MRI for Neonates

Mya-Thway Tint, Suresh A Sadananthan, Shu-E Soh, Izzuddin M Aris, Navin Michael, Kok H Tan, Lynette P C Shek, Fabian Yap, Peter D Gluckman, Yap-Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, S Sendhil Velan, Shiao-Yng Chan, Johan G Eriksson, Marielle V Fortier, Cuilin Zhang, Yung S Lee
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is associated with unfavorable body fat distribution in offspring. However, less is known about the effects across the range of maternal gestational glycemia on offspring abdominal adiposity (AA) in infancy and early childhood. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the association between gestational glycemia and offspring AA measured by MRI in the neonatal period and during the preschool years. METHODS: Participants were mother-offspring pairs from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) prospective cohort study...
March 27, 2020: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kim V Annink, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, Daniel C Vijlbrief, Lauren C Weeke, Charles C Roehr, Maarten Lequin, Irwin Reiss, Paul Govaert, Manon J N L Benders, Jeroen Dudink
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. When the gold standard MRI is not feasible, cerebral ultrasound (CUS) might offer an alternative. In this study, the association between a novel CUS scoring system and neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates with HIE was assessed. METHODS: (Near-)term infants with HIE and therapeutic hypothermia, a CUS on day 1 and day 3-7 after birth and available outcome data were retrospectively included in cohort I...
March 2020: Pediatric Research
Thais Agut, Ana Alarcon, Fernando Cabañas, Marco Bartocci, Miriam Martinez-Biarge, Sandra Horsch
White matter injury (WMI) is the most frequent form of preterm brain injury. Cranial ultrasound (CUS) remains the preferred modality for initial and sequential neuroimaging in preterm infants, and is reliable for the diagnosis of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Although magnetic resonance imaging is superior to CUS in detecting the diffuse and more subtle forms of WMI that prevail in very premature infants surviving nowadays, recent improvement in the quality of neonatal CUS imaging has broadened the spectrum of preterm white matter abnormalities that can be detected with this technique...
March 2020: Pediatric Research
Wu-Sheng Deng, Ke Ma, Bing Liang, Xiao-Yin Liu, Hui-You Xu, Jian Zhang, Heng-Yuan Shi, Hong-Tao Sun, Xu-Yi Chen, Sai Zhang
Currently, there is no effective strategy to promote functional recovery after a spinal cord injury. Collagen scaffolds can not only provide support and guidance for axonal regeneration, but can also serve as a bridge for nerve regeneration at the injury site. They can additionally be used as carriers to retain mesenchymal stem cells at the injury site to enhance their effectiveness. Hence, we hypothesized that transplanting human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells on collagen scaffolds would enhance healing following acute complete spinal cord injury...
September 2020: Neural Regeneration Research
Lu-Lu Xue, Fang Wang, Rui-Ze Niu, Ya-Xin Tan, Jia Liu, Yuan Jin, Zheng Ma, Zi-Bin Zhang, Ya Jiang, Li Chen, Qing-Jie Xia, Jun-Jie Chen, Ting-Hua Wang, Liu-Lin Xiong
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a serious neurological disease, often resulting in long-term neurodevelopmental disorders among surviving children. However, whether these neurodevelopmental issues can be passed to offspring remains unclear. The right common carotid artery of 7-day-old parental-generation rats was subjected to permanent ligation using a vessel electrocoagulator. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rat models were established by subjecting the rats to 8% O2 -92% N2 for 2 hours. The results showed that 24 hours after hypoxia and ischemia, pathological damage, cerebral atrophy, liquefaction, and impairment were found, and Zea-Longa scores were significantly increased...
September 2020: Neural Regeneration Research
Sakiko Arai, Takayuki Yamanaka, Masashi Kasai, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yuta Aizawa, Ko Matsui, Masanori Sato, Hiroko Matsui, Akihiko Saitoh
BACKGROUND: Febrile neonates and young infants presenting with seizure require immediate evaluation and treatment. Herein we experienced two young infants with parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) encephalitis, initially presented with focal seizure suspecting herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. CASES: We have experienced 2 infantile cases, initially presented with focal seizure. At presentation, HSV encephalitis was strongly suspected and empiric acyclovir therapy was started; however, serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR for HSV were negative...
