Hui-Young Lee, Hye Rim Jang, Hui Li, Varman T Samuel, Karrie D Dudek, Anna B Osipovich, Mark A Magnuson, Jeffrey Sklar, Gerald I Shulman
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human juxtaposed with another zinc finger protein 1 ( JAZF1 ) gene have repeatedly been associated with both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and height in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS); however, the mechanism by which JAZF1 causes these traits is not yet known. To investigate the possible functional role of JAZF1 in growth and glucose metabolism in vivo, we generated Jazf1 knockout (KO) mice and examined body composition and insulin sensitivity both in young and adult mice by using 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Iga Kucharska, Špela Binter, Rajagopal Murugan, Stephen W Scally, Julia Ludwig, Katherine Prieto, Elaine Thai, Giulia Costa, Kan Li, Gillian Q Horn, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Alexandre Bosch, Taylor Sicard, John L Rubinstein, Fidel Zavala, S Moses Dennison, Georgia D Tomaras, Elena A Levashina, Paul Kellam, Hedda Wardemann, Jean-Philippe Julien
Antibodies targeting the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) can prevent infection and disease. PfCSP contains multiple central repeating NANP motifs; some of the most potent anti-infective antibodies against malaria bind to these repeats. Multiple antibodies can bind the repeating epitopes concurrently by engaging into homotypic Fab-Fab interactions, which results in the ordering of the otherwise largely disordered central repeat into a spiral. Here, we characterize IGHV3-33/IGKV1-5-encoded monoclonal antibody (mAb) 850 elicited by immunization of transgenic mice with human immunoglobulin loci...
November 28, 2022: PLoS Pathogens
Yuji Morine, Tohru Utsunomiya, Hisami Yamanaka-Okumura, Yu Saito, Shinichiro Yamada, Tetsuya Ikemoto, Satoru Imura, Shohei Kinoshita, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Yasuhito Tanaka, Mitsuo Shimada
Metabolomics, defined as the comprehensive identification of all small metabolites in a biological sample, has the power to shed light on phenotypic changes associated with various diseases, including cancer. To discover potential metabolomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the metabolomes of tumor and non-tumor tissue in 20 patients with primary HCC using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also analyzed blood samples taken immediately before and 14 days after hepatectomy to identify associated changes in the serum metabolome...
November 22, 2022: Oncotarget
Fuad Ameen, Saleh AlNAdhari, Ali A Al-Homaidan
Multifunctional drugs have shown great promise in biomedicine. Organisms with antimicrobial and anticancer activity in combination with antioxidant activity need further research. The Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coasts were randomly sampled to find fungi with multifunctional activity. One hundred strains (98 fungi and 2 lichenized forms) were isolated from 15 locations. One-third of the isolates inhibited clinical bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi) and fungal pathogens (Talaromycets marneffei, Malassezia globose, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus) and four cancer cell lines (Hep G2 liver, A-549 lung, A-431skin, MCF 7 breast cancer)...
2022: PloS One
Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Andrea Teng, Jeremy Krebs, Jonathan Koea, Chunhuan Lao, Ross Lawrenson, Ineke Meredith, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Diana Sarfati
The number of new cases of cancer is increasing each year, and rates of diabetes mellitus are also increasing dramatically over time. It is not an unusual occurrence for an individual to have both cancer and diabetes at the same time, given they are both individually common, and that one condition can increase the risk of the other. In this manuscript, we use national-level diabetes (Virtual Diabetes Register) and cancer (New Zealand Cancer Registry) data on nearly five million individuals over 44 million person-years of follow-up to examine the occurrence of cancer amongst a national prevalent cohort of patients with diabetes...
2022: PloS One
Ameen Z Alherabi, Rehab F Simsim, Suha H Alsayed, Ahmad S Alharthi, Osama Marglani
BACKGROUND Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignant tumor that arises from the mucosal lining epithelium of the nasopharynx, most commonly at the lateral nasopharyngeal recess or fossa of Rosenmüller. According to global age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), in 2018 the incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma varied from 2.1 to 0.4 per 100 000 in Asia and Europe, respectively. The number of deaths exceeded 50 000. It is one of the few head and neck tumors prone to distant metastasis, most commonly to bones, lung, and liver...
