Monica Margoni, Davide Poggiali, Sofia Zywicki, Martina Rubin, Andrea Lazzarotto, Silvia Franciotta, Maria Giulia Anglani, Francesco Causin, Francesca Rinaldi, Paola Perini, Massimo Filippi, Paolo Gallo
No study has investigated red nucleus (RN) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) despite cerebellum and its connections are elective sites of MS-related pathology. In this study, we explore RN atrophy in early MS phases and its association with cerebellar damage (focal lesions and atrophy) and physical disability. Thirty-seven relapse-onset MS (RMS) patients having mean age of 35.6 ± 8.5 (18-56) years and mean disease duration of 1.1 ± 1.5 (0-5) years, and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were studied...
October 13, 2020: Human Brain Mapping
Ezgi Yilmaz, Ethem Murat Arsava, Rahşan Gocmen, Kader Karli Oguz, Anil Arat, Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu
OBJECTIVE: Sneddon's syndrome is a cerebrocutaneous non-inflammatory progressive distal arteriopathy, characterized by livedo racemosa, stroke, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Our aim was to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging features of Sneddon's syndrome that might be helpful to clinicians in timely diagnosis of this entity. METHODS: Twelve patients (median age 49 years, 11 female) with primary Sneddon's syndrome, diagnosed in last 10 years, were analyzed from the perspective of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features...
October 13, 2020: Neurological Sciences
Sven P R Luijten, Daniel Bos, Kars C J Compagne, Lennard Wolff, Charles B L M Majoie, Yvo B W E M Roos, Wim H van Zwam, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Diederik W J Dippel, Aad van der Lugt, Adriaan C G M van Es
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between white matter lesions (WML) and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and the modification of the effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) by WML. METHODS: We used data from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) trial and assessed severity of WML on baseline non-contrast CT imaging (NCCT; n = 473) according to the Van Swieten Scale...
October 12, 2020: Neurology
Mark Bowren, Ralph Adolphs, Joel Bruss, Kenneth Manzel, Maurizio Corbetta, Daniel Tranel, Aaron D Boes
General cognitive ability - or general intelligence (g) - is central to cognitive science, yet the processes that constitute it remain unknown, in good part because most prior work has relied on correlational methods. Large-scale behavioral and neuroanatomical data from neurological patients with focal brain lesions can be leveraged to advance our understanding of the key mechanisms of g, as this approach allows inference on the independence of cognitive processes along with elucidation of their respective neuroanatomical substrates...
October 12, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Chris Foulon, Parashkev Nachev
Brain lesions do not just disable but also disconnect brain areas, which once deprived of their input or output, can no longer subserve behaviour and cognition. The role of white matter connections has remained an open question for the past 250 years. Based on 1333 stroke lesions, here we reveal the human Disconnectome and demonstrate its relationship to the functional segregation of the human brain. Results indicate that functional territories are not only defined by white matter connections, but also by the highly stereotyped spatial distribution of brain disconnections...
October 9, 2020: Nature Communications
Steven C Koetzier, Jamie van Langelaar, Katelijn M Blok, Thierry P P van den Bosch, Annet F Wierenga-Wolf, Marie-José Melief, Kim Pol, Theodora A Siepman, Georges M G M Verjans, Joost Smolders, Erik Lubberts, Helga E de Vries, Marvin M van Luijn
OBJECTIVE: To study whether glucocorticoid (GC) resistance delineates disease-relevant T helper (Th) subsets that home to the CNS of patients with early MS. METHODS: The expression of key determinants of GC sensitivity, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/ ABCB1 ) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR/ NR3C1 ), was investigated in proinflammatory Th subsets and compared between natalizumab-treated patients with MS and healthy individuals. Blood, CSF, and brain compartments from patients with MS were assessed for the recruitment of GC-resistant Th subsets using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence...
November 2020: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Müjdat Deniz Benli, Bülent Güven, Hayat Güven, Işık Conkbayır
The association of carotid atherosclerosis with silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter lesions (WMLs) currently remains unknown. This study aims to compare SBIs, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs), and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMLs) in ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres to internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, and investigate their association with stenosis grade in patients with asymptomatic ≥ 50% unilateral extracranial ICA stenosis. Patients without previous history of stroke and/or transient ischemic attack who had ≥ 50% stenosis in unilateral ICA on carotid color Doppler ultrasound were enrolled in the study...
