Sandra Schlegl, Adrian Meule, Matthias Favreau, Ulrich Voderholzer
OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic might pose special challenges to patients with eating disorders (EDs) by interfering with daily routines. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the current pandemic on patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). METHODS: Fifty-five former inpatients with BN completed an online survey on psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as on changes in health care utilisation and on the use and helpfulness of different coping strategies...
August 7, 2020: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Laura M Getz, Joseph C Toscano
Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided a detailed picture of the early time-course of speech perception. In this review, we highlight this work, placing it within the broader context of research on the neurobiology of speech processing, and discuss how these data point us toward new models of speech perception and spoken language comprehension. We focus, in particular, on temporally-sensitive measures that allow us to directly measure early perceptual processes. Overall, the data provide support for two key principles: (a) speech perception is based on gradient representations of speech sounds and (b) speech perception is interactive and receives input from higher-level linguistic context at the earliest stages of cortical processing...
August 7, 2020: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Yan Cai, Liyu Li, Chang Xu, Zhiwen Wang
BACKGROUND: Apathy is one of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which is the most frequent and can accelerate the progress of dementia. AIMS: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on apathy in patients with dementia. METHODS: Databases including the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CNKI, and Wan Fang Data were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on apathy in patients with dementia...
August 7, 2020: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Ghada Shahrour, Latefa Ali Dardas
PURPOSE: Healthcare professionals, particularly nurses, are considered a vulnerable group to experience acute stress disorder (ASD) and subsequent psychological distress amid COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to establish the prevalence of acute stress disorder and predictors of psychological distress among Jordanian nurses. METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative design was used. Data was collected using a web-based survey. A total of 448 Jordanian nurses (73% females) completed and returned the study questionnaire...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Nursing Management
Jennifer W McVige, Rebecca M Hogan, Clayton M Shanahan, Diane L Amend, Shawn M Ferger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single 50-mg oral dose of diclofenac potassium for oral solution (OS) in a pediatric cohort with a diagnosis of episodic migraine; the 3-month safety trial following an outpatient dosing period was also evaluated. BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents often experience migraine pain that is poorly controlled, which may affect their emotional and psychological well-being. Diclofenac potassium for OS is approved for the treatment of migraine with aura (MWA) or migraine without aura (MWoA) in adults 18 years of age or older...
August 7, 2020: Headache
Bridget L Cheeks, Tabbye M Chavous, Robert M Sellers
This study examined 164 African American adolescents' (Mage  = 15) daily reports of racial discrimination and parental racial socialization over 21 days. The study examined same-day and previous-day associations of adolescents' discrimination and socialization experiences with their positive and negative psychological affect. It further explored whether racial socialization messages buffered discrimination's effects on affect when messages were received during the same day and on the day prior to discrimination...
August 7, 2020: Child Development
Seng Giap Marcus Ang, Anthony Paul O'Brien, Amanda Wilson
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Carers' Fall Concern Instrument (CFC-I) for measuring carers' concern for older people (care recipients) at risk of falling. BACKGROUND: Family carers are crucial in preventing older people from falling at home. Their concerns for older people at risk of falling have severe implications on carers' psychological well-being and ability to prevent falls. However, there is no validated instrument measuring this concern...
August 7, 2020: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Matthew J Leach, Marianne Gillam, David A Gonzalez-Chica, Sandra Walsh, Kuda Muyambi, Martin Jones
Regional South Australia has some of the highest rates of psychological distress, chronic disease and multimorbidity of any Australian State or Territory. Yet, the healthcare needs of this population are still not completely understood. To better understand the healthcare needs of regional South Australians, we invited adults living in the region to complete the 44-item consumer utilisation, expectations and experiences of healthcare instrument (CONVERSATIONS), online or in hard-copy. The survey was conducted between April 2017 and March 2018...
August 7, 2020: Health & Social Care in the Community
Steven P Philpot, Asha Persson, Garrett Prestage, Benjamin R Bavinton, Jeanne Ellard
Serodiscordant couples are often understood through a discourse of HIV-risk or researched in terms of the psychological stressors they face. However, due to antiretroviral treatments people living with HIV can achieve undetectable viral loads, which not only make them non-infectious to partners, but allow them to think of their lives and relationships as safe and viable. These realisations mean that serodiscordant couples often embrace an HIV 'normalisation' discourse. In this article, we argue that this discourse of HIV 'normalisation' can overlook the more nuanced complexity of issues still faced by couples today, which reveal how their experiences of 'normal' are sometimes challenged and are not necessarily 'normal'...
