Gui Chen, Xingchang Wang, Wesley R Barnhart, Yuru Fu, Jinbo He
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests potential moderating roles of dispositional mindfulness and body image flexibility in the association between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, relevant research is mainly conducted on adult women from Western countries, and limited evidence exists for adolescent samples, especially from non-Western contexts (e.g., China). Thus, this study aimed to examine the moderating roles of dispositional mindfulness and body image flexibility in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in Chinese adolescents...
May 23, 2024: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Antonia Errázuriz, Alvaro Passi Solar, Rodrigo Beltrán, Clara Paz, Chris Evans, Guillermo De la Parra
OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 34-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure questionnaire (CORE-OM). METHOD: Psychometric exploration was conducted in two samples: non-clinical ( n  = 706) and clinical ( n  = 420) participants. The non-clinical sample comprised a subgroup of community members ( n  = 308) and students ( n  = 398). The clinical sample consisted of self-reported patients ( n  = 209) and outpatients ( n  = 211)...
May 23, 2024: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Julia Petrovic, Devin J Mills, Nancy L Heath
BACKGROUND: The relevance of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; the deliberate destruction of one's bodily tissue without suicidal intent) has been repeatedly documented. Recently, specific mindfulness facets (i.e., awareness, nonjudging, describing) have been proposed as mechanisms that explain this relationship. The present study sought to extend this line of inquiry by exploring the mediating role of mindfulness facets in the relation between self-determination theory-based ER styles (i...
May 23, 2024: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Rachael A Safyan, Eejung Kim, Emmelie Dekker, Marjolein Homs, Andrew J Aguirre, Bas Groot Koerkamp, E Gabriela Chiorean
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a challenging disease that presents at an advanced stage and results in many symptoms that negatively influence patients' quality of life and reduce their ability to receive effective treatment. Early implementation of expert multidisciplinary care with nutritional support, exercise, and palliative care for both early-stage and advanced disease promises to maintain or improve the patients' physical, social, and psychological well-being, decrease aggressive interventions at the end of life, and ultimately improve survival...
June 2024: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Michael Chimento, Lucy M Aplin
AbstractA change to a population's social network is a change to the substrate of cultural transmission, affecting behavioral diversity and adaptive cultural evolution. While features of network structure such as population size and density have been well studied, less is understood about the influence of social processes such as population turnover-or the repeated replacement of individuals by naive individuals. Experimental data have led to the hypothesis that naive learners can drive cultural evolution by better assessing the relative value of behaviors, although this hypothesis has been expressed only verbally...
June 2024: American Naturalist
Eva Rames Nissen, Henrike Neumann, Sofie Møgelberg Knutzen, Emilie Nørholm Henriksen, Ali Amidi, Christoffer Johansen, Annika Von Heymann, Peer Christiansen, Robert Zachariae
BACKGROUND: Considering the persistent nature and higher prevalence of insomnia in cancer patients and survivors compared to the general population, there is a need for effective management strategies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate the available evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in adult cancer patients and survivors. METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we analyzed data from 61 randomized controlled trials involving 6528 participants...
May 23, 2024: JNCI Cancer Spectrum
Md Nazmus Sakib, Ellen Hagen, Nidhal Mazza, Neha Rani, Ehsanul Haque Nirjhar, Sharon L Chu, Theodora Chaspari, Amir H Behzadan, Winfred Arthur
Like all job applicants, veterans have to face the ubiquitous employment interview and pass this potential hurdle to civilian sector employment. So, because of the uniqueness of transitioning from the military to civilian employment, the present paper sought to identify perceived interviewing strengths and weaknesses of veteran interviewees from (a) the perspective of civilian sector human resource professionals (i.e. hiring personnel) with experience interviewing veterans (Study 1, five focus groups, N  = 14), and (b) veterans (Study 2, N  = 93)...
