Santiago Alonso-Díaz, Gabriel I Penagos-Londoño
Fractions are crucial, from math and science education to daily activities, but they are hard. A puzzling aspect of fractions is that people over-rely on the numerator when comparing a pair of fractions. Previous work has considered this numerator bias mostly as a reasoning mishap. Still, in a vast amount of pairwise comparisons, across many real-world domains, not just education textbooks, we report a high prior probability that the larger fraction has the larger numerator, and, for a relevant case, we provide formal arguments why...
January 13, 2021: Acta Psychologica
Kavinash Loganathan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho
Over the years, various models have been proposed to explain the psychology and biology of drug addiction, built primarily around the habit and compulsion models. Recent research indicates drug addiction may be goal-directed, motivated by excessive valuation of drugs. Drug consumption may initially occur for the sake of pleasure but may transition to a means of escaping withdrawal, stress and negative emotions. In this hypothetical paper, we propose a value-based neurobiological model for drug addiction. We posit that during dependency, the value-based decision-making system in the brain is not inactive but has instead prioritized drugs as the reward of choice...
January 7, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Stefan Kulakow, Diana Raufelder, Frances Hoferichter
INTRODUCTION: One major stressor of adolescents relates to the pressure students perceive from their parents accompanied by high academic expectations, while in contrast parental support is related to low levels of stress. However, it is not clear whether the perceived parental pressure and support contribute to a change in students' stress level from early to middle adolescence and if there are differences among students from low vs. high track schools. METHODS: Thus, based on the conservation of resources theory, this two-wave study examined the role of perceived maternal and paternal pressure and support for students' general stress level from grades 8 to 9 among students attending high- and low-track schools by applying multigroup multilevel latent change modeling based on data from 1088 8th grade students (MAge = 13...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Adolescence
Hyunjung Lee, Gopal K Singh
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown a significant association between psychological distress (PD) and all-cause mortality. However, this association is not fully explored, and life expectancy by PD is unknown. METHODS: We used the pooled 1997-2014 data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) linked to National Death Index (NDI) (N=513,081) to examine the association of the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale with life expectancy and all-cause mortality...
January 13, 2021: Annals of Epidemiology
Cinzia Cecchetto, Marilena Aiello, Claudio Gentili, Silvio Ionta, Sofia Adelaide Osimo
Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an online survey was conducted to compare measures of self-reported physical (BMI), psychological (Alexithymia), affective (anxiety, stress, and depression) and social (income, workload) state during Phase 1 and Phase 2...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
Wenfei Wang, Mingming Qi, Heming Gao
This study aimed to explore the neural activity associated with the Working Memory (WM) Stroop effect. Stroop facilitation and interference effects in WM were also investigated by adding a neutral condition to the WM Stroop paradigm. In each trial, participants were first asked to remember a word in WM, then respond to the color of the subsequent rectangle. The word meaning and rectangular color were congruent, incongruent, or irrelevant (neutral). Finally, a probe word appeared and participants judged whether it was the same as the first presented word...
January 13, 2021: Neuropsychologia
J W Terri Huh, Rachel L Rodriguez, Jeffrey J Gregg, Ashley N Scales, B Josea Kramer, Christine E Gould
Older adults are more likely to seek mental health care through integrated care settings such as primary care. Currently, there exists a significant shortage of mental health providers trained in geropsychology and integrated care competencies. To address this need within the Veterans Health Administration, a national workforce development program was extended to include psychologists, which is called the Geriatric Scholars Program-Psychology Track (GSP-P). The GSP-P has two overarching educational program aims: (1) to improve geropsychology competencies of practicing VA psychologists, particularly those working within integrated settings (e...
January 16, 2021: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Thierry Pelaccia, Jean Sibilia, Élodie Fels, Lucas Gauer, Audrey Musanda, François Severac, Milena Abbiati
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased staffing needs in emergency departments. The question quickly arose as to whether it was appropriate to offer medical students the opportunity to assist this staff. The dilemma stems in part from the potential impact on their psychological well-being as well as their academic and clinical performances. We sought to determine the level of anxiety of medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak, and whether it was higher among the students who chose to return to the clinical setting, especially in first-line units (i...
January 16, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Merylin Monaro, Cristina Mazza, Marco Colasanti, Stefano Ferracuti, Graziella Orrù, Alberto di Domenico, Giuseppe Sartori, Paolo Roma
Deliberate attempts to portray oneself in an unrealistic manner are commonly encountered in the administration of personality questionnaires. The main aim of the present study was to explore whether mouse tracking temporal indicators and machine learning models could improve the detection of subjects implementing a faking-good response style when answering personality inventories with four choice alternatives, with and without time pressure. A total of 120 volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups and asked to respond to the Virtuous Responding (VR) validity scale of the PPI-R and the Positive Impression Management (PIM) validity scale of the PAI via a computer mouse...
January 16, 2021: Psychological Research
Giorgio Lisi, M Campanelli, S Grande, G Milito, M Grande
PURPOSE: In Italy, colorectal surgery has been strongly affected with the vast majority (90%) of operations treating benign diseases, with an estimated overall 12-week cancellation rate of 72%. Little is known on how to best manage patients with benign diseases and the consequences this interruption of care will have in post-pandemic times. Proctologic diseases have social, psychological, and healthcare repercussions for their high incidence and great impact on the quality of life. METHODS: We decided to treated 10 urgent cases affected from III- and IV-degree hemorrhoids with 3% polidocanol foam in attempt to reduce hemorrhoidal symptoms while waiting for surgery so called "bridge treatment"...
