Jennifer D Marler, Craig A Fujii, Kristine S Wong, Joseph A Galanko, Daniel J Balbierz, David S Utley
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Existing evidence-based treatments are under-utilized and have seen little recent innovation. The success of personal biofeedback interventions in other disease states portends a similar opportunity in smoking cessation. The Pivot Breath Sensor is a personal interactive FDA-cleared (over-the-counter) device that measures carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath, enabling users to link their smoking behavior and CO values, and track their progress in reducing or quitting smoking...
September 7, 2020: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Bo Peng, Fengnian Zhao, Jianfeng Ping, Yibin Ying
Wearable sensors have gained much attention due to their potential in personal health monitoring in a timely, cost-effective, easy-operating, and noninvasive way. In recent studies, nanomaterials have been employed in wearable sensors to improve the sensing performance in view of their excellent properties. Here, focus is mainly on the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors and their latest advances in personal health monitoring. Different kinds of nanomaterials used in wearable sensors, such as metal nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, metallic nanomaterials, hybrid nanocomposites, and bio-nanomaterials, are reviewed...
September 6, 2020: Small
Abolghasem Jouyban, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
A microwave-induced air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method has been proposed for the pretreatment/quantization of salbutamol in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this procedure, 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and N,N-diethylethanolammonium chloride: dichloroacetic acid: octanoic acid deep eutectic solvent were exploited as derivatization reagent and extraction solvent, respectively. A mixture of the sample solution and pyridine was transferred into a test tube...
August 23, 2020: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ann-Marie Garzinsky, Andreas Thomas, Oliver Krug, Mario Thevis
RATIONALE: Exhaled breath (EB) has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative matrix in sports drug testing due to its non-invasive and non-intrusive nature compared with urine and blood collection protocols. In this study, a pilot-test system was employed to create drug-containing aerosols simulating EB in support of the analytical characterization of EB sampling procedures, and the used analytical method was extended to include a broad spectrum of prohibited substances. METHODS: Artificial and authentic EB samples were collected using sampling devices containing an electret filter, and doping agents were detected by means of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with unispray ionization...
September 2, 2020: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Nataliia Makieieva, Valeriia Malakhova, Yuliia Vasylchenko, Valentyn Tsymbal
INTRODUCTION: Asthma diagnosis in young children may represent a clinical challenge. There are no standard prognostic and dia-gnostic methods. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and prognostic assessment of IL-4 and IL-13 concentrations in children with recurrent wheezing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 96 children with recurrent wheezing. 81 patients were diagnosed as transient wheezing, 15 patients with asthma, and 25 healthy children were selected as controls...
2020: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
T Soyer, E Birben, Ö B Türer, M Kahveci, G D Tuğcu, Ö U Soyer, E Yalçın, D Doğru, U Özçelik, N Kiper, B E Şekerel, F C Tanyel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and have not been evaluated in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF). It is aimed to evaluate the levels of miRNA-21 and miRNA-24 in EBC of patients with EA-TEF. Patients who received surgery for EA-TEF (EA) were assessed for age, sex, types of anomaly, surgical treatments, and respiratory problems. A 500-1000 mL of EBC was obtained from each participant with EcoScreen...
September 1, 2020: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Tao Zhou, Tao Wu, Qiang Wu, Weidong Chen, Mingwei Wu, Chenwen Ye, Xingdao He
Real-time measuring CO2 isotopes (13CO2, 12CO2, and 18OC16O) in exhaled breath using a mid-infrared hollow waveguide (HWG) gas sensor incorporating a 2.73 μm DFB laser was proposed and demonstrated first time based on calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy (CF-WMS). The measurement precisions for δ13C and δ18O were respectively 0.26‰ and 0.57‰ for an integration time of 131 s by Allan variance analysis. These measurement precisions achieved in the present work were at least 3.5 times better than those reported using direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and 1...
