Dna methylation

Jacob K Kresovich, Katie M O'Brien, Zongli Xu, Clarice R Weinberg, Dale P Sandler, Jack A Taylor
Importance: Higher overall leukocyte counts in women may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the association of specific leukocyte subtypes with breast cancer risk remains unknown. Objective: To determine associations between circulating leukocyte subtypes and risk of breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between 2003 and 2009, the Sister Study enrolled 50 884 women who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer but were themselves breast cancer free...
January 3, 2020: JAMA Network Open
Bora Shin, Chulwoo Park, Byoung-Hee Lee, Ki-Eun Lee, Woojun Park
A novel bacterial strain, designated AK13T (=KACC 21401T =DSM 109981T ), was isolated from the rhizosphere of Miscanthus sacchariflorus . Strain AK13T was found to be an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium. It formed yellow circular colonies with smooth convex surfaces. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain AK13T was estimated to be 40 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this strain was most closely related to Bacillus lehensis MLB2T (99...
January 17, 2020: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Divya Mehta, Olivia Miller, Dagmar Bruenig, Georgina David, Jane Shakespeare-Finch
Most people will experience a traumatic event within their lifetime. One commonly recognized response to trauma exposure is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The biological underpinnings of PTSD, including epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation and gene expression, have been studied intensively. However, psychological posttrauma responses vary widely and can include positive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and, more commonly, resilience. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current DNA methylation and gene expression data with respect to three potential posttrauma responses: PTSD, PTG, and resilience...
January 17, 2020: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Asif Hameed, Mariyam Shahina, Shih-Yao Lin, Wen-Ming Chen, Yi-Han Hsu, Wei-An Lai, Chiu-Chung Young
A Gram-stain-negative, tyrosine-metabolizing, non-motile, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CC-PW-75T , was isolated from the estuarine water off Pintung, Taiwan. Strain CC-PW-75T formed a distinct phyletic lineage associated with Gemmobacter species, sharing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with G. megaterium CF17T and G. straminiformis CAM-8T (96.0% each) followed by G. aquatilis IFAM 1031T and G. nectariphilus AST4T (95.8% each). Analysis of the draft genome (3...
January 16, 2020: Archives of Microbiology
Anu Radha Sharma, Umakanth Shashikiran, Abdul Razak Uk, Ranjan Shetty, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Padmalatha S Rai
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke are the two most predominant forms of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) caused by genetic, epigenetic and environmental risk factors. Although studies on the impact of 'epigenetics' in CVDs is not new, its effects are increasingly being realized as a key regulatory determinant that may drive predisposition, pathophysiology and therapeutic outcome. The most widely studied epigenetic risk factors are regulated by DNA methylation and miRNA expression. To keep pace with growing developments and discoveries, a comprehensive review was performed using Pubmed, Science Direct and Scopus databases to highlight the role of DNA methylation and miRNAs in CAD and stroke subjects...
January 17, 2020: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Daeun Kim, Yerin Kim, Yuri Kim
Background: Beta-carotene (BC) is a carotenoid which exerts anti-cancer effects in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Epigenetic modifications of genes, such as histone deacetylation and DNA hypermethylation, have also been detected in various types of cancer. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying cancer preventive and therapeutic effects of BC, microRNAs (miRNAs), histone acetylation, and global DNA methylation in colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) were investigated...
December 2019: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Wenbing Guo, Yelin Fu, Liangliang Jin, Kai Song, Ruihan Yu, Tianhao Li, Lishuang Qi, Yunyan Gu, Wenyuan Zhao, Zheng Guo
The clinical applicability of the whole-exome sequencing (WES) in estimating tumor mutational burden (TMB) is currently limited by high cost, time-consuming and tissue availability. And given to the differences in the mutational landscapes among different types of cancer, we aimed to develop a cancer-specific signature to estimate TMB for right-sided colon cancer patients (RCC). Using WES data of 315 RCC patients, we identified the exons in which the number of mutational sites of the coding DNA sequences associated with TMB through linear regression analysis...
2020: Journal of Cancer
Tianhong Su, Linlin Huang, Ning Zhang, Sui Peng, Xiaoxing Li, Guangyan Wei, Ertao Zhai, Zhirong Zeng, Lixia Xu
We identified that Fibroblast Growth Factor 14 (FGF14) was preferentially methylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic regulation, biological function and molecular mechanism of FGF14 in CRC. The expression of FGF14 in CRC cell lines, normal human colon epithelial cell line, CRC tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues was detected by PCR and Western blot. The biological function of FGF14 in CRC was interrogated by cell viability assay, colony formation, flow cytometry, cell invasion and migration assay, as well as in vivo study...
2020: Journal of Cancer
Hunter Howie, Chuda M Rijal, Kerry J Ressler
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome which serves as a classic example of psychiatric disorders that result from the intersection of nature and nurture, or gene and environment. By definition, PTSD requires the experience of a traumatic exposure, and yet data suggest that the risk for PTSD in the aftermath of trauma also has a heritable (genetic) component. Thus, PTSD appears to require both a biological (genetic) predisposition that differentially alters how the individual responds to or recovers from trauma exposure...
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Prashanth Rajarajan, Schahram Akbarian
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a complex genetic architecture and limited understanding of its neuropathology, reflected by the lack of diagnostic measures and effective pharmacological treatments. Geneticists have recently identified more than 145 risk loci comprising hundreds of common variants of small effect sizes, most of which lie in noncoding genomic regions. This review will discuss how the epigenetic toolbox can be applied to contextualize genetic findings in schizophrenia...