October 9, 2020: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Laura Saitta, Alexandre Molin, Flavio Villani, Angelo Insorsi, Luca Roccatagliata, Matilde Inglese, Matteo Bassetti, Paolo Pelosi, Lucio Castellan, Simonetta Gerevini, Chiara Robba, Nicolò Patroniti
We describe the case of a COVID-19 patient with severely impaired consciousness after sedation hold, showing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of (i) acute bilateral supratentorial ischemic lesions involving the fronto-parietal white matter and the corpus callosum and (ii) multiple diffuse susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) hypointense foci, infra and supratentorial, predominantly bithalamic, suggestive of microhemorrhage or alternatively microthrombi. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid...
October 9, 2020: Neurological Sciences
C Vinciguerra, A Giorgio, J Zhang, V Nardone, R Tappa Brocci, L Pastò, C Niccolai, M L Stromillo, M Mortilla, M P Amato, N De Stefano
Peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD) is a new MRI marker, which has shown clinical relevance in some neurological conditions and, in preliminary data, in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed here to investigate, in a group of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, the relationship between PSMD and cognitive performances, in comparison with other MRI measures. RRMS patients (n = 60) and normal controls (n = 15) underwent a 3 T MRI examination. MRI-based white matter (WM) lesion volume, microstructural integrity (assessed with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics of diffusion tensor imaging [DTI] images) and brain volumes (i...
October 8, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Brian Fiani, Christian Noblett, Jacob Nanney, Thao Doan, Elisabeth Pennington, Ryan Jarrah, Erika Sarno, Daniel Nikolaidis
Background: Since its development in 1994, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been successfully used to assess structural and functional changes to neurological tissue within the central nervous system. Namely, DTI is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique that uses anisotropic diffusion to visualize and estimate the organization of white matter in neuronal tissue. It has been used to study various spinal pathologies including neoplastic diseases, degenerative myelopathy, demyelinating diseases, and infections involving the spinal cord...
2020: Surgical Neurology International
D Kraushar, J Molad, H Hallevi, N M Bornstein, E Ben-Assayag, E Auriel
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMI) are common lesions, carrying an important contribution to small-vessel-related cognitive impairment. CMIs were previously found to cause local microstructural damage and disruption of white matter integrity. This study examines CMIs influence on cortical thickness in remote brain areas. METHODS: Six small silent diffuse weighted imaging (DWI) lesions corresponding to subacute CMI were identified among five patients who underwent baseline and follow-up MRI scans from the Tel-Aviv Acute Brain Stroke Cohort (TABASCO)...
October 4, 2020: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Erik H Middlebrooks, Chen Lin, Erin Westerhold, Lela Okromelidze, Prasanna Vibhute, Sanjeet S Grewal, Vivek Gupta
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) being one of the most common lesional causes. Detection of FCD by MRI is a major determinant of surgical outcome. Evolution of MRI sequences and hardware has greatly increased the detection rate of FCD, but these gains have largely been related to the more visible Type IIb FCD, with Type I and IIa remaining elusive. While most sequence improvements have relied on increasing contrast between gray and white matter, we propose a novel imaging approach, 3D Edge-Enhancing Gradient Echo (3D-EDGE), to directly image the gray-white boundary...
September 28, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yuji Shiga, Naohisa Hosomi, Tomohisa Nezu, Hiromi Nishi, Shiro Aoki, Masahiro Nakamori, Kenichi Ishikawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Eiji Imamura, Hiroki Ueno, Tomoaki Shintani, Hiroki Ohge, Hiroyuki Kawaguchi, Hidemi Kurihara, Shinichi Wakabayashi, Hirofumi Maruyama
Oral health conditions and cerebral small vessel disease, such as white matter lesions or cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), are associated with the incidence of stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between oral health conditions (serum IgG titers of periodontal pathogens) with the presence or severity of CMBs in acute stroke patients. From January 2013 to April 2016, acute stroke patients were registered in two hospitals. Serum samples were evaluated for antibody titers against 9 periodontal pathogens using the ELISA method...