May 23, 2024: Military Psychology
Emily L Tilstra-Ferrell, Abby Braden, Sarah Russin
Military sexual trauma (MST) and combat trauma (CT) survivors experience disproportionate risk for disordered eating. A survey of MST, CT, disordered eating, trauma-related self-blame, emotion regulation challenges, body dissatisfaction, and dissociation among military personnel with a history of military-related trauma was conducted. These survey-based cross-sectional data were analyzed via parallel mediation analyses and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA). Six parallel mediation analyses were conducted examining trauma-related self-blame, emotion regulation challenges, body dissatisfaction, and dissociation as mediators linking MST and CT, separately, with purging, restricting, and bingeing...
May 23, 2024: Military Psychology
India R Marks, Katrien Devolder, Hilary Bowman-Smart, Molly Johnston, Catherine Mills
Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has become widely available in recent years. While initially used to screen for trisomies 21, 18, and 13, the test has expanded to include a range of other conditions and will likely expand further. This paper addresses the ethical issues that arise from one particularly controversial potential use of NIPT: screening for adult-onset conditions (AOCs). We report data from our quantitative survey of Australian NIPT users' views on the ethical issues raised by NIPT for AOCs...
May 23, 2024: Bioethics
Zachary J McClean, Kati Pasanen, Victor Lun, Jonathan Charest, Walter Herzog, Penny Werthner, Amanda Black, Reid Vander Vleuten, Elise Lacoste, Matthew J Jordan
McClean, ZJ, Pasanen, K, Lun, V, Charest, J, Herzog, W, Werthner, P, Black, A, Vleuten, RV, Lacoste, E, and Jordan, MJ. A biopsychosocial model for understanding training load, fatigue, and musculoskeletal sport injury in university athletes: A scoping review. J Strength Cond Res 38(6): 1177-1188, 2024-The impact of musculoskeletal (MSK) injury on athlete health and performance has been studied extensively in youth sport and elite sport. Current research examining the relationship between training load, injury, and fatigue in university athletes is sparse...
June 1, 2024: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ung Lee, Kang-Seob Oh, Young Chul Shin, Sang-Won Jeon, Sung Joon Cho, Junhyung Kim, Eun Soo Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Suhyeon Moon, Eun-Ji Kim, Dongwon Shin
This study uses fNIRS to determine whether there is a difference in the relationship between intra-individual variability and frontal lobe activity between ADHD patients and typically developing children. A total of 28 subjects (14 in ADHD patient group and 14 in control group) participated in this study. The subjects were tested for K-SADS and intelligence, and then the frontal lobe activity of the subjects was measured by continuous performance test, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRSIT). Processing speed index was significantly lower in the ADHD patient group than in the control group ( p  = ...
May 23, 2024: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Kristin R Archer
BACKGROUND: Lower-extremity injuries can result in severe impairment and substantial years lived with a disability. Persistent pain and psychological distress are risk factors for poor long-term outcomes and negatively influence the recovery process following a traumatic injury. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions have the potential to address these risk factors and subsequently improve outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy (CBPT) program on physical function, pain, and general health at 12 months after hospital discharge following lower-extremity trauma...
May 23, 2024: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Amir Sabripoor, Rouzbeh Ghousi, Mehdi Najafi, Farnaz Barzinpour, Ahmad Makuei
Nowadays, most fatal diseases are attributed to the malfunction of bodily. Sometimes organ transplantation is the only possible therapy, for instance for patients with end-stage liver diseases, and the preferred treatment, for instance for patients with end-stage renal diseases. However, this surgical procedure comes with inherent risks and effectively managing these risks to minimize the likelihood of complications arising from organ transplantation (maximizing life years from transplant and quality-adjusted life years) is crucial...
