keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442199/mindfulness-prevents-depression-and-psychopathology-in-elderly-people-with-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Domingo J Quintana-Hernández, Jaime Rojas-Hernández, Angelo Santana-Del Pino, Carmen Céspedes Suárez, Mónica Pellejero Silva, María Teresa Miró-Barrachina, Ignacio Ibáñez Fernández, José Antonio Estupiñán López, Lucas F Borkel
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study addressed whether mindfulness practice prevents psychological and behavioral symptoms, especially mood disorders, in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of depression in the course of AD and to determine which non-pharmacological treatment (NPT) is most effective in preventing psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, non-inferiority and equivalence randomized clinical trial, repeated-measures design, with a control group and three experimental treatments: mindfulness, cognitive stimulation, and relaxation...
November 24, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442186/exploring-acute-effects-of-workplace-warm-up-intervention-on-pain-physical-capacities-and-productivity-in-agriculture-a-study-protocol
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nicolas Larinier, Nicolas Vuillerme, Alexandre Jadaud, Solène Malherbe, Romain Balaguier
BACKGROUND: Physical activity programs at the workplace have shown positive results on physical capacities and pain for several years. Due to the duration of the training session or the need for an instructor, these supervised programs are rather difficult to implement. For this reason, numerous companies, especially companies in manual sectors, are turning to another solution, i.e. warm-up intervention before the work shift. These interventions present various advantages such as short duration and the possibility to perform exercises in working clothes...
November 21, 2022: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442089/individuals-prefer-to-harm-their-own-group-rather-than-help-an-opposing-group
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rachel Gershon, Ariel Fridman
Group-based conflict enacts a severe toll on society, yet the psychological factors governing behavior in group conflicts remain unclear. Past work finds that group members seek to maximize relative differences between their in-group and out-group ("in-group favoritism") and are driven by a desire to benefit in-groups rather than harm out-groups (the "in-group love" hypothesis). This prior research studies how decision-makers approach trade-offs between two net-positive outcomes for their in-group. However, in the real world, group members often face trade-offs between net-negative options, entailing either losses to their group or gains for the opposition...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442081/the-dispositional-essence-of-proactive-social-preferences-the-dark-core-of-personality-vis-%C3%A3-vis-58-traits
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann, Ingo Zettler, Morten Moshagen
Individuals differ in how they weigh their own utility versus others'. This tendency codefines the dark factor of personality (D), which is conceptualized as the underlying disposition from which all socially and ethically aversive (dark) traits arise as specific, flavored manifestations. We scrutinize this unique theoretical notion by testing, for a broad set of 58 different traits and related constructs, whether any predict how individuals weigh their own versus others' utility in proactive allocation decisions (i...
November 28, 2022: Psychological Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442048/twin-study-of-caffeine-use-adhd-and-disrupted-sleep-in-abcd-youth
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Genevieve F Dash, Emily Carter, Sarah L Karalunas, Karen A Hudson, Damien Fair, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that caffeine use disproportionately impacts sleep functioning among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study aimed to examine the association of caffeine use with disrupted sleep, and to test moderating effects of ADHD, by leveraging differences within twin pairs to explore potential quasi-causal (i.e., within-pair) effects. METHOD: N = 765 complete same-sex twin pairs (mean age at baseline = 10...
