Rachel N Andrews, Ethan G Bloomer, John D Olson, David B Hanbury, Gregory O Dugan, Christopher T Whitlow, J Mark Cline
Nuclear accidents and acts of terrorism have the potential to expose thousands of people to high-dose total-body iradiation (TBI). Those who survive the acute radiation syndrome are at risk of developing chronic, degenerative radiation-induced injuries [delayed effects of acute radiation (DEARE)] that may negatively affect quality of life. A growing body of literature suggests that the brain may be vulnerable to radiation injury at survivable doses, yet the long-term consequences of high-dose TBI on the adult brain are unclear...
September 16, 2020: Radiation Research
Junichi Yoshimura, Manami Morikawa, Shunsuke Kumagai, Taiki Saito, Haruhiko Takahashi, Hidemoto Fujiwara, Ryosuke Ogura, Naoto Tsuchiya
We experienced a case of an accidental infantile acute subdural hematoma caused by household minor head trauma(Nakamura type I intracranial hemorrhage)with postoperative hemispheric hypodensity lesion(Big Black Brain)whose pathophysiology was analyzed using perfusion MRI. A ten-month-old boy was admitted to our hospital in a comatose state. His mother revealed that the boy suffered a fall from a sofa bed. A CT scan indicated massive acute subdural hematoma in the left cerebral hemisphere. Emergency craniotomy and hematoma evacuation were performed...
September 2020: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Yusuke Ebiko, Shogo Imae
We encountered a case of cerebral amyloid angiopathy(CAA)-related cerebral hemorrhage that recurred 20 times within 9 months. The patient was a 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, and whose blood pressure was controlled with antihypertensive medicine. She was hospitalized due to cerebral hemorrhage of the right temporal lobe and underwent conservative treatment;however, cerebral hemorrhage of the right frontal lobe recurred on day 60, and 18 cerebral hemorrhages occurred in the following 7 months...
September 2020: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Marcello Moccia, Steven van de Pavert, Arman Eshaghi, Lukas Haider, Jonas Pichat, Marios Yiannakas, Sebastien Ourselin, Yi Wang, Claudia Wheeler-Kingshott, Alan Thompson, Frederik Barkhof, Olga Ciccarelli
OBJECTIVE: To identify pathological correlate(s) of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) in a MRI-pathology study. METHODS: We acquired MTR maps at 3T from 16 fixed MS brains and four controls, and immunostained 100 tissue blocks for neuronal neurofilaments, myelin (SMI94), tissue macrophages (CD68), microglia (IBA1), B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, astrocytes (GFAP), and mitochondrial damage (COX4, VDAC). We defined regions-of-interest in lesions, normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and cortical normal-appearing grey matter (NAGM)...
September 16, 2020: Neurology
Swati Rane, Julia Owen, Daniel S Hippe, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Tom Montine, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease is a common comorbidity in older adults, typically assessed in terms of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI. While it is well known that WMHs exacerbate cognitive symptoms, the exact relation of WMHs with cognitive performance and other degenerative diseases is unknown. Furthermore, based on location, WMHs are often classified into periventricular and deep WMHs and are believed to have different pathological origins. Whether the two types of WMHs influence cognition differently is unclear...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Russell Ouellette, Constantina A Treaba, Tobias Granberg, Elena Herranz, Valeria Barletta, Ambica Mehndiratta, Benjamin De Leener, Shahamat Tauhid, Fawad Yousuf, Sarah M Dupont, Eric C Klawiter, Jacob A Sloane, Rohit Bakshi, Julien Cohen-Adad, Caterina Mainero
We used 7 T MRI to: (i) characterize the grey and white matter pathology in the cervical spinal cord of patients with early relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis; (ii) assess the spinal cord lesion spatial distribution and the hypothesis of an outside-in pathological process possibly driven by CSF-mediated immune cytotoxic factors; and (iii) evaluate the association of spinal cord pathology with brain burden and its contribution to neurological disability. We prospectively recruited 20 relapsing-remitting, 15 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis participants and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects to undergo 7 T imaging of the cervical spinal cord and brain as well as conventional 3 T brain acquisition...
