Jonathan I Bisson, Laurence Astill Wright, Kimberley A Jones, Catrin Lewis, Andrea J Phelps, Marit Sijbrandij, Tracey Varker, Neil P Roberts
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental health condition that requires exposure to a traumatic event. This provides unique opportunities for prevention that are not available for other disorders. The aim of this review was to undertake a systematic review and evaluation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions designed to prevent PTSD in adults. Searches involving Cochrane, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PILOTS and Pubmed databases were undertaken to identify RCTs of pre-incident preparedness and post-incident interventions until May 2019...
March 19, 2021: Clinical Psychology Review
Patrick T Donahue, George Grove, Chelsea Stillman, Chaeryon Kang, Jeffrey Burns, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Edward McAuley, Eric Vidoni, Kirk I Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Supervised exercise interventions are expensive and time intensive. However, there are financial costs to consider in addition to the intervention itself, namely: advertising and recruitment, outcome assessments, and other trial-related costs. OBJECTIVES: In this analysis, we examine the financial costs associated with the administration of Investigating Gains in Neurocognition in an Intervention Trial of Exercise (IGNITE) to quantify the costs associated with large exercise intervention trials and to provide future investigators with financial estimates if they wish to pursue studies of a similar design...
April 12, 2021: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Wei Cang, Liying Gu, Zubei Hong, Anyue Wu, Wen Di, Lihua Qiu
BACKGROUND: High-risk HPV (hrHPV) not only increases the risk of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, but also adds psychological burden to HPV-positive women. 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is a non-invasive and highly tissue-selective therapy. We aim to investigate the clinical efficacy of ALA-PDT for elimination of cervical hrHPV infection in HPV-positive women without cervical lesions. METHODS: A total of 57 hrHPV-positive women without pathologically proved cervical lesions received three treatments of ALA-PDT in total...
April 12, 2021: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Xiaoyu Liu, Jing Qu, Huiling Li, Rui Yang, Leilei Mei
Language production is a vital process of communication. Although many studies have devoted to the neural mechanisms of language production in bilinguals, they mainly focused on the mechanisms of cognitive control during language switching. Therefore, it is not clear how naming context influences the neural representations of linguistic information during language production in bilinguals. To address that question, the present study adopted representational similarity analysis (RSA) to investigate the neural pattern similarity (PS) between the monolingual and bilingual contexts separately for native and second languages...
April 12, 2021: Neuropsychologia
Yuju Chou, Tzu-Yu Chen
Brain imaging studies have observed that the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) was involved in the information processing of moral judgments and in the understanding of the beliefs/intentions of other people. However, most of these studies used moral stories in the third-person point of view. This study aimed to investigate to what extent the disruption of rTPJ affected moral judgments with stories in first-person narration by non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The study hypothesized that, first, TMS would disrupt moral judgment, causing one to neglect the beliefs of perpetrators and to make judgments based on eventual harmful outcomes...
April 12, 2021: Neuropsychologia
Alexander E Heidekum, Alice De Visscher, Stephan E Vogel, Bert De Smedt, Roland H Grabner
Single-digit multiplications are thought to be associated with different levels of interference because they show different degrees of feature overlap (i.e., digits) with previously learnt problems. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies provided evidence for this interference effect and showed that individual differences in arithmetic fact retrieval are related to differences in sensitivity to interference (STI). The present study investigated whether and to what extent competence-related differences in STI and its neurophysiological correlates can be modulated by a multiplication facts training...
April 12, 2021: Neuropsychologia
Katarzyna Kowal, Mateusz Zatorski, Artur Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to perform an in-depth exploratory analysis of the experience and image of one's body among living kidney donors. METHOD: The research was carried out using mixed methodology. The study on experiencing one's own body was carried out using the sociological methodology of the grounded theory (qualitative research). This method was supplemented with psychometric measurement-the Body Esteem Scale (quantitative research). The basic research method was the in-depth interview...
2021: PloS One
Sugandh Bhatia, Jyoteesh Malhotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
Usha Rana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
Carmen Cecilia Caballero-Domínguez, John Carlos Pedrozo-Pupo, Adalberto Campo-Arias
BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD...
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
Naim Fanaj, Sevim Mustafa
BACKGROUND: There are reports from countries and in the scientific literature that COVID-19 affect also mental health worldwide. The aim of this study was to understand the level of depression as a result of the COVID-19 situation and possible associations with sociodemographic variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It's a cross-sectional study. The participants were 155 respondents recruited online in the period 27.04.2020 until 05.06.2020, who completed the Albanian version of PHQ-9...
