Moua Yang, Lin Lin, Robert Flaumenhaft
Flavonoids are naturally occurring metabolites of plants that can inhibit the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro), which is required for viral replication. Here, we present a protocol to identify flavonoid antagonists of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We describe steps for the expression and purification of Mpro and a kinetic enzymatic assay for Mpro activity using a dequenching fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide substrate. We then detail procedures for using this enzymatic assay to test flavonoid antagonism and reversible inhibition...
April 6, 2024: STAR protocols
Ali Yousefi Rad, Ali Asghar Rastegari, Kahin Shahanipour, Ramesh Monajemi
The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global concern, with updated pharmacological therapeutic strategies needed. Cancer patients have been found to be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 and death, and COVID-19 can also lead to cancer progression. Traditional medicinal plants have long been used as anti-infection and anti-inflammatory agents, and Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is one such plant containing natural products such as kaempferol, quercetin, and hesperetin, which can reduce inflammatory responses and complications associated with viral infections and multiple cancers...
April 7, 2024: Biochemical Genetics
Xiao Zhu, Enze Ma, Ke Ning, Xiangyan Feng, Wei Quan, Fei Wang, Chaoqun Zhu, Yuanjun Ma, Yucui Dong, Qinghua Jiang
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has merged as a global health threat since its outbreak in December 2019. Despite widespread recognition, there has been a paucity of studies focusing on the T cell receptor (TCR) bias in adaptive immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2. This research conducted a comparative analysis of the TCR immune repertoire to identify notable αβ TCR bias sequences associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen. The present study encompassed 73 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, categorized as moderate/mild or severe/critical, along with 9 healthy controls...
April 5, 2024: Human Immunology
Virgile Clergue-Duval, Arthur Lyonnet, Julien Azuar, Romain Icick, Margaux Poireau, Dorian Rollet, Namik Taright, Frank Questel, Isabelle Gasquet, Florence Vorspan
AIM OF THE STUDY: The past twenty years have seen a rise in cocaine-related statistics in France, including cocaine use in the general population, emergency ward presentations of acute cocaine intoxication, cocaine use disorders related outpatient appointments and cocaine-related deaths. This study's objectives were to describe trends in patients' admission for specific cocaine detoxification as well as changes in patients' characteristics in the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) hospitals group located in Paris region, France...
March 26, 2024: Thérapie
A Adeniran, O Q Bakare, E O Oluwole, F C Chieme, T Durojaiye, O Y Ojo, B Olujobi, M M Ilesanmi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, COVID-19 has greatly impacted humans physically, socially, mentally, and economically. No doubt, healthcare workers seemed to bear the greatest impact. The study therefore assessed the impact of COVID- 19 on the primary healthcare workers' daily activities in Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collection method among 716 primary healthcare workers. Respondents were selected using an online convenience sampling method via their social media platforms...
February 29, 2024: West African Journal of Medicine
Can Chen, Dandan Kang, Zhenzhen Chen, Pengfei Shi, Yun Li, Shenxian Qian
Since the discovery of copper induces cell death(cuprotosis) in 2022, it has been one of the biggest research hotspots. cuprotosis related genes (CRGs) has been demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic target for cancer, however, the molecular mechanism of CRGs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected in DLBCL patients has not been reported yet. Therefore, our research objective is first to elucidate the mechanism and role of CRGs in COVID-19. Secondly, we conducted univariate and multivariate analysis and machine learning to screen for CRGs with common expression differences in COVID-19 and DLBCL...
April 6, 2024: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Sarah M Bartsch, Kelly J O'Shea, Colleen Weatherwax, Ulrich Strych, Kavya Velmurugan, Danielle C John, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Mustafa Hussein, Marie F Martinez, Kevin L Chin, Allan Ciciriello, Jessie Heneghan, Alexis Dibbs, Sheryl A Scannell, Peter J Hotez, Bruce Y Lee
BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 vaccination no longer mandated by many businesses/organizations, it is now up to individuals to decide whether to get any new boosters/updated vaccines going forward. METHODS: We developed a Markov model representing the potential clinical/economic outcomes from an individual perspective in the United States of getting versus not getting an annual COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: For an 18-49-year-old, getting vaccinated at its current price ($60) can save the individual on average $30-$603 if the individual is uninsured and $4-$437 if the individual has private insurance, as long as the starting vaccine efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is ≥50% and the weekly risk of getting infected is ≥0...