August 30, 2020: Analytical Chemistry
Ch Monsé, O Hagemeyer, V van Kampen, M Raulf, T Weiss, E Menne, B Jettkant, B Kendzia, R Merget, T Brüning, J Bünger
Workers in the zinc processing, for example, welding or hot-dip galvanizing, are exposed to aerosols consisting of particles and gases, including zinc oxide (ZnO), which can affect human health. In this study, we addressed the effects of short-term controlled exposure to nano-sized ZnO on the airway inflammatory markers in healthy volunteers. To this end, we determined the influence of ZnO inhalation on the content of zinc and biomarkers (leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ), peptide leukotrienes (LTC4 /D4 /E4 ), 8-iso-PGF2α , pH, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 )) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)...
August 30, 2020: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jianxin Ma, Xiao Qi, Haoxuan Chen, Xinyue Li, Zheng Zhang, Haibin Wang, Lingli Sun, Lu Zhang, Jiazhen Guo, Lidia Morawska, Sergey A Grinshpun, Pratim Biswas, Richard C Flagan, Maosheng Yao
Exhaled breath samples had the highest positive rate (26.9%, n=52), followed by surface swabs (5.4%, n=242), and air samples (3.8%, n=26). COVID-19 patients recruited in Beijing exhaled millions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies into the air per hour. Exhaled breath emission may play an important role in the COVID-19 transmission.
August 28, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
David Smith, Murray James McEwan, Patrik Spanel
Ion-molecule reactions (IMR) are at the very core of trace gas analyses in modern chemical ionisation (CI) mass spectrometer instruments, which are increasingly being used in diverse areas of research and industry. The focus of this Perspective is on the ion chemistry that underpins gas-phase analytical CI methods. Special attention is given to the soft chemical ionisation method known as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. The processes involved in the ion chemistry of the reagent cations, H3O+, NO+ and O2+•, and the anions, O-•, O2-•, OH- and NO2- , are discussed in some detail...
August 28, 2020: Analytical Chemistry
Francesco Raspagliesi, Giorgio Bogani, Simona Benedetti, Silvia Grassi, Stefano Ferla, Susanna Buratti
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic methods for the early identification of ovarian cancer (OC) represent an unmet clinical need, as no reliable diagnostic tools are available. Here, we tested the feasibility of electronic nose (e-nose), composed of ten metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, as a diagnostic tool for OC detection. METHODS: Women with suspected ovarian masses and healthy subjects had volatile organic compounds analysis of the exhaled breath using e-nose. RESULTS: E-nose analysis was performed on breath samples collected from 251 women divided into three groups: 86 OC cases, 51 benign masses, and 114 controls...
August 25, 2020: Cancers
Haiqin Xie, Jinliang Chen, Xuedong Lv, Lu Zhang, Jinnan Wu, Xin Ge, Qichang Yang, Dongmei Zhang, Jianrong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical significance of serum and exhaled breath condensate miR-186 and IL-1β in non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: The serum and exhaled breath condensate specimens of 62 non-small cell lung cancer patients and 60 healthy controls were collected to detect miR-186 expression levels by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was applied to examine IL-1β concentration...
January 2020: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
S M Amin Arefi, Cheng Wei Tony Yang, Don D Sin, James J Feng
The effect of air-borne nanoparticles (NPs) on human health is an active area of research, with clinical relevance evidenced by the current COVID-19 pandemic. As in vitro models for such studies, lung-on-a-chip (LOAC) devices can represent key physical and physiological aspects of alveolar tissues. However, widespread adoption of the LOAC device for NP testing has been hampered by low intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility. To complement ongoing experimental work, we carried out finite-element simulations of the deposition of NPs on the epithelial layer of a well-established LOAC design...
July 2020: Biomicrofluidics
Lisa Basler, Stéphanie Saxer, Simon R Schneider, Mona Lichtblau, Patrick R Bader, Paula Appenzeller, Bermet Estebesova, Berik Emilov, Talant M Sooronbaev, Carole Guillet, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Konrad E Bloch, Silvia Ulrich
BACKGROUND: Allergens and pollution are reduced at high altitude. We investigated the effect of asthma rehabilitation at high altitude (HA, 3100 m) compared to low altitude (LA, 760 m) on exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and on specific IgE levels for house dust mites (HDM,d1) and common pollen (sx1). METHODS: For this randomized controlled trial adult asthmatics living <1000 m were randomly assigned to a 3-week in-hospital-rehabilitation (education, physical- and breathing-exercises) at either LA or HA...
