Nikhilesh R Mazumder, Lisa B VanWagner
As the field of transplant has advanced, cardiovascular events have become the leading cause of early death after liver transplantation (LT) ahead of graft failure and infection.1 This trend has been bolstered by the transplantation of older and sicker patients who have an increasing amount of cardiometabolic risk factors, accentuating the need to determine which patients should undergo more extensive cardiac evaluation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used for decades for perioperative risk stratification, and in particular the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) has been of interest...
July 13, 2020: American Journal of Transplantation
Florian Bayer, Benoît Audry, Corinne Antoine, Carine Jasseron, Camille Legeai, Olivier Bastien, Christian Jacquelinet
Geographic disparities emerged as an increasing issue in organ allocation policies. Because of the sequential and discrete geographical models used for allocation scores, artificial regional boundaries may impede the access of candidates with the greatest medical urgency to vital organs. This paper describes a continuous geographical allocation model that provides accurate organ access by introducing a multiplicative interaction between the patient's condition and the distance to the graft by using a gravity model...
July 13, 2020: American Journal of Transplantation
Ameer Abutaleb, Mousumi Khatun, Jean Clement, Ayana Baidya, Pratibha Singh, Simanti Datta, Sk Mahiuddin Ahammed, Koshy George, ParthaSarathi Mukherjee, Amal Santra, Suvadip Neogi, Sachin Parikh, Vivek Pillai, Shyam Kottilil, Abhijit Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Access to basic health needs remains a challenge for most of world's population. In this study, we developed a novel care model for preventive and disease-specific health care for an extremely remote and marginalized population in Arunachal Pradesh (AP), the northeastern-most state of India. METHODS: We performed patient screening, interviews, and obtained blood samples in remote villages of Arunachal Pradesh via a tablet-based data collection application, which was later synced to a Cloud database for storage...
July 13, 2020: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Cunjing Zheng, Xiumei Tian, Jing Cai, Long Huang, Shunxin Wang, Fanwen Yang, Yanping Ma, Fukang Xie, Li Li
The in vivo toxicity of Gd2 O3 :Eu3+ nanoparticles (NPs) used as dual-modal nanoprobes for molecular imaging has not been studied, and the corresponding molecular mechanism of immunotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity, in vitro apoptosis, and in vivo immunotoxicity of Gd2 O3 :Eu3+ NPs. The NPs showed little immunotoxicity to BALB/c mice. We explored the possible role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and found that reactive oxygen species could act as secondary messengers in cellular signaling, inhibiting PI3K expression in the liver...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Georg Semmler, Teresa Binter, Karin Kozbial, Philipp Schwabl, Stefanie Hametner-Schreil, Alberto Zanetto, Sabrina Gavasso, David Chromy, David J M Bauer, Benedikt Simbrunner, Bernhard Scheiner, Theresa Bucsics, Albert F Stättermayer, Matthias Pinter, Petra Steindl-Munda, Rainer Schöfl, Francesco Paolo Russo, Paolo Simioni, Michael Trauner, Peter Ferenci, Thomas Reiberger, Mattias Mandorfer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk stratification after cure from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a clinical challenge. We investigated the predictive value of non-invasive surrogates of portal hypertension (liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by vibration-controlled transient elastography and von Willebrand factor/platelet count ratio (VITRO)) for development of hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with pre-treatment advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) who achieved HCV-cure...
July 13, 2020: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Axel Holstege
Gastroenterology offers a wide field for future "choosing wisely" recommendations (CWR). They should refer not only to an under- or overuse of diagnostic tools like laboratory or imaging tests but also to an evidence-based application of drug therapies und endoscopic interventions. Drugs like antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors are both often prescribed in the absence of clearly defined underlying diseases and not given when an indication is clear. Similar is true for the ordering of abdominal imaging methods...
July 2020: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Xiuqi Li, Larisa Lozovatsky, Abitha Sukumaran, Luis Gonzalez, Anisha Jain, Dong Liu, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Karin E Finberg
The mechanisms by which phlebotomy promotes the mobilization of hepatic iron stores are not well understood. NCOA4 (nuclear receptor coactivator 4) is a widely-expressed intracellular protein previously shown to mediate the autophagic degradation of ferritin. Here, we investigate a local requirement for NCOA4 in the regulation of hepatic iron stores and examine mechanisms of NCOA4 regulation. Hepatocyte-targeted Ncoa4 knockdown in non-phlebotomized mice had only modest effects on hepatic ferritin subunit levels and non-heme iron concentration...