November 28, 2022: American Journal of Case Reports
William Roediger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2022: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Wei Liu, Taili Shao, Lei Tian, Zhengrui Ren, Lan Gao, Zhiyan Tang, Zheng Fang, Pingchuan Yuan, Chunyan Liu, Jikun Li, Guodong Wang, Jun Han
The chemical structure and pharmacological activity of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua polysaccharides have garnered significant attention in recent years. In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide, PCP1, was extracted from P. cyrtonema Hua rhizomes and purified. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that PCP1 is primarily composed of fructose, glucose, and mannose. Chemical structure analysis showed that the main chain of PCP1 is composed mainly of →1)-β-D-Fru f -(2→ and →1,6)-β-D-Fru f -(2→, with small amounts of →6)-α-D-Glc p -(1→, →4)-β-D-Man p -(1→, and β-D-Glc p -(1→...
November 28, 2022: Food & Function
Yuting Diao, Juan Tang, Xuerong Wang, Wei Deng, Jing Tang, Chunfang You
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a relatively major public health problem. Simultaneously, an unhealthy lifestyle causes a series of metabolic abnormalities, the most critical of which are metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, it is increasingly common for MS and NAFLD to coexist with CHB. MS is a cluster of metabolic disorders, while NAFLD is always considered as the manifestation of MS in the liver. The aim of this article is to review recent advances to explain the complex relationship among MS, NAFLD, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
November 27, 2022: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Muhammad Sohaib Khan, Choongho Lee, Sang Geon Kim
Metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids and protein degradation occurs in the liver and contributes to the body's homeostasis by secreting a variety of mediators. Any imbalance in this homeostasis due to excess fat consumption and the pathologic events accompanying lipotoxicity, autophagy dysregulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and insulin resistance may cause disturbances in the secretion of the proteins from the liver and their physiologic modifications and interactions with others. Since the liver secretome plays a role in the regulation of fuel metabolism and inflammation not only in the liver per se but also in other organs, the proteins belong to the utmost targets for treating metabolic and inflammatory diseases (e...
November 28, 2022: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Maryam Gholizadeh, Mohamad Amin Bakhshali, Seyed Reza Mazlooman, Mohsen Aliakbarian, Farzaneh Gholizadeh, Saeid Eslami, Andrzej Modrzejewski
A liver surgeon's knowledge of anatomy is critical. Due to the patient's small field of vision, patient specific, complex nerve system, and other factors, even a minor loss can result in irreversible damage. Surgeons could benefit from the use of augmented reality (AR) technology, which would bring three-dimensional image data into the operating room. AR visualization can improve surgical procedures, facilitate intraoperative planning, and enhance surgical guidance for the anatomy of interest, all of which contribute to the application's minimal invasiveness...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Sijia Gu, Quan Zhang, Jinping Gu, Cui Wang, Mengjie Chu, Jing Li, Xunjie Mo
Due to the massive application of cypermethrin (CYP) for pest control in China, the adverse effects on non-target organisms have aroused great attention. However, comparative studies between its different stereoisomers remain scarce, especially for metabolism perturbations. Herein, the rats were administered α-CYP, β-CYP, and θ-CYP by gavage at doses of 8.5, 29.2, and 25.0 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 28 consecutive days. By blood examination, significant changes in liver and renal function parameters were observed in rats exposed to all three CYPs...
November 28, 2022: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhiwei Li, Wei Zhang, Yan Shen, Xueli Bai, Tingbo Liang
PURPOSE: To present our experience of using the pediatric donor superior mesenteric artery (SMA) as the interpositioning vessel to reconstruct the hepatic artery in pediatric deceased donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Pediatric patients who received pediatric deceased donor livers from December 2019 to June 2021 were enrolled. RESULTS: A total of 43 pediatric recipients received pediatric deceased donor livers during the study period. Thirty-four (79...
November 28, 2022: Pediatric Surgery International
H Elhedai, G S Arul, S Yong, P Nagakumar, H K Kanthimathinathan, I Jester, M Chaudhari, T J Jones, O Stumper, A N Seale
INTRODUCTION: Exomphalos is an anterior abdominal wall defect resulting in herniation of contents into the umbilical cord. Severe associated chromosomal anomalies and congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to influence mortality, but it is not clear which cardiac anomalies have the greatest impact on survival. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the treatment and outcome of patients with exomphalos over a 30-year period (1990-2020), with a focus on those with the combination of exomphalos major and major CHD (EMCHD)...
