Joseph Saliba, Andrew Steven, John Franklin Berry, Edison P Valle-Giler
Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance-based imaging technique that can provide important information about the underlying structure and integrity of the white matter in the brain. Tractography, a DTI postprocessing technique, can provide a detailed model of individual white matter fiber tracts. Knowledge of these tracts may be beneficial in the surgical planning and execution for neurosurgical patients. Case Report: We review the basic principles behind DTI and present an illustrative case in which DTI was used to delineate the relationship of eloquent white matter tracts to a cavernous malformation in a patient undergoing resection...
2020: Ochsner Journal
Ryan P Hamer, Swati Jain, Colin Teo, Will Ne-Hooi Loh, Hui-Minn Chan, Tseng T Yeo, Kejia Teo
Intraoperative cortical mapping provides functional information that permits the safe and maximal resection of supratentorial lesions infiltrating the so-called eloquent cortex or subcortical white matter tracts. Primary and secondary brain tumours located in eloquent cortex can render surgical treatment ineffective if it results in new or worsening neurology. A cohort of forty-six consecutive patients with supratentorial tumours of variable pathology involving eloquent cortical regions and aided with intraoperative neurophysiology were included for retrospective analysis at a single-centre tertiary institution...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Seyul Kwak, Soowon Park, Jeongsim Kim, Seho Park, Jun-Young Lee
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are commonly observed as brain pathology progresses with dementia. Behavioral and affective disturbances underly the distinct neuroanatomical basis of typical symptoms of cognitive impairment; however it remains unclear whether enriched intellectual experience, such as educational attainment, can mitigate the effect of brain structural patterns on neuropsychiatric symptom severity. We utilized the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS-3) dataset, which includes brain structural MRI and behavioral symptom evaluation...
September 28, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Huan Liu, Jinbo Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Hongyu Wang
Background-The association of brain white matter lesions with arterial stiffness, as assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index, is not well characterized in the population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the cross-sectional association of brain white matter lesions with arterial stiffness assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index among 1176 adults. METHODS: We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations of the cardio-ankle vascular index with brain white matter lesions, detected by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, versus normal brain white matter...
October 17, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shervin Jannesar, Ernesto Salegio, Michael S Beattie, Jacqueline C Bresnahan, Carolyn J Sparrey
Non-human primate (NHP) models are the closest approximation of human spinal cord injury (SCI) available for pre-clinical trials. However, NHP models include broader morphological variability which can confound experimental outcomes. We developed subject-specific finite element (FE) models to quantify the relationship between impact mechanics and SCI; including the correlations between FE outcomes and tissue damage. Subject-specific models of cervical unilateral contusion SCI were generated from pre-injury MRIs of six NHPs...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Neurotrauma
Viktoria Fruhwirth, Christian Enzinger, Simon Fandler-Höfler, Markus Kneihsl, Sebastian Eppinger, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Thomas Gattringer, Daniela Pinter
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common sequel of recent small subcortical infarction (RSSI) and might be negatively affected by pre-existing cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We investigated whether the course of cognitive function in patients with RSSI is influenced by the severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), an important imaging feature of SVD. METHODS: Patients with MRI-proven single RSSI were tested neuropsychologically concerning global cognition, processing speed, attention and set-shifting...
October 16, 2020: European Journal of Neurology
Yuexian Cui, Xuelian Jin, Jun Young Choi, Byung Gon Kim
Subcortical ischemic white matter injury (SIWMI), pathological correlate of white matter hyperintensities or leukoaraiosis on magnetic resonance imaging, is a common cause of cognitive decline in elderly. Despite its high prevalence, it remains unknown how various components of the white matter degenerate in response to chronic ischemia.This incomplete knowledge is in part due to a lack of adequate animal model. The current review introduces various SIWMI animal models and aims to scrutinize their advantages and disadvantages primarily in regard to the pathological manifestations of white matter components...
