Sahatsa Mandee, Kusuma Buachai, Naiyana Aroonpruksakul, Niramol Tantemsapya, Tarinee Buasuk
INTRODUCTION:  Wound dressing, a procedure that pediatric patients are commonly exposed to postoperatively, can cause strong physiological and pain behavioral responses despite being brief. This study evaluated the effects of using 24% sucrose plus a pacifier versus a pacifier alone to reduce the pain response from dressing wounds in neonates and infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Thirty-two neonates and infants who underwent surgery and required postoperative wound dressing were randomized to a pacifier group ( n  = 16) and a 24% sucrose plus pacifier group ("sucrose group"; n  = 16)...
September 17, 2020: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Natascha Büchele, Lucas Keller, Anja C Zeller, Freya Schrietter, Julia Treiber, Peter M Gollwitzer, Michael Odenwald
OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions based on personalized feedback have shown promising results in reducing risky alcohol use among university students. We investigated the effects of activating deliberative (predecisional) or implemental (postdecisional) mindsets on the effectiveness of a standardized brief intervention, the ASSIST-linked Brief Intervention. This intervention comprises a personalized feedback and a decisional balance exercise. We hypothesized that participants in a deliberative mindset should show better outcomes related to risk perception and behavior than participants in an implemental mindset...
2020: PloS One
Hui-Chen Chen, Jeanette Ignacio, Piyanee Yobas
BACKGROUND: Health assessments are a vital competency required of nurses. The more traditional ways of teaching and learning this skill require practice and are often limited by time constraints. With the rise of technology-based platforms, students can supplement their learning health assessment skills through other means, such as videos, that not only teach the steps but also allow them to learn in context. OBJECTIVES: This study describes how a symptom-focused health assessment and empathy (SHAE) program, which primarily involves the use of a case-based health assessment video, was implemented and evaluated...
August 30, 2020: Nurse Education Today
Shuang Zhang, Qi Zhu, Jia-Yue Chen, Defang OuYang, Jia-Hong Lu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently incurable and there is an urgent need to develop new AD drugs. Many studies have revealed the potential neuroprotective effect of Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the main antioxidant in green tea, on animal models of AD. However, a systematic review of these reports is lacking. PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of EGCG for AD treatment using systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed up to November 2019 in the following electronic databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed...
August 31, 2020: Phytomedicine
Shadi Beshai, Christine Bueno, Mabel Yu, Justin R Feeney, Adrian Pitariu
OBJECTIVES: The demand for effective psychological treatments for depression, anxiety, and heightened stress is far outstripping their supply. Accordingly, internet delivered, self-help interventions offer hope to many people, as they can be easily accessed and at a fraction of the price of face-to-face options. Mindfulness and self-compassion are particularly exciting approaches, as evidence suggests interventions that cultivate these skills are effective in reducing depression, anxiety, and heightened stress...
September 10, 2020: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Aino Suomi, Nina Lucas, Morag McArthur, Cathy Humphreys, Timothy Dobbins, Stephanie Taplin
BACKGROUND: There is an identified need to improve the evidence-base in relation to contact visits for children in the out-of-home-care (OOHC) system, to ensure optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to test the effectiveness of a contact intervention for parents having supervised contact with children in long-term OOHC. PARTICIPANTS: 183 study children in 15 clusters (OOHC services) and their parent(s) were randomized to the intervention (8 clusters, 100 children) and control groups (7 clusters, 83 children) in three Australian jurisdictions...
September 14, 2020: Child Abuse & Neglect
Matthew Holek, Faris Bdair, Mohammed Khan, Michael Walsh, P J Devereaux, Stephen D Walter, Lehana Thabane, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often used to inform clinical practice and it is desirable that their results be robust. A fragility index (FI), defined as the smallest number of participants in whom an outcome change from non-event to event would turn a statistically significant result to a non-significant result, can be computed to measure robustness. We sought to determine the distribution of fragility indices across various research areas and summarized the factors associated with fragility...
