of medicine
Taranjeet S Jolly, Emma Batchelder, Raman Baweja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2020: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Amrita K Singh, David A Kasle, Roy Jiang, Jordan Sukys, Emily L Savoca, Michael Lerner, Nikita Kohli
OBJECTIVE: Review the published literature of telemedicine's use within otorhinolaryngology (ORL), highlight its successful implementation, and document areas with need of future research. METHODS: Three independent, comprehensive searches for articles published on the subject of telemedicine in otorhinolaryngology were conducted of literature available from January 2000-April 2020. Search terms were designed to identify studies which examined telemedicine use within ORL...
September 17, 2020: Laryngoscope
Markus K Heinemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2020: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Gianpiero Manes, Simone Saibeni, Lucienne Pellegrini, Desiree Picascia, Fabio Pace, Mario Schettino, Cristina Bezzio, Germana de Nucci, Cesare Hassan, Alessandro Repici
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: During the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy only fast-track endoscopic procedures have been performed; nevertheless, a significant drop in their number has been reported. We evaluated whether the pandemic has impacted the appropriateness and diagnostic yield of fast-track endoscopic procedures in comparison with those performed in 2019. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective survey has involved Endoscopic Services in Northern Italy; we compared data regarding endoscopic procedures performed in March and April 2020 with those performed in the same period in 2019...
September 17, 2020: Endoscopy
Caroline Wei Shan Hoong, Koh Huilin, Sanda Cho, Veeraraghavan Meyyur Aravamudan, Jaime Hui Xian Lin
COVID-19 is a global pandemic with high mortality in vulnerable groups. Given the current lack of definitive treatment or vaccine that significantly reduces mortality rate, governments, researchers and healthcare providers are racing to find possible solutions to the crisis. Vitamin D and its analogues have been previously studied for their non-skeletal benefits. In particular, questions regarding their role in the modulation of immunity have re-surfaced, in view of possible epidemiological links observed between COVID-19 and vitamin D levels in selected populations...
September 17, 2020: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Chuan-Yuan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2020: Radiation Research
Tina Q Tan, Ravina Kullar, Talia H Swartz, Trini A Mathew, Damani A Piggott, Vladimir Berthaud
The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has revealed major disparities in the access to testing and messaging about the pandemic based on the geographic location of individuals, particularly in communities of color, rural areas, and areas of low income. This geographic disparity, in addition to deeply rooted structural inequities, have posed additional challenges to adequately diagnose and provide care for individuals of all ages living in these settings. We describe the impact that COVID-19 has had on geographic disparate populations in the United States and share our recommendations to what might be done to ameliorate the current situation...
September 17, 2020: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yanqiang Han, Zhilong Wang, Jiahao Ren, Zhiyun Wei, Jinjin Li
The lack of a vaccine or any effective treatment for the aggressive novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a sense of urgency for the discovery of effective drugs. Several repurposing pharmaceutical candidates have been reported or envisaged to inhibit the emerging infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but their binding sites, binding affinities and inhibitory mechanisms are still unavailable. In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level...
September 18, 2020: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Mona Patel, Jean L Raphael
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2020: Pediatric Research
Briana Christophers, Benjamin Gallo Marin, Rocío Oliva, Weston T Powell, Timothy J Savage, Ian C Michelow
BACKGROUND: There are sparse patient-level data available for children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, there is an urgent need for an updated systematic literature review that analyzes individual children rather than aggregated data in broad age groups. METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, medRxiv) were searched for studies indexed from January 1 to May 15, 2020, with MeSH terms: children, pediatrics, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2...
September 17, 2020: Pediatric Research
Sarah S Elsoukkary, Maria Mostyka, Alicia Dillard, Diana R Berman, Lucy X Ma, Amy Chadburn, Rhonda K Yantiss, Jose Jessurun, Surya V Seshan, Alain C Borczuk, Steven P Salvatore
BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019. This virus rapidly spread around the world causing disease ranging from minimal symptoms to severe pneumonia, which was termed coronavirus disease (i.e., COVID). Postmortem examination is a valuable tool for studying the pathobiology of this new infection. METHODS: We report the clinicopathologic findings from 32 autopsy studies conducted on patients who died of COVID-19 including routine gross and microscopic examination with applicable special and immunohistochemical staining techniques...
September 17, 2020: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Ritesh Gupta, Anoop Misra
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is recognized as an important comorbidity in patients with COVID-19 and a large amount of literature has become available regarding this. The aim of this article is to review the literature regarding various aspects of association between diabetes and COVID-19 and to highlight clinically relevant points with focus on India. METHODS: We searched Pubmed and Google Scholar databases for articles regarding diabetes and COVID-19 published between March 19, 2020 and August 30, 2020...