July 13, 2020: Blood
Zühre Uz, Lucinda Shen, Dan M J Milstein, Krijn P van Lienden, Rutger-Jan Swijnenburg, Can Ince, Thomas M van Gulik
The microcirculation plays a crucial role in the distribution of perfusion to organs. Studies have shown that microcirculatory dysfunction is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Hence, assessment of liver perfusion offers valuable information on the (patho)physiological state of the liver. The current review explores techniques in perfusion imaging that can be used intraoperatively. Available modalities include dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound, handheld vital microscopes, indocyanine green fluorescence angiography, and laser contrast speckle imaging...
July 13, 2020: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Huan Zhang, Wenhua Li, Caixia Fu, Robert Grimm, Zhiyu Chen, Wen Zhang, Lixin Qiu, Chenchen Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Lei Yue, Xiaoxin Hu, Weijian Guo, Tong Tong
PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness and performance of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging (IVIM) with diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and conventional DWI for predicting the chemotherapeutic response of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs). METHOD: A prospective study was conducted. Up to February 2018, forty consecutive patients treated with the standard first-line chemotherapy regimens were enrolled. MRI was performed within 1 week before chemotherapy, as well as 2-3 weeks and 6-8 weeks after chemotherapy...
June 26, 2020: European Journal of Radiology
Huanliang Liu, Wenqing Lai, Xiaohua Liu, Honglian Yang, Yanjun Fang, Lei Tian, Kang Li, Huipeng Nie, Wei Zhang, Yue Shi, Liping Bian, Susu Ding, Jun Yan, Bencheng Lin, Zhuge Xi
Copper oxide nanoparticles (Nano-CuO) toxicity has been researched widely in recent years. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and ER-stress and the possible mechanisms induced by Nano-CuO have been rarely studied. Here, the mechanism of hepatotoxicity and apoptosis through oxidative stress and ER-stress induced by Nano-CuO was investigated in vivo and in vitro. In in vivo experiments, male Wistar rats were intranasally instilled 10 μg Nano-CuO/g body weight daily for 60 days, which caused liver function impairment, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, histopathological and ultrastructural damage, ER-stress and apoptosis in liver tissue...
June 30, 2020: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qiyan Lin, Chao Ma, Huida Guan, Liangni Chen, Qi Xie, Xuemei Cheng, Changhong Wang
Chelerythrine (CHE) and dihydrochelerythrine (DHCHE), two typical benzophenanthridine alkaloids, have a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, anti-tumour and antiparasitic activities. To date, the biological activities of CHE and DHCHE are well reported, but the biotransformation of CHE and DHCHE in vivo remains unknown. This study aims to clarify the metabolic pathway of CHE and DHCHE in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) in vitro and in vivo. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS) method was developed for metabolites identification of CHE and DHCHE...
July 7, 2020: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Amal A Elkhawaga, Ibrahim M Sayed
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in developed and developing countries. Although the seroprevalence of HEV among the Egyptians is high, the sources of HEV infection in Egypt are not completely identified. Zoonotic HEV transmission among Egyptians is underestimated. Recently, we detected HEV in the milk of cows, this suggests the possibility of HEV transmission through the ingestion of contaminated milk. However, the role of small ruminants especially the goats in HEV epidemiology in Egypt remains unclear...
July 3, 2020: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Tomer Adar, Ravi Shankar Lankalapalli, Robert Bittman, Yaron Ilan
Structure-activity relationships provide insight into the binding interactions of beta-glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with both the TCR and the CD1d molecules, as well as the subsequent immunologic response of regulatory NKT cells. AIM: To determine the effects of synthetic GSL structures on their immune modulatory functions. METHODS: GSLs of various structures were tested in vitro and in an animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA) immune-mediated hepatitis. RESULTS: In vitro, using SV40 binding to live monkey CV1 cells, the l-threo stereoisomer of C8-β-LacCer inhibits caveolar internalization, reducing viral binding to the cell surface...