January 16, 2021: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Joaquín Bahamondes, Nikhil K Sengupta, Chris G Sibley, Danny Osborne
People often perceive social systems as fair and legitimate in order to satisfy existential, epistemic, and relational needs. Although much work has examined the existential and epistemic roots to system justification, the relational motives underlying the tendency to justify the system have received comparatively less attention. We addressed this oversight by examining the associations approach and avoidance relational goals have with system justification in a national probability sample (N = 21,938). Consistent with the thesis that the need to belong motivates system justification, avoidance goals (i...
January 16, 2021: British Journal of Social Psychology
Tsuei-Hung Wang, Lee-Wen Pai, Ya-Ling Tzeng, Tzu-Pei Yeh, Yu-Kuei Teng
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of nurses and midwives-led psychological interventions on the perinatal depressive symptoms. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on the PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: Six databases were searched, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL. The search date range was before 30 September 2019. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to evaluate the quality of the included studies and Review Manager software 5...
January 15, 2021: Nursing Open
Sarah A Wu, Edward Gibson
When asked to identify objects having unique shapes and colors among other objects, English speakers often produce redundant color modifiers ("the red circle") while Spanish speakers produce them less often ("el circulo (rojo)"). This cross-linguistic difference has been attributed to a difference in word order between the two languages, under the incremental efficiency hypothesis (Rubio-Fernández, Mollica, & Jara-Ettinger, 2020). However, previous studies leave open the possibility that broad language differences between English and Spanish may explain this cross-linguistic difference such that English speakers may generally produce more modifiers than Spanish speakers, including redundant ones, irrespective of word order...
January 2021: Cognitive Science
Kathryn J Roberts, Colette Smith, Lucie Cluver, Elona Toska, Lorraine Sherr
Adolescent (10-19 years) mental health remains an overlooked global health issue. Rates of adolescent pregnancy within sub-Saharan Africa are some of the highest in the world and occur at the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic. Both experiencing adolescent pregnancy and living with HIV have been found to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, when investigated separately. Poor mental health may have implications for both parent and child. The literature regarding mental health within groups experiencing both HIV and adolescent pregnancy is yet to be summarised...
January 15, 2021: AIDS and Behavior
Leticia Aptecar, Frederic Fiteni, Marta Jarlier, Stephanie Delaine, Violaine Guillerme, William Jacot, Veronique D'Hondt
PURPOSE: Sexual quality of life (QoL) is affected during and after breast cancer (BC) treatment and is not specifically evaluated with the general health-related quality-of-life questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 or QLQ-BR23. A specific questionnaire, the EORTC SHQ-C22, including physical, psychological, and social aspects of sexuality, was recently developed to address this issue in cancer patients. METHODS: A prospective bicentric study was conducted to evaluate the sexual QoL of women with BC during the first year of adjuvant hormonal treatment...
January 15, 2021: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Ting Zhao, Hasnat Ahmad, Tania Winzenberg, Dawn Aitken, Barbara de Graaff, Graeme Jones, Andrew J Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of OA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the forms of health state utilities (HSUs) and health-dimension scores, and to compare the longitudinal changes in HRQoL for people with and without OA, using an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: Participants of the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort with data on OA diagnosis and HRQoL were included [interviewed at baseline (n = 1093), 2.5 years (n = 871), 5 years (n = 760) and 10 years (n = 562)]...
January 16, 2021: Rheumatology
Takanao Tanaka, Shohei Okamoto
There is increasing concern that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could harm psychological health and exacerbate suicide risk. Here, based on month-level records of suicides covering the entire Japanese population in 1,848 administrative units, we assessed whether suicide mortality changed during the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation, we found that monthly suicide rates declined by 14% during the first 5 months of the pandemic (February to June 2020). This could be due to a number of complex reasons, including the government's generous subsidies, reduced working hours and school closure...
January 15, 2021: Nature Human Behaviour
Anne M Doherty, Anne Herrmann-Werner, Arann Rowe, Jennie Brown, Scott Weich, Khalida Ismail
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the feasibility of conducting diabetes-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) via a secure online real-time instant messaging system intervention to support self-management and improve glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a pre-post uncontrolled intervention design over 12 months. We recruited adults with type 1 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c ≥69 mmol/mol (DCCT 8...
January 2021: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
J E Kettle, Z Marshman, L Winchester, L Hardwick, R Bolt, N Lee
To explore patients' experiences of orthognathic treatment for facial asymmetry and their adaptation to facial changes after surgery, we did a qualitative, cross-sectional study of patients after treatment for non-cleft asymmetry at two UK sites. A total of 15 patients aged 19-40 years were approached after being identified using patient databases and clinical notes. Individual and photo-elicitation interviews were conducted covering experiences prior to treatment, during treatment, and after surgery. Interviews were transcribed and thematic narrative analysis undertaken...
September 11, 2020: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Anne M Finucane, Connie Swenson, John I MacArtney, Rachel Perry, Hazel Lamberton, Lucy Hetherington, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Scott A Murray, Emma Carduff
BACKGROUND: Specialist palliative care (SPC) providers tend to use the term 'complex' to refer to the needs of patients who require SPC. However, little is known about complex needs on first referral to a SPC service. We examined which needs are present and sought the perspectives of healthcare professionals on the complexity of need on referral to a hospice service. METHODS: Multi-site sequential explanatory mixed method study consisting of a case-note review and focus groups with healthcare professionals in four UK hospices...
January 15, 2021: BMC Palliative Care
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