September 8, 2020: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Furkan Ufuk, Mahmut Demirci, Ergin Sagtas, Ismail Hakkı Akbudak, Erhan Ugurlu, Tugba Sari
PURPOSE: To assess the prognostic value of pneumonia severity score (PSS), pectoralis muscle area (PMA), and index (PMI) on chest computed tomography (CT) in adult coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHOD: The chest CT images of COVID-19 patients were evaluated for the PSS as the ratio of the volume of involved lung parenchyma to the total lung volume. The cross-sectional areas of the pectoralis muscles (PMA, cm2 ) were also measured automatically on axial CT images, and PMI was calculated as the following formula: PMI = PMA / patient's height square (m2 )...
September 9, 2020: European Journal of Radiology
David Polo, Marcos Quintela-Baluja, Alexander Corbishley, Davey L Jones, Andrew C Singer, David W Graham, Jesús L Romalde
The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the feces of infected patients and wastewater has drawn attention, not only to the possibility of fecal-oral transmission but also to the use of wastewater as an epidemiological tool. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted problems in evaluating the epidemiological scope of the disease using classical surveillance approaches, due to a lack of diagnostic capacity, and their application to only a small proportion of the population. As in previous pandemics, statistics, particularly the proportion of the population infected, are believed to be widely underestimated...
September 9, 2020: Water Research
Abdel G Elkahloun, Juan M Saavedra
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing inflammation and protecting lung and brain function, could be of therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using GSEA, we compared our previous transcriptome analysis of neurons injured by glutamate and treated with the ARB Candesartan (GSE67036) with transcriptional signatures from SARS-CoV-2 infected primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and lung postmortem (GSE147507), PBMC and BALF samples (CRA002390) from COVID-19 patients...
August 20, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rajesh Paul, Emily Ostermann, Qingshan Wei
Global health and food security constantly face the challenge of emerging human and plant diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens. Disease outbreaks such as SARS, MERS, Swine Flu, Ebola, and COVID-19 (on-going) have caused suffering, death, and economic losses worldwide. To prevent the spread of disease and protect human populations, rapid point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnosis of human and plant diseases play an increasingly crucial role. Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnosis reveals valuable information at the genomic level about the identity of the disease-causing pathogens and their pathogenesis, which help researchers, healthcare professionals, and patients to detect the presence of pathogens, track the spread of disease, and guide treatment more efficiently...
September 8, 2020: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Adham M Khalafallah, Shravika Lam, Abhishek Gami, David L Dornbos, Walavan Sivakumar, Jeremiah N Johnson, Debraj Mukherjee
OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed significant changes to physician workflow and healthcare delivery. This national survey investigated the impact of the pandemic on burnout and career satisfaction among U.S. attending neurosurgeons. METHODS: A 24-question survey was sent electronically to all American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) attending members. The abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) was used to measure the following burnout and career satisfaction indices: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment...
September 1, 2020: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Samir Giuseppe Sukkar, Matteo Bassetti
The severe form of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is characterized by cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension have, as minor common denominators, chronic low-grade inflammation and high plasma myeloperoxidase levels, which could be linked to pulmonary phagocytic hyperactivation and CSS. The hyperactivation of M1 macrophages with a proinflammatory phenotype, which is linked to aerobic glycolysis, leads to the recruitment of monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets from circulating blood and plays a crucial role in thrombo-inflammation (as recently demonstrated in COVID-19) through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and monocyte-platelet aggregates, which could be responsible for DIC...
August 10, 2020: Nutrition
Masaya Sugiyama, Noriko Kinoshita, Satoshi Ide, Hidetoshi Nomoto, Takato Nakamoto, Sho Saito, Masahiro Ishikane, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Masao Hashimoto, Manabu Suzuki, Shinyu Izumi, Masayuki Hojo, Kiyoto Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Jin Takasaki, Masahide Usami, Toshikazu Kano, Hidekatsu Yanai, Nao Nishida, Tatsuya Kanto, Haruhito Sugiyama, Norio Ohmagari, Masashi Mizokami
COVID-19, a novel coronavirus-related illness, has spread worldwide. Patients with apparently mild/moderate symptoms can suddenly develop severe pneumonia. Therefore, almost all COVID-19 patients require hospitalization, which can reduce limited medical resources in addition to overwhelming medical facilities. To identify predictive markers for the development of severe pneumonia, a comprehensive analysis of serum chemokines and cytokines was conducted using serial serum samples from COVID-19 patients. The expression profiles were analyzed along the time axis...
September 14, 2020: Gene
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