September 14, 2020: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Elizabeth L Addington, Shireen Javandel, Victor De Gruttola, Robert Paul, Benedetta Milanini, Beau M Ances, Judith T Moskowitz, Victor Valcour
The symptom burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is high among older individuals, and treatment options are limited. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has potential to improve neurocognitive performance, psychosocial wellbeing, and quality of life, but empirical studies in this growing vulnerable population are lacking. In this trial, participants (N = 180) age 55 and older who are living with HIV infection, are on combination antiretroviral therapy with suppressed viral loads, and yet continue to experience behavioral and cognitive symptoms of HAND, are randomized to MBSR or to a waitlist control arm that receives MBSR following a 16-week period of standard care...
September 14, 2020: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Andrew J Morrow, Thomas J Ford, Kenneth Mangion, Tushar Kotecha, Roby Rakhit, Gavin Galasko, Stephen Hoole, Anthony Davenport, Rajesh Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira, Mayooran Shanmuganathan, Amedeo Chiribiri, Divaka Perera, Haseeb Rahman, Jayanth R Arnold, John P Greenwood, Michael Fisher, Dirk Husmeier, Nicholas A Hill, Xiaoyu Luo, Nicola Williams, Laura Miller, Jill Dempster, Peter W Macfarlane, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Andrew Whittaker, Alex Mc Connachie, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Colin Berry
Microvascular angina is caused by cardiac small vessel disease, and dysregulation of the endothelin system is implicated. The minor G allele of the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9349379 enhances expression of the endothelin 1 gene in human vascular cells, increasing circulating concentrations of ET-1. The prevalence of this allele is higher in patients with ischemic heart disease. Zibotentan is a potent, selective inhibitor of the ETA receptor. We have identified zibotentan as a potential disease-modifying therapy for patients with microvascular angina...
July 17, 2020: American Heart Journal
Philipp Gauckler, Jae Il Shin, Federico Alberici, Vincent Audard, Annette Bruchfeld, Martin Busch, Chee Kay Cheung, Matija Crnogorac, Elisa Delbarba, Kathrin Eller, Stanislas Faguer, Kresimir Galesic, Siân Griffin, Zdenka Hrušková, Anushya Jeyabalan, Alexandre Karras, Catherine King, Harbir Singh Kohli, Rutger Maas, Gert Mayer, Sergey Moiseev, Masahiro Muto, Balazs Odler, Ruth J Pepper, Luis F Quintana, Jai Radhakrishnan, Raja Ramachandran, Alan D Salama, Mårten Segelmark, Vladimír Tesař, Jack Wetzels, Lisa Willcocks, Martin Windpessl, Ladan Zand, Reza Zonozi, Andreas Kronbichler
Primary forms of minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are rare podocytopathies and clinically characterized by nephrotic syndrome. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone of the initial immunosuppressive treatment in these two entities. Especially among adults with minimal change disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, relapses, steroid dependence or resistance are common and necessitate re-initiation of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Effective steroid-sparing therapies and introduction of less toxic immunosuppressive agents are urgently needed to reduce undesirable side effects, in particular for patients whose disease course is complex...
September 14, 2020: Autoimmunity Reviews
Xin Su, Guiyang Li, Yingjian Deng, Dong Chang
Dyslipidemia is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease development, posing serious risks to human health. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is responsible for exchange of neutral lipids, such as cholesteryl ester and TG, between plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) containing lipoprotein particles. Genetic studies suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) with loss of activity CETP is associated with increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, and cardiovascular risk...
September 14, 2020: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Kerry Mills, Greg Marchand, Katelyn Sainz, Ali Azadi, Kelly Ware, Janelle Vallejo, Sienna Anderson, Alexa King, Asya Osborn, Stacy Ruther, Giovanna Brazil, Kaitlynne Cieminski, Sophia Hopewell, Lisa Rials, Angela Klipp
OBJECTIVE: Following strong evidence and major organizations recommending salpingectomy over tubal ligation, we sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the intraoperative attributes and complication rates associated with these two procedures. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and clinical trials registries without time or language restrictions. The search was carried out in February 2020. Database searches revealed 74 potential studies, of which 11 were examined at the full-text level...
September 14, 2020: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Asim Shaikh, Rohan Kumar Ochani, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Haris Riaz, Safi U Khan, Jayakumar Sreenivasan, Farouk Mookadam, Rami Doukky, Javed Butler, Erin D Michos, Ankur Kalra, Richard A Krasuski
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs) typically set composite endpoints as the primary outcome to enhance statistical power. However, influence of individual component endpoints on overall composite outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for RCTs published in 6 high impact journals (the Lancet, the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and the European Heart Journal) from 2011 to 2017...
