Sara Uccella, Elisa De Grandis, Fabrizio De Carli, Maria D'Apruzzo, Laura Siri, Deborah Preiti, Sonia Di Profio, Serena Rebora, Paola Cimellaro, Alessandra Biolcati Rinaldi, Cristina Venturino, Paolo Petralia, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Lino Nobili
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals' lifestyles to a great extent, particularly in Italy. Although many concerns about it have been highlighted, its impact on children and adolescents has scarcely been examined. The purpose of this study was to explore behavioral consequences and coping strategies related to the pandemic among families in Italy, by focusing on developmental ages from the caregivers' perspective, 3 weeks into quarantine. An exploratory cross-sectional online survey was conducted over 14 days...
2021: Frontiers in Public Health
Jeffrey M Goessling, Mary T Mendonça
With a growing number of species of conservation concern, understanding the physiological effects of routine sampling of vertebrate species remains a priority to maintain the welfare status of wildlife and ensure such activities are not counter to conservation goals. The gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus ) is a species of conservation concern throughout its range and is among the most frequently trapped turtles globally (for both research and conservation activities). Several studies have found equivocal results on the effects of trapping and handling on the glucocorticoid stress response...
2021: Conservation Physiology
Rebeca García Pinillos
One Welfare describes the interconnection between animal welfare, human wellbeing and their physical and social environment. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the cause of COVID-19 and emerged as a human pathogen in 2019 although is thought to have a zoonotic source. The original wildlife reservoir and any potential intermediate hosts have not yet been identified. The combination of the virus zoonotic condition together with the impacts of disease control measures has exposed clear interconnections between animals, people and their environment from both a health and a welfare perspective...
February 16, 2021: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Michael M Driessen
The COVID-19 pandemic provides a rare opportunity to reveal the impact of reduced human activity on wildlife. I compared traffic volume and wildlife roadkill data along 18 km of highway before, during and after a 3-month period of COVID-19 restrictions with baseline data from the previous four years. Three marsupial herbivores comprised 89% of the 1820 roadkills recorded during the 4.5-year survey period: rufous-bellied pademelon Thylogale billardierii (31.5% of total), common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula (29...
February 17, 2021: Biological Conservation
S Farrell, C McKernan, T Benson, C Elliott, M Dean
To tackle antimicrobial resistance, it is vital that farmers' and veterinarians' antimicrobial use behaviors and attitudes toward resistance are understood so that we can identify how beliefs and motives influence practices. Current literature details qualitative and quantitative research that explores the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of dairy farmers and veterinarians with respect to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial practices, and the reported findings are varied and conflicting. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence and knowledge gaps in the published literature...
February 18, 2021: Journal of Dairy Science
Miguel Ángel Silva Salas, Jaime Mondragón-Ancelmo, María Del Rosario Jiménez Badillo, Gabriela Rodríguez Licea, Fabio Napolitano
We aimed to verify whether a low number of relevant animal-based indicators was able to discriminate 33 semi-intensive (grazing during the day and confinement during the night with access to an outdoor paddock; S-INT) and 8 intensive farms (permanent confinement with access to an outdoor paddock; INT) located in the Mexican semi-desert. In addition, we implemented the resource-based assessment scheme Animal Needs Index (ANI) with the identified animal-based indicators to compare the overall level of welfare in INT and S-INT...
February 18, 2021: Journal of Dairy Science
Hyeoun-Ae Park, Seung-Jong Yu, Hyesil Jung
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to introduce the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to describe use cases of SNOMED CT with the barriers and facilitators, and finally, to propose strategies for adopting and implementing SNOMED CT in Korea as a member of SNOMED International. METHODS: We reviewed a collection of SNOMED CT documents, such as introductory materials, practical guides, technical specifications, and reference materials provided by SNOMED International and the literature on SNOMED CT published by researchers to identify use cases of SNOMED CT with barriers and facilitators...
January 2021: Healthcare Informatics Research
Alain Ratnadass, Jean-Philippe Deguine
Recent viral zoonotic epidemics have been attributed partially to the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem biodiversity. Agricultural activities, particularly conventional crop protection (CP) practices, are a major threat to global biodiversity, ecosystem health and human health. Here we review interactions between CP practices and viral zoonoses (VZs), the first time this has been done. It should be noted that a) VZs stand at the interface between human, animal and ecosystem health; b) some VZs involve arthropod vectors that are affected by CP practices; and c) some crop pests, or their natural enemies are vertebrate reservoirs/carriers of certain VZs, and their contact with humans or domestic animals is affected by CP practices...
February 10, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Tamara Waldmann, Maja Stiawa, Ümügülsüm Dinc, Gülsah Saglam, Mareike Busmann, Anne Daubmann, Bonnie Adema, Karl Wegscheider, Silke Wiegand-Grefe, Reinhold Kilian
BACKGROUND: Children of parents with mental illness have a higher risk of developing mental health problems when compared with the general population. Therefore, families with parents with mental illness are a suitable target group for selective prevention. In order to plan and evaluate the health economic consequences of preventive interventions for this target group, data on the societal costs related to parenthood under the condition of mental disorders are needed. To date, within Germany there has been a lack of research evaluating the costs of mental health treatment and use of social services by children and adolescents with parents with mental illness...