September 16, 2020: Brain
Clemens Neudorfer, Jürgen Germann, Gavin J B Elias, Robert Gramer, Alexandre Boutet, Andres M Lozano
The study of the hypothalamus and its topological changes provides valuable insights into underlying physiological and pathological processes. Owing to technological limitations, however, in vivo atlases detailing hypothalamic anatomy are currently lacking in the literature. In this work we aim to overcome this shortcoming by generating a high-resolution in vivo anatomical atlas of the human hypothalamic region. A minimum deformation averaging (MDA) pipeline was employed to produce a normalized, high-resolution template from multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets...
September 15, 2020: Scientific Data
Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Masafumi Kanoto
Although progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is known as a fatal disease, some recent cases have shown favorable prognosis with early diagnosis. Therefore, detection of early PML lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important. PML lesions are divided into 4 groups based on distinct developing patterns: A)cerebral lesion, B)central lesion including deep gray matter, C)infratentorial lesion of the brain stem and cerebellum, and D)punctate lesions in the deep white matter. These lesions develop in 3 steps: 1)initiation of a small demyelinating lesion, 2)extension/expansion, and 3)fusion...
September 2020: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Hugues Duffau
Intraoperative direct electrostimulation mapping (DEM) is currently the gold-standard for glioma surgery, since functional-based resection allows an optimization of the onco-functional balance (increased resection with preserved quality of life). Besides intrasurgical awake mapping of conation, cognition, and behavior, preoperative mapping by means of functional neuroimaging (FNI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has increasingly been utilized for surgical selection and planning. However, because these techniques suffer from several limitations, particularly for direct functional mapping of subcortical white matter pathways, DEM remains crucial to map neural connectivity...
September 13, 2020: Cancers
Rachel Galioto, Ophira Berenholz, Zhini Wang, Devon S Conway, Sarah M Planchon, Stephen M Rao
BACKGROUND: Obesity is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) and has been shown to exacerbate central inflammation, a key factor in disease progression. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the possible relationships between obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and MS-related brain changes in atrophy and lesion volume, as measured from MRI, in a large, representative sample of pwMS. METHODS: BMI and MRI data, along with demographic and disease variables, were acquired from the Multiple Sclerosis Partners Advancing Technology and Health Solutions (MS PATHS) registry...
September 10, 2020: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Min Young Lee, Kok Pin Yong, Jae-Won Hyun, Su-Hyun Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody seropositive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) develop new asymptomatic brain lesions during the inter-attack period. METHODS: Of 296 consecutive patients with AQP4 antibody seropositive in the NMOSD database of National Cancer Center from May 2005 to November 2019, 145 patients, who had serial brain MRI scans over an interval of at least 1 year during relapse-free period after immunosuppressive therapy, with 370 longitudinally assessed brain MRI scans were included in this study...
September 14, 2020: Neurology
Daniel Golan, Glen M Doniger, Jared Srinivasan, Diana M Sima, Myassar Zarif, Barbara Bumstead, Marijean Buhse, Wim Van Hecke, Jeffrey Wilken, Mark Gudesblatt
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive assessment facilitates the incorporation of multi-domain cognitive monitoring into routine clinical care. The predictive validity of computerized cognitive assessment among people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) has scarcely been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between brain volumes and cognitive scores from a computerized cognitive assessment battery (CAB, NeuroTrax) among PwMS. METHODS: PwMS were evaluated with the CAB and underwent brain MRI within 40 days...
September 11, 2020: Brain and Cognition
M W D Thorne, M K Cash, G A Reid, D E Burley, D Luke, I R Pottie, S Darvesh
PURPOSE: Molecular imaging agents targeting butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have shown promise in other neurodegenerative disorders and may have utility in detecting changes to normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis (MS). BChE activity is present in white matter and localizes to activated microglia associated with MS lesions. The purpose of this study was to further characterize changes in the cholinergic system in MS pathology, and to explore the utility of BChE radioligands as potential diagnostic and treatment monitoring agents in MS...
