Lidong Huang, Kang Zhao, Hanfei Zhu, Xiaonan Li, Yiqing Yang, Caiyun Hou, Shuqin Zhu, Qin Xu
BACKGROUND: Rates of overweight and obesity continue to grow in adolescents. Overweight and obesity in adolescence are associated with numerous immediate and long-term adverse health conditions. Throughout adolescence, parents and the family have an important and central influence on adolescents' health and lifestyle. The home environment may be a major factor in shaping children's weight. However, our current understanding of the interplay between family-related variables in adolescents with overweight or obesity is limited and fragmented...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Joo Young Lee, Hyun Ju Lee, Yong Hun Jang, Hyuna Kim, Kiho Im, Seung Yang, Jeong-Kyu Hoh, Ja-Hye Ahn
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests an association between a higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for their offspring. Despite recent attention to the effects of maternal obesity on fetal and neonatal brain development, changes in the brain microstructure of preterm infants born to mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity are still not well understood. This study aimed to detect the changes in the brain microstructure of obese mothers in pre-pregnancy and their offspring born as preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sumna V M, Sumit Malhotra, Sanjeev Gupta, Kiran Goswami, Harshal R Salve
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypertension exerts a substantial burden on the healthcare system in India. Recent literature suggests hypertension to be a rising health problem not only in adults but also in adolescents. The early diagnosis of hypertension in adolescents and timely interventions are key in reducing the burden of hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in later life. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among adolescents residing in a rural community in north India...
October 2023: Curēus
Behnaz Abiri, Majid Valizadeh, Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi, Shirin Amini, Mohammad Nikoohemmat, Faeze Abbaspour, Farhad Hosseinpanah
OBJECTIVES: It has not been established whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with anthropometric state; therefore, this systematic review examined the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with anthropometrics and adiposity across different ages. METHODS: Studies that examined vitamin D deficiency with adiposity measures in different age groups were searched in the PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases until November 2023. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts, examined full-text articles, extracted data, and rated the quality in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria...
November 1, 2023: Endocrine Connections
Lorraine M Schratz, Olivia Larkin, Nilse Dos Santos, Christine Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to define caregiver practices that impact childhood eating behaviors and identify ways to utilize these relationships to prevent childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Childhood obesity, which correlates with adult obesity and increased cardiovascular risk, is increasing in prevalence and severity. Caregivers play a significant role in shaping a child's eating behaviors and their predisposition to obesity. Maternal influences during pregnancy and infancy impact a child's future food preferences...
November 30, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anna Łupińska, Renata Stawerska, Małgorzata Szałapska, Marzena Kolasa-Kicińska, Krzysztof Jeziorny, Wojciech Stawerski, Sara Aszkiełowicz, Andrzej Lewiński
INTRODUCTION: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and lipid disorders. The HOMA-IR index is commonly used to assess IR (IRIHOMA), calculated from fasting glucose and insulin. However, sometimes, during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), elevated and prolonged postprandial insulin secretion is observed despite normal fasting insulin levels. IRIBelfiore is an IR index that analyses glucose and insulin levels during OGTT according to the method proposed by Belfiore...
2023: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Marta Hetman, Ewa Barg, Sylwia Placzkowska
INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS), a common genetic disorder, leads to various physical, cognitive, and developmental challenges. The supplementary copy of chromosome 21 introduces an abundance of genes, which potentially can influence metabolic irregularities. The aim of the study is to conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of oxidative stress indicators (TAS, TOS, OSI), BMI, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, HOMA-IR among children and adolescents with DS in contrast to their non-DS siblings...
2023: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Arwa Alhamed, Abdullah Al-Zeer, Fahad Alsaawi, Abdulrahman Alshaikh, Abrar Alzaher, Abdullah Alkattan, Noura Alrasheed, Khlood Sagor, Elham Alsalem, Mona Ibrahim, Amjad Alfaleh
BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicated an increasing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia, making it an impending national epidemic. However, obesity prevalence data in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia are largely inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed and compared the prevalence of obesity among a national sample of children and adolescents across sexes, school grades, regions, and city types in Saudi Arabia using the Growth Charts for Saudi Children and Adolescents...
December 2023: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Ali Heidarianpour, Elnaz Shokri, Efat Sadeghian, Fatemeh Cheraghi, Zahra Razavi
BACKGROUND: Obesity and central precocious puberty (CPP) are associated with increased anxiety, depression, and anger in girls. The contribution of exercise as an efficacious component in decreasing anxiety, depression, and anger has been increasingly recognized. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effects of combined training on cortisol, anxiety, depression, and anger in overweight and obese girls with CPP. METHODS: The study involved 30 girls aged 7-9 years diagnosed with CPP (undergoing triptorelin treatment) and dealing with obesity...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
J L Riis, A L Dent, O Silke, D A Granger
INTRODUCTION: Obesity during childhood is a serious and growing chronic disease with consequences for lifelong health. In an effort to advance research into the preclinical indicators of pediatric obesity, we examined longitudinal assessments of uric acid concentrations in saliva among a cohort of healthy children from age 6-months to 12-years ( n 's per assessment range from 294 to 727). METHODS: Using data from a subsample of participants from the Family Life Project (an Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program cohort), we: (1) characterized salivary uric acid (sUA) concentrations from infancy to early adolescence by sex and race; (2) assessed changes in sUA levels across development; and (3) evaluated associations between sUA concentrations and measures of child weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Micaela C Morgado, Mónica Sousa, André B Coelho, Susana Vale, Júlio A Costa, André Seabra
INTRODUCTION: Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are between the major health threat due to consumption of unhealthy foods and limited time spent on physical activities, a situation of particular concern among children. Since children spend most of their time at school, this study intends to investigate the effect of a school intervention program, which combines recreational football and nutrition education, on body composition, physical fitness, physical activity, blood pressure and heart rate, eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge, and psychological status in elementary school children...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Michelle Bloyd, Ninet Sinaii, Fabio Rueda Faucz, James Iben, Steven L Coon, Sonia Caprio, Nicola Santoro, Constantine A Stratakis, Edra London
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity has steadily increased in recent decades. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted primarily in Eurocentric adult populations have identified approximately 100 loci that predispose to obesity and type II diabetes. GWAS in children and individuals of non-European descent, both disproportionately affected by obesity, are fewer. Rare syndromic and monogenic obesities account for only a small portion of childhood obesity, so understanding the role of other genetic variants and their combinations in heritable obesities is key to developing targeted and personalized therapies...