February 20, 2021: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
J R D Allison, C A da Silva, M A Callegari, C Pazinato Dias, K Lais L de Souza, E R de Oliveira, J V Peloso, E Poleze, C K Mah, D Lin, A Aldaz
Reproductive cycling in fattening gilts can be associated with undesirable effects, such as estrus-related aggressive behavior, reduced feed intake and, in production systems where gilts are co-housed with entire males, unwanted pregnancy. Immunization against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor (IM) can temporarily suppress ovarian activity, including related negative consequences on animal welfare and productivity. Feed intake has been shown to be higher after IM, resulting in both increased growth and increased carcass fat...
February 5, 2021: Research in Veterinary Science
Una Foye, Christian Dalton-Locke, Jasmine Harju-Seppänen, Rebecca Lane, Lewys Beames, Norha Vera San Juan, Sonia Johnson, Alan Simpson
INTRODUCTION: While evidence has emerged concerning the impact of Covid-19 on the general population and the challenges facing health services, much less is known regarding how the pandemic has directly affected the delivery of mental health nursing care. AIM: This paper aims to explore how Covid-19 has affected the ability of mental health nurses to deliver care in community and inpatient mental health services in the UK. METHOD: We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental healthcare and mental health service users in the UK, using a mixed methods online survey...
February 20, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Julie Pétrin, Marcia Finlayson, Catherine Donnelly, Mary Ann McColl
Canada has one of the highest rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the world, affecting 1 in every 385 individuals. This neurodegenerative condition is unpredictable and variable in symptom profile and disease course making it difficult to manage. Canadians with MS are high users of healthcare services; however, they report multiple unmet needs, high disease burden, and low satisfaction with healthcare. Access to healthcare is vital to health maintenance and may explain these poor experiences. Access is often measured using utilisation as a proxy, which may fail to capture the complexities of access experiences that this population faces...
February 19, 2021: Health & Social Care in the Community
David Russell, Dawn Dowding, Marygrace Trifilio, Margaret V McDonald, Jiyoun Song, Victoria Adams, Marietta I Ojo, Eun K Perry, Jingjing Shang
There has been limited research into the individual, social, and environmental factors for infection risk among patients in the home healthcare (HHC) setting, where the infection is a leading cause of hospitalisation. The aims of this study were to (1) explore nurse perceptions of individual, social, and environmental factors for infection risk among HHC patients; and (2) identify the frequency of environmental barriers to infection prevention and control in HHC. Data were collected in 2017-2018 and included qualitative interviews with HHC nurses (n = 50) and structured observations of nurse visits to patients' homes (n = 400)...
February 19, 2021: Health & Social Care in the Community
Ana Catarina Vieira de Castro, Ângelo Araújo, André Fonseca, I Anna S Olsson
Dogs play an important role in our society as companions and work partners, and proper training of these dogs is pivotal. For companion dogs, training helps preventing or managing dog behavioral problems-the most frequently cited reason for relinquishing and euthanasia, and it promotes successful dog-human relationships and thus maximizes benefits humans derive from bonding with dogs. For working dogs, training is crucial for them to successfully accomplish their jobs. Dog training methods range widely from those using predominantly aversive stimuli (aversive methods), to those combining aversive and rewarding stimuli (mixed methods) and those focusing on the use of rewards (reward methods)...
2021: PloS One
Celine Stoica, Georgina Cox
The antimicrobial resistance crisis is a Global Health challenge that impacts humans, animals, and the environment alike. In response to increased demands for animal protein and by-products, there has been a substantial increase in the use of antimicrobial agents in the animal industry. Indeed, they are extensively used to prevent, control, and/or treat disease in animals. In addition to infection control, in-feed supplementation with antimicrobials became common practice for growth promotion of livestock. Unfortunately, the global overuse of antimicrobials has contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance...
February 19, 2021: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jorge Rodrigues, Catarina Gouveia, Madalena Almeida Santos, Olga Costa, Rita Côrte-Real, Maria João Brito
AIM: The diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) depends on accurate and rapid testing. Choosing an appropriate sample may impact diagnosis. Naso-oropharyngeal swabs (NOS) are most frequently used, despite several limitations. Since studies suggest nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) as a superior alternative in children, we hypothesised collecting both nasopharyngeal swab and aspirate would improve our diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, prospective study from 7 March to 7 May in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Lisbon...
February 19, 2021: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Laia Calvó-Perxas, Joan Vilalta-Franch, Howard Litwin, Pedro Mira, Josep Garre-Olmo
Caregiving has negative effects on the health of informal caregivers. The current aging of the population predicts an increase in the number of informal caregivers worldwide. The effect of available public policies that support informal caregivers in their self-perceived health is an understudied topic. We analyzed the differences in the effects of public support policies in 11 European countries using longitudinal data from waves 5 and 6 of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. In this cohort, 2303 respondents were in-house informal caregivers...
February 11, 2021: Health Policy
Laura Bui, Takemi Mori, Akira Furukawa, Akiko Tasaka
BACKGROUND: Substance use and victimization are known to be related to juvenile recidivism. Self-harm, a factor that commonly accompanies substance use and victimization, is not known to be related to said recidivism but may be so in a welfare-oriented juvenile justice system as found in Japan. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which maladaptive coping, comprising substance use and self-harm, increases the rate of persistence in correctional institutions in light of other well-replicated factors of youth recidivism...
February 15, 2021: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kazuki Iio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2021: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yuto Otsubo, Shigemi Yoshihara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2021: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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