September 14, 2020: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Anna M Pietroboni, Annalisa Colombi, Tiziana Carandini, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Marco Bozzali
Just as multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been primarily considered a white matter (WM) disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has for decades been regarded only as a grey matter disorder. However, convergent evidences have suggested that WM abnormalities are also important components of AD, at the same extent as axonal and neuronal loss is critically involved in MS pathophysiology since early clinical stages. These observations have motivated a more thorough investigation about the possible mechanisms that could link neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, focusing on amyloid-β (Aβ)...
September 8, 2020: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Claudio Cordani, Milagros Hidalgo de la Cruz, Alessandro Meani, Paola Valsasina, Federica Esposito, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
BACKGROUND: Hand-motor impairment affects a large proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; however, its substrates are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between global disability, hand-motor impairment, and alterations in motor-relevant structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) networks in MS patients with different clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four healthy controls (HC) and 364 MS patients (250 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 114 progressive MS (PMS)) underwent Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) rating, nine-hole peg test (9HPT), and electronic finger tapping rate (EFTR)...
September 14, 2020: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Maria Varkanitsa, Claudia Peñaloza, Andreas Charidimou, David Caplan, Swathi Kiran
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a radiological marker of brain health that has been associated with language status in poststroke aphasia; however, its association with language treatment outcomes remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether WMH in the right hemisphere (RH) predict response to language therapy independently from demographics and stroke lesion-related factors in poststroke aphasia. METHODS: We used the Fazekas scale to rate WMH in the RH in 30 patients with poststroke aphasia who received language treatment...
September 13, 2020: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Christian Maeso, Carles Morales, Rafael Obrador, Eva Abarca, Inés Carrera
Cases of cycad toxicosis have been described in dogs that have presented with gastrointestinal, hematologic, hepatic, neurological, and carcinogenic signs. This case report describes brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in a dog with gastrointestinal and neurological signs secondary to cycad toxicosis. A 5-year-old neutered female Jack Russell terrier presented with a 2-days history of gastroenteric signs, progressive generalized tremors, and altered mentation after possible ingestion of Cycad revoluta ...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Dominique Endres, Sebastian Rauer, Nils Venhoff, Patrick Süß, Rick Dersch, Kimon Runge, Bernd L Fiebich, Kathrin Nickel, Miriam Matysik, Simon Maier, Katharina Domschke, Karl Egger, Harald Prüss, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: In a subgroup of patients with mood disorders, clear-cut organic disorders are responsible for depressive symptoms (e.g., autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis or systemic lupus erythematosus). In these cases, an organic affective disorder can be diagnosed. Case Presentation: The authors present the case of a 59-year-old male patient who developed a severe depressive episode over approximately 6 months and was, therefore, admitted to the hospital...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jarred Garfinkle, Ting Guo, Anne Synnes, Vann Chau, Helen M Branson, Steven Ufkes, Emily Wy Tam, Ruth E Grunau, Steven P Miller
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) size and location and preschool-age neurodevelopment in very preterm neonates. METHODS: Preterm MRIs of 221 very preterm neonates (median GA 27.9) were manually segmented for CBH quantification and location. Neurodevelopmental assessments at chronological age 4.5 years included motor (MABC-2), visuomotor integration (Beery VMI-6), cognitive (WPPSI-III), and behavioral (CBCL) outcomes. Multivariable linear regression models examined the association between CBH size and 4...
September 12, 2020: Annals of Neurology
Jennifer S Rabin, Taylor E Neal, Hannah E Nierle, Sietske A M Sikkes, Rachel F Buckley, Rebecca E Amariglio, Kathryn V Papp, Dorene M Rentz, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Trey Hedden
OBJECTIVE: To identify a parsimonious set of markers that optimally predicts subsequent clinical progression from normal to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: 250 clinically normal adults (mean age = 73.6 years, SD = 6.0) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study were assessed at baseline on a wide set of markers, including magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter lesions, fractional anisotropy, resting state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, and a measure of vascular risk...
August 28, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"