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Signe Penner-Goeke, Elisabeth B Binder
The risk for major depression is both genetically and environmentally determined. It has been proposed that epigenetic mechanisms could mediate the lasting increases in depression risk following exposure to adverse life events and provide a mechanistic framework within which genetic and environmental factors can be integrated. Epigenetics refers to processes affecting gene expression and translation that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence and include DNA methylation (DNAm) and microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as histone modifications...
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Moshe Szyf
Early life adversity is associated with long-term effects on physical and mental health later in life, but the mechanisms are yet unclear. Epigenetic mechanisms program cell-type-specific gene expression during development, enabling one genome to be programmed in many ways, resulting in diverse stable profiles of gene expression in different cells and organs in the body. DNA methylation, an enzymatic covalent modification of DNA, has been one of the principal epigenetic mechanisms investigated. Emerging evidence is consistent with the idea that epigenetic processes are involved in embedding the impact of early-life experience in the genome and mediating between social environments and later behavioral phenotypes...
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Angélica Torres-Berrío, Orna Issler, Eric M Parise, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a devastating psychiatric disorder caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and life events, mainly exposure to stress. Early life stress (ELS) in particular is known to "scar" the brain, leading to an increased susceptibility to developing depression later in life via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic processes lead to changes in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence, but achieved via modulation of chromatin modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding RNAs...
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Florence Thibaut
Most studies describing epigenetic modifications have focused on DNA methylation, but fewer studies have focused on histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. Chromatin architecture and CCCTC-binding factor represent important noncoding regulatory elements that warrant further investigation in order to improve our understanding of the genomic basis of complex diseases such as psychiatric disorders.
December 2019: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Huaying An, Xiao Ma, Mingyi Liu, Xiaotong Wang, Xundong Wei, Wei Yuan, Jie Ma
Objective: Metastasis is one of the key causes of high mortality in lung cancer. Aberrant DNA methylation is a common event in metastatic lung cancer. We aimed to identify new epigenetic regulation of metastasis-associated genes and characterize their effects on lung cancer progression. Methods: We screened genes associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis by integrating datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We obtained epigenetic-regulated candidate genes by analyzing the expression profile of demethylation genes...
December 2019: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research
Sara Cuvertino, Verity Hartill, Alice Colyer, Terence Garner, Nisha Nair, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Natalie Canham, Victor Faundes, Frances Flinter, Jozef Hertecant, Muriel Holder-Espinasse, Brian Jackson, Sally Ann Lynch, Fatima Nadat, Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Michelle Peckham, Robert Sellers, Marco Seri, Francesca Montanari, Laura Southgate, Gabriella Maria Squeo, Richard Trembath, David van Heel, Santina Venuto, Daniel Weisberg, Karen Stals, Sian Ellard, Anne Barton, Susan J Kimber, Eamonn Sheridan, Giuseppe Merla, Adam Stevens, Colin A Johnson, Siddharth Banka
PURPOSE: To investigate if specific exon 38 or 39 KMT2D missense variants (MVs) cause a condition distinct from Kabuki syndrome type 1 (KS1). METHODS: Multiple individuals, with MVs in exons 38 or 39 of KMT2D that encode a highly conserved region of 54 amino acids flanked by Val3527 and Lys3583, were identified and phenotyped. Functional tests were performed to study their pathogenicity and understand the disease mechanism. RESULTS: The consistent clinical features of the affected individuals, from seven unrelated families, included choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities...
January 17, 2020: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Renu A Kowluru
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of diabetic population, and these patients are generally obese and hyperlipidemic. In addition to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia is also closely related with diabetic retinopathy. Aim was to investigate retinopathy in a model closely mimicking the normal progression and metabolic features of type 2 diabetic population, and elucidate the molecular mechanism. Retinopathy was evaluated in rats fed 45% kcal as fat diet for eight weeks before administering streptozotocin, 30mg/kg BW (T2D), and was compared with age- and duration-matched type 1 diabetic rats (T1D, 60mg/kg streptozotocin)...
January 16, 2020: Diabetes
Rudolf Weiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2019: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Deepika Shrestha, Salman M Tajuddin, Fasil Tekola-Ayele
Disruption of physiological aging of the placenta can lead to pregnancy complications and increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases during childhood and adulthood. Maternal metabolic and genetic factors need to operate in concert with placental development for optimal pregnancy outcome. However, it is unknown whether maternal cardiometabolic status and genetic ancestry contribute to differences in placental epigenetic age acceleration (PAA). We investigated whether maternal prepregnancy obesity, gestational weight gain (GWG), blood pressure, and genetic ancestry influence PAA...
January 17, 2020: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Yanqin Xu, Junjiang Zhou, Qingqing Liu, Kunpeng Li, Yin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cymbidium faberi is one of the oldest cultivars of oriental orchids, with an elegant flower fragrance. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism and the functions of related proteins in the methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling pathway, one of the main components of flower fragrance in C. faberi, yeast one- and two-hybrid three-frame cDNA libraries were constructed. RESULTS: In this study, a modified cDNA library used for yeast one- and two-hybrid screening was successfully constructed, with a recombinant efficiency of 95%...
January 16, 2020: BMC Biotechnology
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