2020: PloS One
Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Harsh Khilwani, Gretchen N L Smith, Frank Krueger, Barry Gordon, Jordan Grafman
The ability to infer other persons' mental states, "Theory of Mind" (ToM), is a key function of social cognition and is needed when interpreting the intention of others. ToM is associated with a network of functionally related regions, with reportedly key prominent hubs located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The involvement of (mainly the right) TPJ in ToM is based primarily on functional imaging studies that provide correlational evidence for brain-behavior associations...
October 8, 2020: Human Brain Mapping
Abdelrahman Zayed, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Arno Villringer, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele
With an estimated five million new stroke survivors every year and a rapidly aging population suffering from hyperintensities and diseases of presumed vascular origin that affect white matter and contribute to cognitive decline, it is critical that we understand the impact of white matter damage on brain structure and behavior. Current techniques for assessing the impact of lesions consider only location, type, and extent, while ignoring how the affected region was connected to the rest of the brain. Regional brain function is a product of both local structure and its connectivity...
July 2020: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
X-X Wang, B Zhang, R Xia, Q-Y Jia
Vascular dementia is the second-most cause of dementia, characterized by cerebral infarcts, white matter lesions, myelin loss and often amyloid angiopathy. Hence, vascular damage is a critical cause of neuronal loss and synaptic disintegration. Abnormal neuroinflammation, autophagy and apoptosis are the prerequisite factors for endothelial and neuronal cell damage. This leads to the onset and progression of cerebrovascular disorders and cognitive dysfunction. The innate immune cells, pattern recognition receptors, Toll-like receptor-4 and related inflammatory mechanisms disrupt cerebrovascular integrity via glial activation and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins and TNFα...
September 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hóngyi Zhào, Wei Wei, Yu Liu, Jiajia Gao, Yonghua Huang
Cognitive frailty (CF) is gaining an increasing amount of attention in geriatric research. CF refers to the co-occurrence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment in people without dementia. Neuroimaging of elderly people has revealed the presence of numerous white matter lesions, which is a typical biomarker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) on magnetic resonance images. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of CF in elderly Chinese patients with SVD. One hundred and thirty elderly patients with SVD were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Ya-Jun Ma, Hongda Shao, Shujuan Fan, Xing Lu, Jiang Du, Ian R Young, Graeme M Bydder
This paper reviews magnetic resonance (MR) pulse sequences in which the same or different tissue properties (TPs) such as T1 and T2 are used to contribute synergistically to lesion contrast. It also shows how synergistic contrast can be created with Multiplied, Added, Subtracted and/or fiTted Inversion Recovery (MASTIR) sequences, and be used to improve the sensitivity, specificity and scope of clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols. Synergistic contrast can be created from: (i) the same TP, e...
October 2020: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Ramona-Alexandra Todea, Po-Jui Lu, Mario Joao Fartaria, Guillaume Bonnier, Renaud Du Pasquier, Gunnar Krueger, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marios Nikos Psychogios, Ludwig Kappos, Jens Kuhle, Cristina Granziera
Introduction: Changes in cortical and white matter lesion (CL, WML) load are pivotal metrics to diagnose and monitor multiple sclerosis patients. Yet, the relationship between (i) changes in CL/WML load and disease progression and between (ii) changes in CL/WML load and neurodegeneration at early MS stages is not yet established. In this work, we have assessed the hypothesis that the combined CL and WML load as well as their 2-years evolution are surrogate markers of neurodegeneration and clinical progression at early MS stages...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Sara H Andreasen, Kasper W Andersen, Virginia Conde, Tim B Dyrby, Oula Puonti, Lars P Kammersgaard, Camilla G Madsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Ingrid Poulsen, Hartwig R Siebner
Introduction: Diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is one of the key mechanisms leading to impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, preferential regional expression of TAI in the brain may also influence clinical outcome. Aim: We addressed the question whether the regional expression of microstructural changes as revealed by whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the subacute stage after severe TBI may predict the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Method: Fourteen patients underwent whole-brain DTI in the subacute stage after severe TBI...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
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