April 6, 2024: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhen Gao, Yansen Su, Junfeng Xia, Rui-Fen Cao, Yun Ding, Chun-Hou Zheng, Pi-Jing Wei
The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from gene expression profiles has been a key issue in systems biology, prompting many researchers to develop diverse computational methods. However, most of these methods do not reconstruct directed GRNs with regulatory types because of the lack of benchmark datasets or defects in the computational methods. Here, we collect benchmark datasets and propose a deep learning-based model, DeepFGRN, for reconstructing fine gene regulatory networks (FGRNs) with both regulation types and directions...
March 27, 2024: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Sho Uchida, Shunsuke Uno, Masahiro Kondo, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Ho Namkoong, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Kana Misawa, Shoko Kashimura, Kei Yamato, Tamami Ishizaka, Kengo Nagashima, Yuko Kitagawa, Naoki Hasegawa
Understanding the factors that influence people's decisions regarding vaccination is essential to promote vaccination. We aimed to clarify the motivations for receiving booster vaccines. We conducted a paper-based questionnaire distributed during January-February 2022 involving students and faculty staff who received the first COVID-19 vaccination at the mass vaccination program during June-September 2021 at Keio University. A total of 1725 participants were enrolled, and all completed the survey. Among these, 64...
April 5, 2024: Scientific Reports
Xiu-Juan Qin, Wen-Jie Hu, Xian-Jin Xu
AIM: of the study: This study used network pharmacology and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to investigate the therapeutic effects of Corbrin capsules on acute kidney injury (AKI)-COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active constituents and specific molecular targets of Corbrin capsules were obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) and Swiss Target Prediction databases. The targets related to AKI and COVID-19 disease were obtained from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), GeneCards, and GEO databases...
April 3, 2024: Gene
Xue Li, Ce Liu, Dongbin Wang, Jianguo Deng, Yuntao Guo, Yicheng Shen, Shuwen Yang, John S Ji, Haiyun Luo, Jingwei Bai, Jingkun Jiang
From the onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, there are concerns regarding the disease spread and environmental pollution of biohazard since studies on genetic engineering flourish and numerous genetic materials were used such as the nucleic acid test of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). In this work, we studied genetic material pollution in an institute during a development cycle of plasmid, one of typical genetic materials, with typical laboratory settings. The pollution source, transmission routes, and pollution levels in laboratory environment were examined...
April 2, 2024: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fatou Samba Diouf, Maryam Tidjani Alou, Hubert Bassene, Sebastien Cortaredona, Georges Diatta, Didier Raoult, Cheikh Sokhna, Jean-Christophe Lagier
BACKGROUND: The surveillance of respiratory pathogens in rural areas of West Africa has, to date, largely been focussed on symptoms. In this prospective study conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, we aimed to assess the asymptomatic prevalence of respiratory pathogen carriage in a group of individuals living in a rural area of Senegalese. METHODS: Longitudinal follow up was performed through monthly nasopharyngeal swabbing during the dry season and weekly swabbing during the rainy season...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Lisa Perrig, Irene A Abela, Nicolas Banholzer, Annette Audigé, Selina Epp, Catrina Mugglin, Kathrin Zürcher, Matthias Egger, Alexandra Trkola, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Given their high-risk resident population, nursing homes were critical institutions in the COVID-19 pandemic, calling for continued monitoring and vaccine administration to healthcare workers and residents. Here, we studied long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity in vaccinated and unvaccinated healthcare workers and residents of a nursing home in Switzerland between February 2021 and June 2022. METHODS: Our study comprised 45 participants, of which 39 were healthcare workers and six were residents...