July 3, 2020: Cellular Immunology
Min Ji, Xiaoping Mei, Xunming Jing, Xu Xu, Xing Chen, Wanlong Pan
AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of a variety of liver diseases. Existing antiviral drugs cannot eradicate HBV from our body, and the main reason is unclear on the molecular mechanism of HBV replication. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) can repair relaxed circular DNA (HBV rcDNA) to covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) that promotes HBV DNA replication, while its specific regulatory detail remains unclear. In addition, miR-146a is close related to regulation in HBV replication...
July 10, 2020: Life Sciences
Mital Y Patel, Kyndra Stovall, James L Franklin
Oxidative stress increases with age in multiple organ systems and is implicated in the development of age-related pathologies in them. Studies from our laboratory show that the intrinsic pathway proapoptotic proteins BAX and caspase-3 (CASP3) lie upstream of mitochondrial production of oxidative stress-inducing reactive species (RS) such as reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in apoptotic and nonapoptotic neurons in cell culture. Our objective in this study was to determine if these findings could be generalized to the development of oxidative stress in nonneuronal tissues in vivo...
July 10, 2020: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, Renan Fudoli Lins Vieira, Luciana Renata da Conceição, Fellipe de Oliveira, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, Iman Zaghloul, Rania A Mekary, José Rodrigo Pauli
TRB3, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila tribbles, plays an important role in multiple tissues and it has been implicated in stress response regulation and metabolic control. However, the role of hepatic TRB3 and its relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) during aging has not been elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the association of aging with TRB3 and ER stress on the hepatic glucose production in Wistar rats. We found the TRB3 protein content to be higher in livers of old rats (27 months) compared to young (3 months) and middle-aged (17 months) rats...
July 10, 2020: Experimental Gerontology
Ge Zhao, Lujie Zhang, Charles Li, Jianmei Zhao, Na Liu, Yuehua Li, Junwei Wang, Liheng Liu
In order to investigate enterobacteria presence involved in the secondary infections in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) pigs with different viral co-infections, we identified enterobacteria for guiding clinical treatment. Twenty-one diseased pigs were diagnosed with the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and other 7 virus primers by PCR/RT-PCR in the lung and spleen samples. Enterobacteria were isolated using MacConkey agar from 5 visceral samples of PRRS pigs, and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. PRRSV was positive in 100% of the lung samples and 81...
July 10, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Chang-Peng Zhu, Wei-Fen Xie, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
Portal hypertension (PH) is the most common non-neoplastic complication of chronic liver disease, determining clinical complications that lead to death or liver transplantation. PH results from increased resistance to portal blood flow through the cirrhotic liver, which is due to hepatic fibrosis and microcirculatory dysfunction. The present review focuses on the pathophysiology of fibrosis and PH, describes currently used treatments, and critically discusses potential therapeutic options.
July 10, 2020: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yan Zhao, Zhecheng Wang, Junjun Zhou, Dongcheng Feng, Yang Li, Yan Hu, Feng Zhang, Zhao Chen, Guangzhi Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Xiaofeng Tian, Jihong Yao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver fibrosis. p66Shc is a redox enzyme, but its role of EMT is unclear in liver fibrosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated as important regulators in numerous physiological and pathological processes and generally acting as a microRNA (miRNA) sponge to regulate gene expression. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of p66Shc to EMT in liver fibrosis and the regulation of p66Shc by lncRNA sponge...
July 10, 2020: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Satya Prum, Sirikanya Plumworasawat, Sujittra Chaiyadet, Prasert Saichua, Raynoo Thanan, Thewarach Laha, Marut Laohaviroj, Banchob Sripa, Sutas Suttiprapa
The carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini causes several hepatobiliary diseases including a bile duct cancer-cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is a major public health problem in many countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Praziquantel is the main drug against this parasite, however, reduced drug efficacy has been observed in some endemic areas. Therefore, alternative drugs are needed to prepare for praziquantel resistance in the future. The selenoprotein thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) enzyme, which plays a crucial role in cellular redox balance of parasitic flatworms, has been shown as a potential drug target against these parasites...
July 10, 2020: Acta Tropica
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