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
Jun Chen, Guoqiang Sang, Yu Zhang, Aifeng Jiang
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Given the sudden infection from and extensive dispersion of COVID-19 and the absence of specific drugs, those infected are in danger if they are not treated in time. Consequently, COVID-19 has become an important factor influencing adolescents' mental health. The purpose of this study is to explore the intervention effect of the integration model on the negative emotions of adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic...
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
Yongshun Zheng, Xingfang Zhang, Shiyuan Fang, Fan Zhang
The COVID-19 pandemic may cause psychological distress, changes in numbers and distributions of patients in spine surgery patients, which all affect the strategies of spine surgery treatment. These changes may be related to the number of new COVID-19 cases per day since they are visual indicators of the changes in the epidemic and are of interest to the public. This descriptive research took the spine surgery department as an example in a Grade-A tertiary hospital in Anhui province, China. The number and distribution of patients from January 24 to April 2, 2020 was collected and compared with the past 5 years...
April 2021: Science Progress
Anne Fältström, Joanna Kvist, Natalia F N Bittencourt, Luciana D Mendonça, Martin Hägglund
BACKGROUND: The risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury when participating in pivoting sports after ACL reconstruction is high. Risk factors associated with a second ACL injury are complex. PURPOSE: To investigate the combinations of various clinical risk factors associated with second ACL injury in female soccer players with a primary unilateral ACL reconstruction, using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
April 15, 2021: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Seema G Prasad, Ramesh Kumar Mishra, Raymond M Klein
In 2018, Ruthruff and Gaspelin used a modified spatial cuing paradigm in which targets were presented at two locations while abrupt-onset cues could be presented at four locations. They found that performance following cues presented at irrelevant locations was no worse than following no cue or following a centrally presented cue. They concluded, as conveyed by the title of their article (Immunity to Attentional Capture at Ignored Locations) that a spatial attentional control setting had eliminated capture of attention...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Philip R Magaletta, Rokas Perskaudas
Eleanor Harris Rowland Wembridge, one of the first women psychologists in the country, advocated tirelessly for the delivery of psychological services to enhance the lives of marginalized girls and women. Eleanor launched forward professionally with her doctorate at the young age of 22 and began work 5 years later at the Bedford reformatory that would ultimately lead to the first published correctional psychology research study. This precedent sets the historical marker at the interface of offender assessment, programs, and reentry...
April 15, 2021: Psychological Services
Natasha A Schvey, Daniel Burke, Arielle T Pearlman, Thomas W Britt, David S Riggs, Carlos Carballo, Valerie Stander
Barriers to mental healthcare services are reported among military service members. However, little is known about these barriers among the spouses of military personnel, who face unique stressors and may subsequently be at high-need for mental health services. Understanding barriers to care among this vulnerable population may help improve access to psychological services. The current study utilized data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study. Participants were referred by their military spouses or through targeted mailers...
April 15, 2021: Psychological Services
Jill S Levenson, Shelley L Craig, Ashley Austin
People with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expression are at greater risk for trauma, discrimination, and victimization than heterosexual and cisgender populations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) provides a framework for providing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ +) mental health services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s principles of TIC guide practitioners to create safety, trust, transparency, collaboration, and empowerment in helping relationships, and to ensure that services have cultural and gender relevance...
April 15, 2021: Psychological Services
Anne M Fairlie, Brittney A Hultgren, Melissa A Lewis, Christine M Lee
OBJECTIVE: The current study expands the literature on alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies (PBS) that individuals may use to reduce risk of intoxication and/or consequences. This study used daily data collected prospectively to test (a) the extent to which college students' plans for using different types of PBS on a given day were associated with actual PBS use and (b) whether drinking intentions moderated the strength of the association between PBS plans and use. METHOD: College students ages 18-24 ( N = 189; mean ( SD ) = 20...
April 15, 2021: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Chrys Gesualdo, Martin Pinquart
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol expectancies are a critical factor in the development of problematic alcohol use. Expectancy challenge (EC) interventions aim to manipulate positive alcohol expectancies to reduce or prevent alcohol use among young people. The present meta-analysis investigated the effects of ECs at changing expectations and alcohol use among high school and college students, and moderating effects of study and individual characteristics on these changes. METHOD: A total of 23 EC studies (N = 4,122; mean age = 19...
April 15, 2021: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
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