March 19, 2020: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Shiri Shinar, Susan Blaser, David Chitayat, Thiviya Selvanathan, Vann Chau, Patrick Shannon, Swati Agrawal, Greg Ryan, Vagisha Pruthi, Steven P Miller, Pradeep Krishnan, Tim Van Mieghem
OBJECTIVE: Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by varying combinations of optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary gland hypoplasia and abnormal cavum septum pellucidum. It is suspected on prenatal imaging when there is non-visualization or hypoplasia of the septal leaflets. Long-term postnatal outcomes of fetuses with prenatally suspected SOD have been poorly documented. Our aims were to describe the natural history of deficient septal leaflets, to quantify the incidence of postnatally confirmed SOD, and to document the long-term visual, endocrine and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these infants...
March 20, 2020: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Bart van den Munckhof, Anne F Zwart, Lauren C Weeke, Nathalie H P Claessens, Joost D J Plate, Alexander Leemans, Hugo J Kuijf, Heleen C van Teeseling, Frans S S Leijten, Manon J N Benders, Kees P J Braun, Linda S de Vries, Floor E Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal thalamic injury is associated with epilepsy with electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). The aim of this study was to prospectively quantify the risk of ESES and to assess neuroimaging predictors of neurodevelopment. METHODS: We included patients with perinatal thalamic injury. MRI scans were obtained in the neonatal period, around three months of age and during childhood. Thalamic and total brain volumes were obtained from the three months MRI...
February 25, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rhandi Christensen, Vann Chau, Anne Synnes, Ruth E Grunau, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Several factors contribute to neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental influences on long-term outcomes in preterm twins. METHODS: From a prospective cohort of 225 preterm neonates studied with MRI, 24 monozygotic and 52 dizygotic twins were included. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1.5 and 3 years were assessed with the Bayley-III and at 4.5 years with The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III...
March 14, 2020: Pediatric Research
Jeik Byun, Ji-Won Han, Joong Kee Youn, Hee-Beom Yang, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung
Very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates experience various problems, including meconium-related ileus (MRI). This study investigated the risk factors of MRI and surgical MRI in VLBW infants. VLBW neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Seoul National University Children's Hospital from October 2002 to September 2016 were included in the study. The diagnostic criteria for MRI were a decreased frequency of defecation with intolerable feeding, vomiting, and increased gastric residue (>50%); meconium-filled bowel dilatation in an imaging study; and no evidence of necrotizing enteritis or spontaneous intestinal perforation...
March 13, 2020: Scientific Reports
Antonio Jerez-Calero, Maria Teresa Salvatierra-Cuenca, Ángela Benitez-Feliponi, Carmen Elisabeth Fernández-Marín, Eduardo Narbona-López, José Uberos-Fernández, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of adding melatonin to hypothermia treatment on neurodevelopmental outcomes in asphyctic newborns. DESIGN: Pilot multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Statistical comparison of results obtained in two intervention arms: hypothermia plus placebo and hypothermia plus melatonin. SETTING: Level 3 neonatal ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-five newborns were recruited...
March 10, 2020: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Victor Schmidbauer, Gudrun Geisl, Mariana Cardoso Diogo, Suren Jengojan, Vsevolod Perepelov, Michael Weber, Katharina Goeral, Florian Lindenlaub, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Angelika Berger, Daniela Prayer, Gregor Kasprian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of T1-weighted and T2-weighted contrasts generated by the MR data postprocessing software SyMRI (Synthetic MR AB, Linköping, Sweden) for neonatal brain imaging. METHODS: In this study 36 cases of neonatal MRI were retrospectively collected, which included T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences as well as multi-dynamic multi-echo (MDME) sequences. Of the 36 neonates 32 were included in this study and 4 neuroradiologists independently assessed neonatal brain examinations on the basis of conventional and SyMRI-generated T1-weighted and T2-weighted contrasts, in order to determine the presence or absence of lesions...
March 11, 2020: Clinical Neuroradiology
Weiqin Liu, Qifen Yang, Hong Wei, Wenhui Dong, Ying Fan, Ziyu Hua
Background and Objective: There remains an unmet clinical need for markers that predict outcomes in the hypothermia-treated (HT) infants with HIE. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prognostic accuracy of currently available clinical tests performed in the immediate post-natal period for predicting neurological outcomes between 18 months and 3 years of age in HT near-term and term infants with perinatal asphyxia and HIE. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Embase, Cochrane library, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies that evaluated the prognostic value of clinical tests for neurological outcomes in HT near-term and term infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Chris L Adamson, Bonnie Alexander, Gareth Ball, Richard Beare, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle, Lex W Doyle, Peter J Anderson, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Longitudinal studies measuring changes in cortical morphology over time are best facilitated by parcellation schemes compatible across all life stages. The Melbourne Children's Regional Infant Brain (M-CRIB) and M-CRIB 2.0 atlases provide voxel-based parcellations of the cerebral cortex compatible with the Desikan-Killiany (DK) and the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT) cortical labelling schemes. This study introduces surface-based versions of the M-CRIB and M-CRIB 2.0 atlases, termed M-CRIB-S(DK) and M-CRIB-S(DKT), with a pipeline for automated parcellation utilizing FreeSurfer and developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) tools...