September 14, 2020: American Heart Journal
Virginia A Stallings, Alyssa M Tindall, Maria R Mascarenhas, Asim Maqbool, Joan I Schall
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232685.].
2020: PloS One
Risako Mikami, Koji Mizutani, Yoshiyuki Sasaki, Takanori Iwata, Akira Aoki
Adjunctive use of laser devices as high reactive-level laser/light therapy (HLLT) or photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for periodontal therapy is known to be more effective on suppressing pain than conventional therapy, however, there are no systematic reviews addressed its effectiveness. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to investigate the following clinical question (CQ): does adjunctive use of lasers with conventional therapy suppress the pain associated with periodontal treatment? A systematic and extensive literature search was performed to summarize the currently available knowledge to answer the CQ using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted before June 2020...
2020: PloS One
Francesca Tamarozzi, John Horton, Marin Muhtarov, Michael Ramharter, Mar Siles-Lucas, Beate Gruener, Dominique A Vuitton, Solange Bresson-Hadni, Tommaso Manciulli, Enrico Brunetti
Cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis are chronic, neglected parasitic diseases burdened by high morbidity and, for AE, by high mortality, if left untreated. CE and AE have a widespread distribution, including Europe. Albendazole (ABZ), a broad-spectrum benzimidazole drug widely used to treat parasitic infections, is the drug of choice for the management of CE and AE, and is parasitostatic on echinococcal metacestodes. In Europe, ABZ is licensed for interrupted "cyclic" treatment, for a maximum of 3 cycles...
September 2020: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francesco Vassalli, Serge Masson, Jennifer Meessen, Iacopo Pasticci, Matteo Bonifazi, Luigi Vivona, Pietro Caironi, Mattia Busana, Lorenzo Giosa, Matteo Maria Macrì, Federica Romitti, Deborah Novelli, Michael Quintel, Roberto Latini, Luciano Gattinoni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the behavior of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), troponin T (hsTnT), N-terminal pro-B type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) in sepsis and their relationships with sepsis severity and oxygen transport/utilization impairment. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of PTX3, hsTnT, NT-proBNP levels at day 1, 2 and 7 after admission in the intensive care unit in a subset of the ALBIOS database SETTING:: 40 Italian intensive care units. PATIENTS: 958 septic patients enrolled in the randomized clinical trial comparing albumin replacement plus crystalloids and crystalloids alone INTERVENTIONS:: The patients were divided in sextiles of lactate (marker of severity), ScvO2 (marker of oxygen transport) and fluid balance (marker of therapeutic strategy)...
May 14, 2020: Shock
Kyra L A Cloosterman, Tryntsje Fokkema, Robert-Jan de Vos, Sita M A Bierma-Zeinstra, Marienke van Middelkoop
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consequences and prognostic factors of running-related knee injuries (RRKIs) among recreational runners. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: This study is part of a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) on running injury prevention among recreational runners. At baseline during registration for a running event (5-42 km), demographic and training variables were collected. Participants who reported a new RRKI during follow-up were sent a knee-specific questionnaire at 16 months (range 11...
September 15, 2020: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Shgufta Docter, Zina Fathalla, Michael J Lukacs, Michaela C M Khan, Morgan Jennings, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Susan Dong, Alan Getgood, Dianne M Bryant
BACKGROUND: The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement recommends that studies report results beyond p values and include treatment effect(s) and measures of precision (e.g., confidence intervals [CIs]) to facilitate the interpretation of results. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the reporting and interpretation of patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) results in clinical studies from high-impact orthopaedic journals, to determine the proportion of studies that (1) only reported a p value; (2) reported a treatment effect, CI, or minimal clinically important difference (MCID); and (3) offered an interpretation of the results beyond interpreting a p value...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Mariya Kononenko, William H Frishman
Arsenic is a ubiquitously dispersed metalloid that has been implicated as the cause of various adverse health effects. Human exposure to arsenic primarily occurs through contaminated drinking water and dietary intake of rice and grains, posing a great public health risk to millions of people worldwide. High levels of arsenic have been positively associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has established a role for low-to-moderate arsenic exposure in CVD risk as well...
September 15, 2020: Cardiology in Review
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