Atsushi Takeda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Yoshio Tsuboi, Masahiro Nomoto, Tetsuya Maeda, Akihisa Nishimura, Kazuo Yoshida, Nobutaka Hattori
OBJECTIVES: This placebo-controlled, randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of opicapone 25-mg and 50-mg tablets in Japanese levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations. METHODS: Japanese adults (n = 437, age 39-83 years) with Parkinson's disease (United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society criteria) received opicapone 25-mg (n = 145), opicapone 50-mg (n = 145), or placebo (n = 147) tablets over the double-blind treatment period (14-15 weeks)...
October 19, 2020: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Daniel Boari Coelho, Caroline Ribeiro de Souza, Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Renata de Castro Treza, Thiago Kenzo Fujioka Shida, Carla Silva-Batista, Luis Augusto Teixeira
Freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the main reasons for movement initiation disorders and abnormal coupling of posture and gait in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with FoG have poor postural control when compared to patients without FoG. However, the nature of the interrelationship between FoG and domains of postural control remains unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between different domains of postural control and severity of FoG in patients with moderate-to-severe PD. Thirty patients with idiopathic PD with FoG (age range 45 to 80 years, Hoehn & Yahr stages 3 and 4) participated in the study...
October 19, 2020: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Giovanni Corsetti
Prolonging the healthy life span and limiting neurological illness are imperative goals in gerontology. Age-related neurodegeneration is progressive and leads to severe diseases affecting motility, memory, cognitive function, and social life. To date, no effective treatments are available for neurodegeneration and irreversible neuronal loss. Bioactive phytochemicals could represent a natural alternative to ensure active aging and slow onset of neurodegenerative diseases in elderly patients. Autophagy or macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved clearing process that is needed to remove aggregate-prone proteins and organelles in neurons and glia...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Zainab Mehkari, Lubna Mohammed, Moiz Javed, Aldanah Althwanay, Farah Ahsan, Federico Oliveri, Harshit K Goud, Ian H Rutkofsky
With idiopathic Parkinson's disease being a common entity, parkinsonism in acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) in the context of Manganese (Mn) has gained importance in recent years. An insight into the pathomechanisms behind this disease has been put forth. How can Mn as a divalent metal exert its effect in leading to chronic neurodegenerative disorder? Secondary to decreased excretion in liver cirrhosis, Mn significantly alters the striatal dopaminergic system. Management of this debilitating disease also focuses on different aspects where Mn has been involved in the pathogenesis...
September 14, 2020: Curēus
Irene Göttgens, Angelika D van Halteren, Nienke M de Vries, Marjan J Meinders, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Bastiaan R Bloem, Sirwan K L Darweesh, Sabine Oertelt-Prigione
The impact of sex and gender on disease incidence, progression, and provision of care has gained increasing attention in many areas of medicine. Biological factors-sex-and sociocultural and behavioral factors-gender-greatly impact on health and disease. While sex can modulate disease progression and response to therapy, gender can influence patient-provider communication, non-pharmacological disease management, and need for assistance. Sex and gender issues are especially relevant in chronic progressive diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), because affected patients require multidisciplinary care for prolonged periods of time...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexandra Cosma-Grigorov, Holger Meixner, Anne Mrochen, Stefan Wirtz, Jürgen Winkler, Franz Marxreiter
Altered gut microbiota may trigger or accelerate alpha-synuclein aggregation in the enteric nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD). While several previous studies observed gut microbiota alterations in PD, findings like diversity indices, and altered bacterial taxa itself show a considerable heterogeneity across studies. We recruited 179 participants, of whom 101 fulfilled stringent inclusion criteria. Subsequently, the composition of the gut microbiota in 71 PD patients and 30 healthy controls was analyzed, sequencing V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in fecal samples...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
John B Sanderson, James H Yu, David D Liu, Daniel Amaya, Peter M Lauro, Anelyssa D'Abreu, Umer Akbar, Shane Lee, Wael F Asaad
Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder characterized by heterogenous motor dysfunction with fluctuations in severity. Objective, short-timescale characterization of this dysfunction is necessary as therapies become increasingly adaptive. Objectives: This study aims to characterize a novel, naturalistic, and goal-directed tablet-based task and complementary analysis protocol designed to characterize the motor features of PD. Methods: A total of 26 patients with PD and without deep brain stimulation (DBS), 20 control subjects, and eight patients with PD and with DBS completed the task...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexis Lheureux, Julien Lebleu, Caroline Frisque, Corentin Sion, Gaëtan Stoquart, Thibault Warlop, Christine Detrembleur, Thierry Lejeune
Effects of treadmill walking on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' spatiotemporal gait parameters and stride duration variability, in terms of magnitude [coefficient of variation (CV)] and temporal organization [long range autocorrelations (LRA)], are known. Conversely, effects on PD gait of adding an optic flow during treadmill walking using a virtual reality headset, to get closer to an ecological walk, is unknown. This pilot study aimed to compare PD gait during three conditions: Overground Walking (OW), Treadmill Walking (TW), and immersive Virtual Reality on Treadmill Walking (iVRTW)...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Antonio Heras-Garvin, Nadia Stefanova
Since its discovery 30 years ago, α-synuclein (α-syn) has been one of the most studied proteins in the field of neuroscience. Dozens of groups worldwide have tried to reveal not only its role in the CNS but also in other organs. α-syn has been linked to several processes essential in brain homeostasis such as neurotransmitter release, synaptic function, and plasticity. However, despite the efforts made in this direction, the main function of α-syn is still unknown. Moreover, α-syn became a protein of interest for neurologists and neuroscientists when mutations in its gene were found associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and even more when α-syn protein deposits were observed in the brain of PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients...