November 28, 2022: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442047/predictive-extrapolation-of-observed-body-movements-is-tuned-by-knowledge-of-the-body-biomechanics
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Antoine Vandenberghe, Gilles Vannuscorps
After a moving object has disappeared, observers typically mislocate its final position to where that object would have been if it had briefly continued to move. Previous studies have shown that this "forward displacement" (FD) is significantly smaller when observers see an upper-limb movement directed away from the body that would have been biomechanically impossible to continue along the same trajectory after it has disappeared than when the movement is directed toward the body and would have been easy to continue...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442046/oculometric-indicators-of-individual-differences-in-preparatory-control-during-the-antisaccade-task
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nash Unsworth, Ashley L Miller, Matthew K Robison
Individual differences in preparatory control in the antisaccade task were examined in two experiments via an examination of pupillary responses and fixation stability during the preparatory delay. In both experiments, high attention control individuals (high-antisaccade performers) demonstrated larger pupillary responses during the preparatory delay than low attention control individuals (low-antisaccade performers). These results suggest that variation in antisaccade performance were partially due to individual differences in the ability to ramp up and regulate the intensity of attention allocated to preparatory control processes...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442045/perceptual-similarity-judgments-do-not-predict-the-distribution-of-errors-in-working-memory
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ivan Tomić, Paul M Bays
Population coding models provide a quantitative account of visual working memory (VWM) retrieval errors with a plausible link to the response characteristics of sensory neurons. Recent work has provided an important new perspective linking population coding to variables of signal detection, including d-prime, and put forward a new hypothesis: that the distribution of recall errors on, for example, a color wheel, is a consequence of the psychological similarity between points in that stimulus space, such that the exponential-like psychophysical distance scaling function can fulfil the role of population tuning and obviate the need to fit a tuning width parameter to recall data...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442044/the-basic-psychological-need-satisfaction-and-frustration-scales-probably-do-not-validly-measure-need-frustration
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brett A Murphy, Ashley L Watts, Zachary G Baker, Brian P Don, Tatum A Jolink, Sara B Algoe
In basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), the separable constructs of need satisfaction and need frustration are theorized as pivotally related to psychopathology and broader aspects of well-being. The Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scales (BPNSFS; Chen et al., 2015) have rapidly emerged as the dominant self-report measure in the BPNT domain, with translated versions available in a wide range of languages and a plethora of versions adapted for specific populations and life contexts...
November 28, 2022: Psychological Assessment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442043/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-child-and-adolescent-symptom-inventory-casi-4r-substance-use-subscale-in-detecting-substance-use-disorders-in-youth
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Angelina Pei-Tzu Tsai, Eric A Youngstrom, Kenneth D Gadow, Sarah M Horwitz, Mary A Fristad, Stacey B Daughters, Andrea S Young, L Eugene Arnold, Boris Birmaher, Stephanie Salcedo, The Lams Group, Robert L Findling
Identifying substance use disorders (SUDs) early and accurately improves case formulation and treatment. Previous studies have investigated validity and reliability of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI) for anxiety, mood, and behavior problems. The present study's aim was to test if the embedded CASI Substance Use (SU) subscale can discriminate adolescents and young adults (AYA) with and without a SUD diagnosis accurately enough to justify clinical application within an evidence-based assessment framework...
November 28, 2022: Psychological Assessment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442041/tilt-adaptation-aftereffects-reveal-fundamental-perceptual-characteristics-of-tactile-orientation-processing-on-the-hand
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Souta Hidaka, Raffaele Tucciarelli, Elena Azañón, Matthew R Longo
Orientation information contributes substantially to our tactile perception, such as feeling an object's shape on the skin. For vision, a perceptual adaptation aftereffect (tilt aftereffect; TAE), which is well explained by neural orientation selectivity, has been used to reveal fundamental perceptual properties of orientation processing. Neural orientation selectivity has been reported in somatosensory cortices. However, little research has investigated the perceptual characteristics of the tactile TAE. The aim of the current study was to provide the first demonstration of a tactile TAE on the hand and investigate the perceptual nature of tactile TAE on the hand surface...
December 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442040/training-auditory-processing-promotes-second-language-speech-acquisition
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kazuya Saito, Katya Petrova, Yui Suzukida, Magdalena Kachlicka, Adam Tierney
Recent evidence suggests that domain-general auditory processing (sensitivity to the spectro-temporal characteristics of sounds) helps determine individual differences in L2 speech acquisition outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which focused training could enhance auditory processing ability, and whether this had a concomitant impact on L2 vowel proficiency. A total of 98 Japanese learners of English were divided into four groups: (1) Auditory-Only (F2 discrimination training); (2) Phonetic-Only (English [æ] and [ʌ] identification training); (3) Auditory-Phonetic (a combination of auditory and phonetic training); and (4) Control training...
December 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442039/imagined-movement-accuracy-is-strongly-associated-with-drivers-of-overt-movement-error-and-weakly-associated-with-imagery-vividness
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tony G J Ingram, Austin J Hurst, Jack P Solomon, Alexandra Stratas, Shaun G Boe
Theories of motor imagery conflict in their account of what happens during an imagined movement, with some suggesting that movement is simulated while others suggest it involves creating and elaborating upon an internal representation of the movement. Here we report evidence that imagery involves the simulation of a movement and that it varies in accuracy. Two groups of participants performed a motor task focused on challenging movement execution either overtly or via motor imagery. Overt performance was used to model expected performance given required movement characteristics (i...