April 2021: Neural Regeneration Research
Tanyel Zübarioğlu, Cengiz Yalçınkaya, Çiğdem Oruç, Ertuğrul Kıykım, Mehmet Şerif Cansever, Alper Gezdirici, Gözde Yeşil, Ece Öge Enver, Çiğdem Aktuğlu Zeybek
Aim: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a slowly progressive neurometabolic disorder caused by an enzymatic deficiency of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. Here, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, neuroradiologic, and genotypic characteristics of patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria who were followed in our outpatient clinic. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria were enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical, and neuroradiologic findings and molecular analysis were evaluated retrospectively...
2020: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Nathan J Michaels, Kennedy Lemmon, Jason R Plemel, Samuel K Jensen, Manoj K Mishra, Dennis Brown, Khalil S Rawji, Marcus Koch, V Wee Yong
Age is a critical risk factor for many neurologic conditions, including progressive multiple sclerosis. Yet the mechanisms underlying the relationship are unknown. Using lysolecithin-induced demyelinating injury to the mouse spinal cord, we characterized the acute lesion and investigated the mechanisms of increased myelin and axon damage with age. We report exacerbated myelin and axon loss in middle-aged (8-10 months of age) compared with young (6 weeks of age) female C57BL/6 mice by 1-3 d of lesion evolution in the white matter...
October 9, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Yin-Juan Wang, Sha-Sha Liu, Yan-Chao Liu, Xiao-Nan Li, Rui-Li Zhang, Fa-Lin Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess white matter development in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) using fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Ninety-six infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within 24 hours after birth from August 2016 to April 2019 and underwent head MRI and DTI before discharge were enrolled...
October 2020: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Stacy L Pineles, Michael X Repka, Grant T Liu, Amy T Waldman, Mark S Borchert, Sangeeta Khanna, Gena Heidary, Jennifer S Graves, Veeral S Shah, Mark J Kupersmith, Raymond T Kraker, David K Wallace, Susan A Cotter, Jonathan M Holmes
Importance: Optic neuritis (ON) in children is uncommon. There are limited prospective data for visual acuity (VA) outcomes, associated diseases, and neuroimaging findings. Prospective data from a large sample would be useful for counseling families on treatment decisions and prognosis. Objective: To prospectively study children with a first episode of ON, describe VA after 6 months, and ascertain the network's (Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group and Neuro-Ophthalmology Research Disease Investigator Consortium) ability to enroll pediatric patients with ON prospectively...
October 15, 2020: JAMA Ophthalmology
Arabinda Mishra, Feng Wang, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
This study aims to evaluate how parameters derived from diffusion tensor imaging reflect axonal disruption and demyelination in specific white matter tracts within the spinal cord of squirrel monkeys following traumatic injuries, and their relationships to function and behavior. After a unilateral section of the dorsal white matter tract of the cervical spinal cord, we found that both lesioned dorsal and intact lateral tracts on the lesion side exhibited prominent disruptions in fiber orientation, integrity and myelination...
October 14, 2020: Scientific Reports
Perga Simona, Montarolo Francesca, Martire Serena, Bonaldo Brigitta, Bono Gabriele, Bertolo Jessica, Magliozzi Roberta, Bertolotto Antonio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which inflammation plays a key pathological role. Recent evidences showed that systemic inflammation induces increasing cell infiltration within meninges and perivascular spaces in the brain parenchyma, triggering resident microglial ad astrocytic activation. The anti-inflammatory enzyme A20, also named TNF associated protein 3 (TNFAIP3), is considered a central gatekeeper in inflammation and peripheral immune system regulation through the inhibition of NF-kB...