2020: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jana Ivanidze, Myrto Skafida, Sneha Pandya, Dylon Patel, Joseph R Osborne, Ashish Raj, Ajay Gupta, Claire Henchcliffe, Jonathan P Dyke
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Impairment of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been hypothesized to play a critical role in early PD pathophysiology, and to precede neurodegenerative mechanisms. [C-11]-PE2I ( N -(3-iodoprop-2E-enyl)-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-methyl-phenyl)nortropane) (PE2I) is a PET radiotracer targeting neuronal dopamine transporters (DaT) with high specificity, allowing for highly accurate and specific DaT quantification...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shufang Zhou, Dan Zhang, Junnan Guo, Junshi Zhang, Yong Chen
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) has been demonstrated as an important regulator in PD pathology. However, the functional mechanisms played by SNHG14 in PD remain largely unclear. Methods: We used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) to establish PD mouse and cell models. The levels of SNHG14, miR-214-3p, and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) were gauged by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot analysis...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ivan A Kuznetsov, Andrey V Kuznetsov
In neurons, neuropeptides are synthesized in the soma and are then transported along the axon in dense-core vesicles (DCVs). DCVs are captured in varicosities located along the axon terminal called en passant boutons, which are active terminal sites that accumulate and release neurotransmitters. Recently developed experimental techniques allow for the estimation of the age of DCVs in various locations in the axon terminal. Accurate simulation of the mean age of DCVs in boutons requires the development of a model that would account for resident, transiting-anterograde and transiting-retrograde DCV populations...
September 2020: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Hidenori Yamasue, Kenji Sugiyama
As in many Western countries, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is already being used daily in Japan to clinically treat neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Additionally, in both Europe and the United States, numerous case reports as well as multicenter randomized controlled trials have examined its use for treatment-refractory mental illnesses such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder. Based on a number of the reports, the European Union (EU) and the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted limited approval of DBS for treatment-resistant OCD in 2009...
October 16, 2020: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Eng-King Tan, Alberto Albanese, KRay Chaudhuri, Shen-Yang Lim, Nicodemus Edrick Oey, Christine Hui Shan Chan, Yun-Cheng Wu, Beomseok Jeon, Daniel Truong, Werner Poewe, Pramod Kumar Pal, Louis Tan, Puneet Opal, Carlo Colosimo, H A Jinnah, Francisco Cardoso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2020: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Mohammad Hossein Abbasi, Sara Esmaeili, Seyed Amirhassan Habibi, Gholam Ali Shahidi
INTRODUCTION: Several treatment strategies have been claimed for Parkinson's disease (PD) so far. However, there remains controversies over the best possible treatment. The aim of this study is to compare Levodopa monotherapy versus Pramipexole in combination with Levodopa L in patients with PD with regards to the efficacy and side effects. METHODS: Patients being treated with levodopa alone and Pramipexole add-on therapy to Levodopa were enrolled in the study. Factors regarding efficacy and side effects were assessed and analyzed between both groups by appropriate tests...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Zhi-Hao Lu, Yang-Kun Chen, Xiao-Li Fu, Yong-Lin Liu, Jian-Feng Qu, Wei-Min Xiao
PURPOSE: Fatigue has been recognized as a common non-motor problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The determination of the clinical correlates of fatigue in PD patients is necessary. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors related to the severity of fatigue in PD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 141 patients with PD were recruited. All patients were evaluated comprehensively, including motor function, fatigue severity scale (FSS), cognition and psychiatric status...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Nisa Vorasoot, Pichet Termsarasab, Kunlawat Thadanipon, Teeratorn Pulkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Marieke J Begemann, Bodyl A Brand, Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, André Aleman, Iris E Sommer
BACKGROUND: Cognition is commonly affected in brain disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) may have procognitive effects, with high tolerability. This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in improving cognition, in schizophrenia, depression, dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. METHODS: A PRISMA systematic search was conducted for randomized controlled trials...
October 19, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Tangui Maurice
INTRODUCTION: The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is attracting much attention as a target for disease-modifying therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. It is a highly conserved protein, present in plasma and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and enriched in mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). It modulates ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer and activation of the ER stress pathways. Mitochondrial and MAM dysfunctions contribute to neurodegenerative processes in pathologies including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
October 17, 2020: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Ingrid Nysveen, Mirza Jusufovic, Svein Martin Luth, Vidar Gundersen, Inger Marie Skogseid
BACKGROUND/CASE PRESENTATION: A man in his fifties with advanced Parkinson´s disease was admitted with increasing motor fluctuations including dyskinesias, as well as hallucinations and delusions. After reduction of oral dopaminergic treatment, the dyskinesias improved, but the psychotic symptoms persisted. They were perceived as levodopa-induced, despite concurrent prominent bradykinetic-rigid symptoms. Dopaminergic treatment was therefore discontinued. He subsequently developed hyperthermia, severe generalised rigidity and akinesia, and autonomic instability...
October 13, 2020: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
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