December 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442038/thematic-object-pairs-produce-stronger-and-faster-grouping-than-taxonomic-pairs
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joseph C Nah, Joy J Geng
Studies of visual object processing have long appreciated that semantic meaning is automatically extracted. However, "semantics" has largely been defined as a unitary concept that describes all meaning-based information. In contrast, the concept literature divides semantics into taxonomic and thematic types. Taxonomic relationships reflect categorization by similarities (e.g., dog-wolf); thematic groups are based on complementary relationships (e.g., swimsuit-goggles). Critically, thematic relationships are learned from the experienced co-occurrence of objects whereas taxonomic relationships are based on shared structural similarities...
December 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442037/variance-skewness-and-multiple-outcomes-in-described-and-experienced-prospects-can-one-descriptive-model-capture-it-all
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Leonidas Spiliopoulos, Ralph Hertwig
We determined the scope of five decision models of choices across four environmental niches defined by whether outcome probabilities are described (risk) or experienced by sampling (uncertainty) and whether lotteries are simple (one or two outcomes per prospect) or complex (three or four). The majority of participants chose in accordance with cumulative prospect theory only in simple environments involving decisions from description (75%). In complex environments involving decisions from description and experience, however, skewness-preference models were more prevalent (57% and 68%, respectively)...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442036/stimulation-of-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-enhances-willingness-for-task-completion-by-amplifying-task-outcome-value
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ting Xu, Shunmin Zhang, Feng Zhou, Tingyong Feng
Procrastination, an irrational delay of intended action, has caused harms in many life domains. Although procrastination has a robust link with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the causal role of DLPFC in this behavior remains unclear. A recent temporal decision model (TDM) proposed that people pit task aversiveness against outcome value to decide to procrastinate or not. In short, people would procrastinate if task aversiveness has a stronger effect than outcome value. According to the TDM, the DLPFC might reduce procrastination by inhibiting task aversiveness, or amplifying outcome value, or both...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442035/children-s-sensory-processing-sensitivity-and-prosocial-behaviors-testing-the-differential-susceptibility-theory
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xile Li, Zhi Li, Jialing Jiang, Ni Yan
We conducted two studies to investigate whether children (3-6 years old) with high sensory processing sensitivity show greater susceptibility toward environmental influence in their prosocial development. In two independent samples ( N Study 1 = 120, 55 boys, 65 girls; N Study 2 = 151, 72 boys, 79 girls), we successfully replicated the findings that children with high sensory processing sensitivity, particularly aesthetic sensitivity, demonstrated stronger susceptibility to the influence of negative parenting in their prosocial behaviors...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442034/arbitrary-fairness-in-reward-and-punishments
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ellen R K Evers, Michael O'Donnell, Yoel Inbar
People have a strong preference for fairness. For many, fairness means equal reward and punishments for equal efforts and offences. However, this belief does not specify the units in which equality should be expressed. We show that people generally fail to take the interchangeability of units into account when judging and assigning fair punishments and reward. Therefore, judgments about and distributions of resources are strongly influenced by arbitrary decisions about which unit to express them in. For example, if points represent different monetary values for different recipients, people attempt to distribute money equally if money is salient but attempt to distribute points equally if points are salient...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442033/the-social-network-how-people-infer-relationships-from-mutual-connections
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Claudia G Sehl, Ori Friedman, Stephanie Denison
People infer that individuals are socially related if they have overlapping preferences, beliefs, and choices. Here we examined whether people also infer relationships by attending to social network information. In five preregistered experiments, participants were shown the social networks of two target people and their friends or acquaintances within a group, and judged if the targets were socially related to one another. In the first three experiments, adults (total N = 528) were more likely to judge that individuals were friends when a high rather than low proportion of their friendships were mutual...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36442032/when-new-talent-scores-the-impact-of-human-capital-and-the-team-socialization-context-on-newcomer-performance-in-professional-sports-teams
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marvin Schuth, Prisca Brosi, Nicholas Folger, Gilad Chen, Robert E Ployhart
This study integrates research on newcomer socialization and work teams to examine how the team environment facilitates or hinders the translation of human capital into newcomer performance in professional sports teams. Using large, multiyear and multilevel data from the top five European professional football leagues, we examine how individual-level newcomer human capital and the team-level characteristics (prior team performance, number of newcomers) influence individual newcomer performance during two different socialization contexts (when more vs...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Applied Psychology
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