March 9, 2020: Scientific Reports
James P Boardman, Jill Hall, Michael J Thrippleton, Rebecca M Reynolds, Debby Bogaert, Donald J Davidson, Jurgen Schwarze, Amanda J Drake, Siddharthan Chandran, Mark E Bastin, Sue Fletcher-Watson
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is closely associated with altered brain development and is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental, cognitive and behavioural impairments across the life course. We aimed to investigate neuroanatomic variation and adverse outcomes associated with preterm birth by studying a cohort of preterm infants and controls born at term using brain MRI linked to biosamples and clinical, environmental and neuropsychological data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Theirworld Edinburgh Birth Cohort is a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Edinburgh...
March 4, 2020: BMJ Open
Nehal A Parikh, Lili He, Hailong Li, Venkata Sita Priyanka Illapani, Mark A Klebanoff
BACKGROUND: Diffuse white matter abnormality (diffuse excessive high signal intensity) is the most common finding on structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age in very preterm infants. Yet, there remains a large gap in our understanding of the etiology of diffuse white matter abnormality. Our objective was to evaluate perinatal and neonatal inflammation-associated antecedents of diffuse white matter abnormality on MRI. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 110 very preterm infants born at ≤31 weeks gestational age and collected data on multiple perinatal/neonatal exposures, especially inflammation initiating-illnesses...
February 4, 2020: Pediatric Neurology
María Garrido-Barbero, Juan Arnaez, Alfredo Garcia-Alix
Treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is mandatory in cases with severe systemic and/or neurological involvement. However, some patients are paucisymptomatic, with very subtle systemic manifestations and/or minimal brain alterations. Current international guidelines do not clearly state whether these children should be treated, and this decision is not straightforward for clinicians. Of a small series of six infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection admitted to our neonatal unit between 2015 and 2019, half showed paucisymptomatic neurological manifestations...
March 3, 2020: Infection
Veronka Horber, Elodie Sellier, Karen Horridge, Gija Rackauskaite, Guro L Andersen, Daniel Virella, Els Ortibus, Ivana Dakovic, Owen Hensey, Anja Radsel, Antigone Papavasiliou, Javier De la Cruz, Catherine Arnaud, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Kate Himmelmann
BACKGROUND:  Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe (SCPE) presents the first population-based results on neuroimaging findings in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a magnetic resonance imaging classification system (MRICS). METHOD:  MRIs of children with CP born between 1999 and 2009 from 18 European countries were analyzed. MRICS identifies patterns of brain pathology according to timing during brain development which was analyzed with respect to CP subtypes and gestational age...
March 2, 2020: Neuropediatrics
Amy Maduram, Nikdokht Farid, Rebecca Rakow-Penner, Neda Ghassemi, Paritosh C Khanna, Shira L Robbins, Andrew Hull, Jeffrey Gold, Dolores H Pretorius
OBJECTIVES: To investigate prenatal imaging findings supporting a diagnosis of suspected septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) by fetal ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 11 patients with SOD: 9 had a clinical diagnosis of SOD postnatally, and 2 were terminated on the basis of suspicious prenatal imaging. Prenatal and neonatal imaging of the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), frontal horns (FHs), and lateral ventricles was evaluated...
March 2, 2020: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Megan P Caputo, Jennifer N Williams, Jenny Drnevich, Emily C Radlowski, Ryan J Larsen, Bradley P Sutton, Brian J Leyshon, Jamal Hussain, Manabu T Nakamura, Matthew J Kuchan, Tapas Das, Rodney W Johnson
Background: Intrauterine growth restriction is a common cause of small for gestational age (SGA) infants worldwide. SGA infants are deficient in digestive enzymes required for fat digestion and absorption compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants, putting them at risk for impaired neurocognitive development. Objective: The objective was to determine if a hydrolyzed fat (HF) infant formula containing soy free fatty acids, 2-monoacylglycerolpalmitate, cholesterol, and soy lecithin could increase brain tissue incorporation of essential fatty acids or white matter to enhance brain development in SGA and AGA neonatal piglet models...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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