August 7, 2020: Sociology of Health & Illness
Roses S Parker, Theresa Wiseman, Alison Twycross, Stephen McKeever
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe pain manifestation in children with cancer at home and understand how parents assess this pain. BACKGROUND: Pain is experienced by children with cancer throughout their cancer journey. Short-term, and into survivorship, pain has negative physical and psychological consequences. Changes in treatment location mean children with cancer spend more time at home. Little is known about pain experienced by children at home or how parents assess this pain...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Michelle I Jongenelis, Simone Pettigrew
ISSUES ADDRESSED: While the psychological health benefits of older people's engagement in formal volunteering are well-documented, there is limited research assessing how volunteering may produce these favourable outcomes. To guide the development of volunteer positions that optimise outcomes, this study examined (i) which aspects of the volunteering experience are most strongly associated with favourable psychological health among older adults and (ii) whether relationships between these aspects and psychological outcomes are moderated by sociodemographic characteristics...
August 7, 2020: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Adam O'Riordan, Siobhán Howard, Eoin Brown, Stephen Gallagher
Type D personality has been consistently associated with adverse cardiovascular health with atypical cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress one potential underlying mechanism. As Type D individuals have been noted to report lower social support and greater perceptions of negativity in social interactions, this study examined if the association between Type D personality and cardiovascular reactivity was mediated by these social relationships. A sample of 195 undergraduate students (138 female) participated in this observational study, where they completed measures assessing Type D personality (DS14), social support, and perceptions of negative social relationships (National Institute of Health social relationship scales), before undergoing a traditional cardiovascular reactivity protocol...
August 7, 2020: Psychophysiology
Song-Lin He, Hai-Juan Hou, Jin-Hua Wang
AIM: Building on previous psychometric work, we aimed to further assess the minimally important difference (MID) of the Oral Health Impact Profile for Chronic Periodontitis (OHIP-CP). METHODS: In total, 240 consecutive patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited in the study. The OHIP-CP was completed at baseline and after six weeks. Methodology testing included the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and minimal important difference (MID). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the fit of the previously proposed three-factor model...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Sophie M Strong, Zwelihle Magama, Rebecca Mallick, Michail Sideris, Funlayo Odejinmi
The impact of delayed surgical intervention for women with fibroids due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting adverse effects on their mental and physical health. Fibroids are the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Elective services have been suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a backlog of patients awaiting surgery. When the curve was flattened in the UK, the second phase of the National Health Service's plan to tackle the pandemic was announced with the reintroduction of elective surgery...
August 7, 2020: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Kenichi Matsuyama, Yasuji Yamamoto, Ichiro Sora
AIM: Many researchers argue that Alzheimer's disease is at least partly caused by deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. Ferulic acid (FA) and Angelica archangelica (AA) are candidate agents for reducing Aβ and improving cognitive function. Feru-guard 100M is a supplement containing FA and AA extract. Using this supplement, we planned to assess the effect of FA and AA on Aβ deposition in the human brain. METHODS: This was an open-label, interventional multi-institutional joint study of Kobe University and the Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation (Kobe, Japan)...
August 6, 2020: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
S A Meo, A A Abukhalaf, A A Alomar, I Z Al-Beeshi, A Alhowikan, K M Shafi, A S Meo, A M Usmani, J Akram
OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
G-F Chen, Y-R Cheng, L Ye, M-W Wang, M-Y Zhou, F Zhang, J Chen, Z-H Feng
The World Health Organization reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected on December 31, 2019 in China. Unfortunately, a 34-year-old Italian nurse has committed suicide after testing positive for coronavirus. It was the second case of suicide by a nurse in an Italian hospital and occurred only a few days after the first suicide. These consecutive suicides have aroused concern, and it is necessary to investigate the psychological issues of the medical staff in Italy regarding the COVID-19...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Gundula Ernst, Luisa Klein, Kerstin Kowalewski, Rüdiger Szczepanski
BACKGROUND: Siblings of chronically ill or handicapped children are exposed to increased stress as a result of their special life situation. This can lead to psychological abnormalities. International studies show that programs for siblings can reduce this risk. In Germany, there is a lack of compact educational programs for siblings. Such an offer was tested with this workshop. In the one-day group training, coping strategies were developed and disease knowledge conveyed in order to reduce fears...
August 6, 2020: Klinische Pädiatrie
Gadi Zerach
The few studies that examined the association between narcissism and problematic smartphone use found mixed results. Moreover, the empirical examination of psychological mechanisms for this link is lacking. This study investigated the relationships between pathological narcissism, emptiness and problematic smartphone use. Participants included 278 young Israeli adults (159 males; Mage = 26.21) who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Our results show that narcissistic grandiosity, vulnerability and emptiness were positively related to problematic smartphone use...
August 7, 2020: Psychiatric Quarterly
Olawumi M Oladapo, Benneth Ben-Azu, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Osagie Emokpae, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
Psychosocial stress has been widely reported to contribute to psychiatric disturbances. Perturbations in the enzymes of GABAergic and cholinergic systems have been implicated as precursors in different stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Targeting glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 kDa (GAD67) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) via oxidative, nitrergic, and neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been recognized as prospective strategies for the prevention of psychosocial stress-induced behavioral impairments. Naringin, a neuro-active flavonoid compound isolated from citrus fruits, has been shown to produce memory-enhancing, antiepileptic, antidepressant, and anti-inflammatory activities similarly to ginseng, a very potent adaptogen...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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