2024: PloS One
Josu Zabala Mata, Jon Jatsu Azkue, Joel E Bialosky, Marc Saez, Estíbaliz Dominguez López, Maialen Araolaza Arrieta, Ion Lascurain-Aguirrebeña
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a 4-week manual therapy treatment restores normal functioning of central pain processing mechanisms in non-specific chronic neck pain (NSCNP), as well as the existence of a possible relationship between changes in pain processing mechanisms and clinical outcome. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with NSCNP, comprising 79% female, with a mean age of 45.8 years (standard deviation: 14.3), received four treatment sessions (once a week) of manual therapy including articular passive mobilizations, soft tissue mobilization and trigger point treatment...
2024: PloS One
Avi Gamoran, Lilach Lieberman, Michael Gilead, Ian G Dobbins, Talya Sadeh
Humans have the highly adaptive ability to learn from others' memories. However, because memories are prone to errors, in order for others' memories to be a valuable source of information, we need to assess their veracity. Previous studies have shown that linguistic information conveyed in self-reported justifications can be used to train a machine-learner to distinguish true from false memories. But can humans also perform this task, and if so, do they do so in the same way the machine-learner does? Participants were presented with justifications corresponding to Hits and False Alarms and were asked to directly assess whether the witness's recognition was correct or incorrect...
May 28, 2024: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mohd Faiz Itam, Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Anita Abd Rahman, Mohd Zukri Ibrahim, Shareh Azizan Shareh Ali, Ahmad Hanis Shuhaimi
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the most significant worldwide health catastrophe, with massive impacts observed particularly among the healthcare workers. Stress among healthcare workers is a significant and pervasive issue that can have profound implications for both the well-being of healthcare professionals and the quality of patient care. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated factors among the healthcare workers (HCWs)...
2024: PloS One
Guanyu Chen, Yan Liu, Yue Mao
With the advancement of computer-based testing, log file data has drawn considerable attention from researchers. Although emerging studies have begun to explore log file data, there is a gap in the exploitation of log file data for capturing and understanding participants' cognitive processes. The debate on how to maximize insights from log file data has not yet reached a consensus. Therefore, we present this protocol for a scoping review that aims to characterize the application of log file data in current publications, including the data pre-processing techniques, analytical methodologies, and theoretical frameworks used by researchers...
2024: PloS One
Folake Barakat Lawal, Ejiro Idiga, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Iyanuoluwa Jesupemi Ajayi, Folakemi Amusa, Ooreoluwa Adejumo, Mary Ebelechukwu Osuh, Orighoye Tosan Temisanren, Taiwo Akeem Lawal
Oral habits such as nail biting, thumb/digit sucking and teeth grinding could be harmful, and may lead to teeth misalignment, anterior open bite, protruded or flared upper anterior teeth especially if they persist into adolescence. Such orofacial dysfunction may result to impairment of the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of an individual. The extent to which oral habits affect the major domains of the self-reported outcomes remains understudied especially during adolescence, a unique period of growth, where there is increased aesthetic desire, increased self-awareness, and unique social and psychological needs...
2024: PLOS Glob Public Health
Dongzhu Gadan, Zaisheng Zhang
Tibetan Buddhism, as an indigenous religion, has a significant and far-reaching influence in the Tibetan areas of China. This study, focusing on Lhasa, explores the integration of Tibetan Buddhist spiritual perceptions within urban spaces. Employing a novel approach that combines street view data and deep learning technology, the research aims to identify and map the spatial distribution of Tibetan Buddhist spiritual sites against the backdrop of the urban landscape. Our analysis reveals a notable concentration of these spiritual places near urban architectural and cultural heritage areas, highlighting the profound connection between residents' cultural life and spiritual practices...
2024: PloS One
Weiwei Guo, Wei Xiong
The prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing over the last 50 years. Binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are two typical disabling, costly and life-threatening eating disorders that substantially compromise the physical well-being of individuals while undermining their psychological functioning. The distressing and recurrent episodes of binge eating are commonly observed in both BED and BN; however, they diverge as BN often involves the adoption of inappropriate compensatory behaviors aimed at averting weight gain...
2024: Gut Microbes
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