November 28, 2022: Pediatric Surgery International
Rosaria Cozzolino, Beatrice De Giulio, A Martignetti, G Forte, M Dallio, M Romeo, F Scognamiglio, L Ventriglia, M Stocchero, A Federico
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence have shown a significant correlation between urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile and the manifestation of several physiological and pathological states, including liver diseases. Previous studies have investigated the urinary metabolic signature as a non-invasive tool for the early discrimination between non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which nowadays represents one of the most important challenges in this context, feasible only by carrying out liver biopsy...
November 28, 2022: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Robert Siepmann, Philipp Bruners, Sven Arke Lang, Jan Bednarsch, Iakovos Amygdalos, Katharina Joechle, Federico Pedersoli, Sebastian Keil, Peter Isfort, Tom Florian Ulmer, Christiane Kuhl, Ulf Peter Neumann, Franziska Alexandra Meister, Zoltan Czigany
PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis affects clinical outcomes in the setting of major surgery. Here we aimed to investigate the prognostic role of visceral aortic (VAC), extended visceral aortic (VAC+), and celiac artery calcification (CAC) in the assessment of short- and long-term outcomes following deceased donor orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a western European cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 281 consecutive recipients who underwent OLT at a German university medical center (05/2010-03/2020)...
November 28, 2022: Abdominal Radiology
L M Kotzé-Hörstmann, D T Bedada, R Johnson, L Mabasa, H Sadie-Van Gijsen
Current pharmaceutical treatments addressing obesity are plagued by high costs, low efficacy and adverse side effects. Natural extracts are popular alternatives, but evidence for their anti-obesity properties is scant. We assessed the efficacy of a green (minimally-oxidized) Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) extract (GRT) to ameliorate the effects of obesogenic feeding in rats, by examining body weight, metabolic measures, adipose tissue cellularity and tissue-resident adipose stem cells (ASCs). Furthermore, we performed statistical correlations to explore the relationships and interactions between metabolic and adipose tissue measures...
November 28, 2022: Food & Function
Benoît Allignet, Pierre Pradat, Françoise Mornex, Floriane Izarn, Agnès Rode, Jean-Yves Mabrut, Kayvan Mohkam, Philippe Merle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the gold standard treatment in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but long-term disease control rates remain low. Herein, we compared results of TACE followed by hypofractionated radiotherapy (TACE-hRT) to surgical resection (SR) in early single or paucinodular intrahepatic HCC. METHODS: Between June 2004 and November 2016, data on 160 consecutive patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A Child-Pugh A HCC treated with SR or TACE-hRT in our expert center were retrospectively reviewed...
November 28, 2022: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Sophia Heinrich, Thomas Austgen, Darko Castven, Moritz Hess, Christian Labenz, Martha Kirstein, Carolin Zimpel, Lena Stockhoff, Benjamin Maasoumy, Bernd Heinrich, Hans Heinrich Wedemeyer, Peter Robert Galle, Harald Binder, Marc Nguyen-Tat, Jens Uwe Marquardt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatorenal syndrome is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and associated with high mortality. Predictive biomarkers for therapy response are largely missing. Cytokeratin18-based cell death markers are significantly elevated in patients with complications of chronic liver disease, but the role of these markers in patients with HRS treated with vasoconstrictors and albumin is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed a total of 138 patients with HRS, liver cirrhosis without HRS and acute kidney injury treated at the University Medical Center Mainz between April 2013 and July 2018...
November 28, 2022: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Pushplata Sankhwar, S P Jaiswar, Sonali Yadav, Vandana Awasthi, Apurva Goel, Pawan Kumar, Samudra P Banik, Manashi Bagchi, Debasis Bagchi
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder which accounts for infertility around the world. The disease is characterized by elevated secretion of androgens in the women which results in enlargement of ovaries with accumulation of fluid filled cysts, irregular menstrual cycles, and hirsutism. This study reports the efficacy of a patented, standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (Furocyst®) as an effective phytotherapeutic for effective management of PCOS...
November 28, 2022: J Am Nutr Assoc
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