December 22, 2023: Swiss Medical Weekly
Marco Previsdomini, Andreas Perren, Alessandro Chiesa, Mark Kaufmann, Hans Pargger, Roger Ludwig, Bernard Cerutti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak deeply affected intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to explore the main changes in the distribution and characteristics of Swiss ICU patients during the first two COVID-19 waves and to relate these figures with those of the preceding two years. METHODS: Using the national ICU registry, we conducted an exploratory study to assess the number of ICU admissions in Switzerland and their changes over time, characteristics of the admissions, the length of stay (LOS) and its trend over time, ICU mortality and changes in therapeutic nursing workload and hospital resources in 2020 and compare them with the average figures in 2018 and 2019...
February 5, 2024: Swiss Medical Weekly
Mayssam Nehme, Olivia Braillard, Pierre-Yves Rodondi, Idris Guessous
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Patients are increasingly using and requesting complementary medicine therapies, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it remains unclear whether they use them in conjunction with conventional medicine or to replace vaccination or other approaches and whether they discuss them with their physicians as part of shared decision-making. This study aimed to evaluate the use and initiation of complementary medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the association between complementary medicine use and COVID-19 vaccination status...
December 18, 2023: Swiss Medical Weekly
Weixin Zhang, Linlin Ma, Wei Xie, Xingxing Li, Juhua Zhang, Ji Sun
Since the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, significant advancements has been made in research, from limited knowledge about the disease to the development of a vaccine. Although the severity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears to be decreasing and the threat of COVID-19 is waning, there have been widespread concerns about persistent symptoms or sequelae experienced by some patients even after recovering from COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown favorable treatment outcomes during the onset of COVID-19, and extensive studies have been carried out to explore the efficacy of TCM interventions during the COVID-19 recovery period...
April 5, 2024: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gül Şahika Gokdemir, Mehmet Tahir Gokdemir, Songül Araç, Beran Yokuş
Increased serum chemerin levels have been reported in several inflammatory diseases. Few studies have investigated the relationship between chemerin and clinical features of COVID-19. Thus, chemerin may modulate the development and progression of COVID-19. We compared the serum chemerin concentration between patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection and its association with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. This is a prospective, single-center, cross-sectional study. We enrolled COVID-19 patients who presented to our tertiary hospital and healthy controls...
April 5, 2024: Medicine (Baltimore)
Disha Bhavsar, Kaori Sano, Gagandeep Singh, Florian Krammer
The primary mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is infection of the respiratory tract through droplets and/or aerosols. Therefore, immune responses at respiratory mucosal surfaces play a significant role in the prevention of infection. Greater emphasis is now being placed on mucosal immunity induced by exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens through infection or vaccination. In concert with cellular immunity, humoral responses at mucosal surfaces, especially the secretory version of immunoglobulin A (sIgA), can be instrumental in preventing respiratory infections...
April 2024: Current protocols
Can Chen, Ranyi Li, Shuliang Xing, Lei Cao, Yue Qu, Qianzhou Lv, Xiaoyu Li, Zhangzhang Chen
BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) swept the world, a variety of novel therapeutic and prevention strategies have been developed, among which nirmatrelvir-ritonavir is highly recommended. We intended to assess the effectiveness and safety of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in the elderly mild-to-moderate COVID-19 population caused by the omicron BA.2.2 variant in real-world settings. METHODS: An observational study was conducted retrospectively to review the outcomes of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients admitted between April 26 and June 30, 2022...
April 2024: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Christian Renaud, Antoine Lewin, Yves Gregoire, Nathalie Simard, Émilie Vallières, Maude Paquette, Steven J Drews, Sheila F O'Brien, Clara Di Germanio, Michael P Busch, Marc Germain, Renée Bazin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveys are typically analysed by applying a fixed threshold for seropositivity ('conventional approach'). However, this approach underestimates the seroprevalence of anti-nucleocapsid (N) in vaccinated individuals-who often exhibit a difficult-to-detect anti-N response. This limitation is compounded by delays between the onset of infection and sample collection. To address this issue, we compared the performance of four immunoassays using a new analytical approach ('ratio-based approach'), which determines seropositivity based on an increase in anti-N levels...
April 5, 2024: Vox Sanguinis
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