August 2020: Respiratory Medicine
Pritam Sukul, Jochen K Schubert, Karim Zanaty, Phillip Trefz, Anupam Sinha, Svend Kamysek, Wolfram Miekisch
Control of breathing is automatic and its regulation is keen to autonomic functions. Therefore, involuntary and voluntary nervous regulation of breathing affects ventilatory variations, which has profound potential to address expanding challenges in contemporary pulmonology. Nonetheless, the fundamental attributes of the aforementioned phenomena are rarely understood and/or investigated. Implementation of unconventional approach like breathomics may leads to a better comprehension of those complexities in respiratory medicine...
August 24, 2020: Scientific Reports
Scott Leonard, Wayne Strasser, Jessica S Whittle, Leonithas I Volakis, Ronald J DeBellis, Reid Prichard, Charles W Atwood, George C Dungan
Objective: All respiratory care represents some risk of becoming an Aerosol Generating Procedure (AGP) during COVID-19 patient management. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Environmental Control/Engineering is advised. High Velocity Nasal Insufflation (HVNI) and High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) deliver High Flow Oxygen (HFO) therapy, established as a competent means of supporting oxygenation for acute respiratory distress patients, including that precipitated by COVID-19. Although unlikely to present a disproportionate particle dispersal risk, AGP from HFO continues to be a concern...
May 29, 2020: Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open
Christian J Kähler, Rainer Hain
Many governments have instructed the population to wear simple mouse-and-nose covers or surgical face masks to protect themselves from droplet infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in public. However, the basic protection mechanisms and benefits of these masks remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this work is to show from a fluid physics point of view under which circumstances these masks can protect against droplet infection. First of all, we show that the masks protect people in the surrounding area quite well, since the flow resistance of the face masks effectively prevents the spread of exhaled air, e...
October 2020: Journal of Aerosol Science
Giovanni Fattori, Jan Hrbacek, Harald Regele, Christian Bula, Alexandre Mayor, Stefan Danuser, David C Oxley, Urs Rechsteiner, Martin Grossmann, Riccardo Via, Till T Böhlen, Alessandra Bolsi, Marc Walser, Michele Togno, Emma Colvill, Daniel Lempen, Damien C Weber, Antony J Lomax, Sairos Safai
We present the commissioning and quality assurance of our clinical protocol for respiratory gating in pencil beam scanning proton therapy for cancer patients with moving targets. In a novel approach, optical tracking has been integrated in the therapy workflow and used to monitor respiratory motion from multiple surrogates, applied on the patients' chest. The gating system was tested under a variety of experimental conditions, specific to proton therapy, to evaluate reaction time and reproducibility of dose delivery control...
August 20, 2020: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Nur Sabrina Idrose, Rachel C A Tham, Caroline J Lodge, Adrian J Lowe, Dinh Bui, Jennifer L Perret, Don Vicendese, Edward J Newbigin, Mimi L K Tang, Fahad M Aldakheel, Nilakshi T Waidyatillake, Jo A Douglass, Michael J Abramson, Eugene Haydn Walters, Bircan Erbas, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: The association between grass pollen exposure and early markers of asthma exacerbations such as lung function changes and increase in airway inflammation is limited. We investigated the associations between short-term grass pollen exposure and lung function and airway inflammation in a community-based sample, and whether any such associations were modified by current asthma, current hay fever, pollen sensitization, age, and other environmental factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional and short-term analyses of data from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study (MACS) participants (n = 936)...
August 20, 2020: Allergy
Elias Baedorf Kassis, Henry K Su, Alexander R Graham, Victor Novack, Stephen H Loring, Daniel S Talmor
RATIONALE: Reverse triggering is an underexplored form of dyssynchrony with important clinical implications in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study identified reverse trigger phenotypes and characterized their impacts on tidal volume and transpulmonary pressure. METHODS: Fifty five patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome on pressure regulated ventilator modes were included. Four phenotypes of reverse triggering with and without breath stacking and their impact on lung inflation and deflation were investigated...
August 18, 2020: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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