2023: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yuqi Miao, Kaiyu Fan, Xiaojiao Peng, Si Li, Jiahui Chen, Robin N Bai, Yu Wei, Yaxian Deng, Chengsong Zhao, Qingfeng Wu, Ming Ge, Jian Gong, Di Wu
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction is a common complication in post-operative craniopharyngioma(CP) patients, and it greatly impacts the long-term quality of life of such patients. To better understand the effects of postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and long-term hormone replacement therapy in patients with childhood CP, we assessed approximately 200 patients with childhood-onset CP postoperatively. METHODS: Clinical details of patients with childhood-onset CP who underwent sellar tumor resection in Beijing Children's Hospital and Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2018 to 2019 were retrieved retrospectively...
2023: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Joanna Szczyrska, Michał Brzeziński, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz
The aim of the study was to assess long-term effects of the 12-month integrated weight-loss programme in children with excess body weight. We also attempted to identify the determinants of intervention effectiveness. Two groups were included in the analysis: 241 children with excess body weight who participated in the full 12-month intervention (full participation group) and 891 children with excess body weight who did not participate in the intervention (no participation group). Changes in BMI SDS, SBP SDS, DBP SDS and post-exercise HR with a follow-up period of 4 years between this groups were compared...
2023: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rasmus Stenlid, Sara Y Cerenius, Quan Wen, Banu Küçükemre Aydin, Hannes Manell, Azazul Chowdhury, Hjalti Kristinsson, Iris Ciba, Erik S Gjessing, Katharina Mörwald, Julian Gomahr, Verena Heu, Daniel Weghuber, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten
BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are increasingly used to treat adolescent obesity. However, the effect on endogenous GLP-1 secretory patterns following treatment in adolescents is unknown. The GLP-1RA exenatide was shown to significantly lower BMI and 2-hour glucose in adolescents with obesity, in the placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial Combat-JUDO. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of weekly injections of 2 mg exenatide extended release on secretory patterns of endogenous hormones during OGTT...
2023: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Chang Yun Kim, Jae Hyuk Hyun, Eell Ryoo
PURPOSE: Few reports have investigated the correlation between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and the degree of obesity in children and adolescents. Thus, this study aimed to examine the relationship between FGIDs and the degree of obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents (<19 years old) who had undergone abdominopelvic computed tomography and had been diagnosed with FGIDs from 2015 to 2016 were included in this retrospective case-control study in a ratio of 1:2...
November 2023: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Hyun Jin Kim
PURPOSE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated the significance of markers such as the triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and TG-glucose (TyG) indices in a group of patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients aged 5-18 years diagnosed with NAFLD between January 2014 and January 2021. RESULTS: Among the 151 patients with NAFLD, 79...
November 2023: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Manal Eldegeir, Noorah Al Marry, Fatima Awami, Fatima Alsada
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 1% to 5% of all children, with the most significant prevalence between ages 2 and 8. Correlations between OSA and Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) have been well-demonstrated in children. If untreated, OSA can cause growth impairment, neuro-cognitive and behavioral problems, and cardiovascular complications. Allergy was reported to be a vital risk factor for AH, among other inflammatory processes mentioned. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that the combination of nasal steroids and ani leukotriene reduces the number of adenectomies in children with OSA and adenoid hypertrophy in Saudi children...
2023: Qatar Medical Journal
Mihai Octavian Negrea, Bogdan Neamtu, Raluca Costea, Minodora Teodoru, Carmen Domnariu
Introduction: The intersecting pathways involved in linear growth, glucose, and lipid metabolism may play a key part in the imbalances leading to the dysmetabolic changes observed in obese children, and later adults. The growth-hormone/insulin growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis is a prime example in this regard and IGF-1 levels have been shown to correlate with insulin resistance. Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a relationship between circulating IGF levels and weight status in children as an independent relationship, regardless of insulin sensitivity...
September 2023: Mædica
Abha Kaul, Neha Bansal, Prakhar Sharma, Satinder Aneja, M P Mahato
Background Being overweight during childhood refers to excess weight for a given height, while obesity denotes excess body fat. These conditions stem from surplus calorie intake and insufficient physical activity. Escalating pediatric obesity is linked to modern sedentary lifestyles, marked by increased screen time, reduced exercise, and poor diets. Once believed to be a concern in affluent nations, obesity now affects developing countries like India due to changing eating habits and urbanization. Despite limitations in measurement tools, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, recognizing sedentary behaviors such as prolonged screen time is pivotal...
October 2023: Curēus
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