October 14, 2020: Brain Pathology
Toru Yamashita, Yoshihiro Kushida, Shohei Wakao, Koh Tadokoro, Emi Nomura, Yoshio Omote, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Mari Dezawa, Koji Abe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss. Muse cells are endogenous reparative pluripotent-like stem cells distributed in various tissues. They can selectively home to damaged sites after intravenous injection by sensing sphingosine-1-phosphate produced by damaged cells, then exert pleiotropic effects, including tissue protection and spontaneous differentiation into tissue-constituent cells. In G93A-transgenic ALS mice, intravenous injection of 5...
October 13, 2020: Scientific Reports
Dilip Kumar, Ashwati Vipin, Benjamin Wong, Kok Pin Ng, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) indicates active small vessel disease. Emerging evidence suggests that confluent WMH (C-WMH) results in greater cognitive impairment compared to non-confluent WMH (NC-WMH) visualized as punctate lesions. However, the mechanism linking C-WMH and early cognitive impairment is not clearly understood. AIMS: To investigate the effects of C-WMH and NC-WMH on whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) across 138 regions-of-interest (ROI) and cognition in sixty-three subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...
October 14, 2020: Brain Connectivity
Monica Margoni, Davide Poggiali, Sofia Zywicki, Martina Rubin, Andrea Lazzarotto, Silvia Franciotta, Maria Giulia Anglani, Francesco Causin, Francesca Rinaldi, Paola Perini, Massimo Filippi, Paolo Gallo
No study has investigated red nucleus (RN) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) despite cerebellum and its connections are elective sites of MS-related pathology. In this study, we explore RN atrophy in early MS phases and its association with cerebellar damage (focal lesions and atrophy) and physical disability. Thirty-seven relapse-onset MS (RMS) patients having mean age of 35.6 ± 8.5 (18-56) years and mean disease duration of 1.1 ± 1.5 (0-5) years, and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were studied...
October 13, 2020: Human Brain Mapping
Ezgi Yilmaz, Ethem Murat Arsava, Rahşan Gocmen, Kader Karli Oguz, Anil Arat, Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu
OBJECTIVE: Sneddon's syndrome is a cerebrocutaneous non-inflammatory progressive distal arteriopathy, characterized by livedo racemosa, stroke, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Our aim was to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging features of Sneddon's syndrome that might be helpful to clinicians in timely diagnosis of this entity. METHODS: Twelve patients (median age 49 years, 11 female) with primary Sneddon's syndrome, diagnosed in last 10 years, were analyzed from the perspective of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features...
October 13, 2020: Neurological Sciences
Sven P R Luijten, Daniel Bos, Kars C J Compagne, Lennard Wolff, Charles B L M Majoie, Yvo B W E M Roos, Wim H van Zwam, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Diederik W J Dippel, Aad van der Lugt, Adriaan C G M van Es
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between white matter lesions (WML) and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and the modification of the effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) by WML. METHODS: We used data from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) trial and assessed severity of WML on baseline non-contrast CT imaging (NCCT; n = 473) according to the Van Swieten Scale...
October 12, 2020: Neurology
Mark Bowren, Ralph Adolphs, Joel Bruss, Kenneth Manzel, Maurizio Corbetta, Daniel Tranel, Aaron D Boes
General cognitive ability - or general intelligence (g) - is central to cognitive science, yet the processes that constitute it remain unknown, in good part because most prior work has relied on correlational methods. Large-scale behavioral and neuroanatomical data from neurological patients with focal brain lesions can be leveraged to advance our understanding of the key mechanisms of g, as this approach allows inference on the independence of cognitive processes along with elucidation of their respective neuroanatomical substrates...
October 12, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Chris Foulon, Parashkev Nachev
Brain lesions do not just disable but also disconnect brain areas, which once deprived of their input or output, can no longer subserve behaviour and cognition. The role of white matter connections has remained an open question for the past 250 years. Based on 1333 stroke lesions, here we reveal the human Disconnectome and demonstrate its relationship to the functional segregation of the human brain. Results indicate that functional territories are not only defined by white matter connections, but also by the highly stereotyped spatial distribution of brain disconnections...
October 9, 2020: Nature Communications
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