B Foris, H-G Haas, J Langbein, N Melzer
Regrouping is common practice when managing dairy cow groups, and it is known to have disruptive effects on behavior and production. The presence of a small group of familiar cows upon regrouping may provide social support and mitigate some of the negative effects. In this study we investigated (1) how regrouping affects social relationships among familiar cows and (2) if cows prefer familiar individuals over unfamiliar ones as social partners after regrouping. We used 3 established groups of cows to create 2 new groups, each containing 14 cows, using subgroups of familiar animals (i...
January 14, 2021: Journal of Dairy Science
Jing Wang, Yanhong Jessika Hu, Susan Clifford, Sharon Goldfeld, Melissa Wake
While birth cohorts are shaped by underpinning life course frameworks, few if any report how they select them. This review aimed to (1) summarise publicly available frameworks relevant to planning and communicating large new early-life cohorts and (2) help select frameworks to guide and communicate Generation Victoria (GenV), a whole-of-state birth and parent cohort in planning in the state of Victoria, Australia. We identified potential frameworks from prior knowledge, networks and a pragmatic literature search in 2019...
January 18, 2021: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
M M Mialon, X Boivin, D Durand, A Boissy, E Delval, A S Bage, C Clanet, F Cornilleau, C Parias, A Foury, M P Moisan, T Fassier, D Marcon, L A Guilloteau, R Nowak
The common practice of artificially rearing lambs from prolific meat breeds of sheep constitutes a welfare issue due to increased mortality rates and negative health issues. In this multidisciplinary study, we investigated the possible short- and mid-term advantages of artificially feeding fresh ewe's milk instead of commercial milk replacer on lambs' growth, health and welfare. Romane lambs were either separated from their mothers on D3 and fed with Lacaune ewes' milk (LAC, n = 13) or milk replacer (REP, n = 15), or they were reared by their mothers (MOT, n = 15)...
January 13, 2021: Animal
M Gertz, J Krieter
Comprehensive identification of on-farm animal-health issues still requires extensive efforts so that in practice such monitoring is applied only sparsely. An appealing approach to improve on-farm animal health and welfare monitoring is the application of organ lesion scoring data from the abattoir as such is instantly available for every commercial farm in Europe. Unfortunately, it is also well-known that organ lesion scoring is often unreliable because results are altered by several non-health-related factors, diluting the validity of lesion scoring prevalence as a proxy for on-farm animal health...
January 7, 2021: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kunal Das, Manish Raturi, Nitika Agrawal, Mansi Kala, Anuradha Kusum
The National Blood Transfusion Services under the aegis of the ministry of health and family welfare, India has recently issued guidelines regarding the blood donor selection criteria and the processing of blood. Care has been taken to make the blood transfusions safer. However, COVID-19 has disrupted the organization of the voluntary blood donation drives, whole blood donations [WBD] and restricted the donors' movement to the blood transfusion centres all across the world. While sickness and the need for transfusions are very much in place, the gap of demand against blood collection has widened...
January 13, 2021: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Carmen Sarabia-Cobo, Rosario Fernández-Peña, J M Taltavull, Gina Lladó-Jordan, Silvia González, Jesús Molina-Mula, Carmen Ortego-Mate
The aim of this research is to explore and analyse the functional status and experiences of complex patients located at levels 3-4 of the risk pyramid of the chronic care model in primary care, within the hospital system of two regions in Spain. The design was a mixed design (COREQ). The participants were enrolled in programs for chronic complex patients and their caregivers. Sociodemographic variables were gathered, together with the following measures: the Barthel test, the Mini mental test, the Zarit questionnaire, the IEXPAC scale and the Braden scale...
January 16, 2021: Health & Social Care in the Community
Marcel Leist
Handling of chemicals is an often-neglected area of test descriptions. Some important aspects are highlighted here, using methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·xH2O) and ciguatoxin as example compounds. These are used to provide some background on aspects of acid-base equilibria, redox state, crystal water, natural compound mixtures, and chemical naming systems. Also, solvents and impurities are addressed, for instance concerning their often high (millimolar range) concentrations in assay buffers and cell culture media...
2021: ALTEX
Katarzyna S Kopanska, Marcus Rimann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: ALTEX
Miriam A Zemanova, Silvia Frey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: ALTEX
Tilo Weber, Kristina Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: ALTEX
Janine McCarthy, Kathrin Herrmann, Kristie Sullivan, Esther Haugabrooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: ALTEX
Francesca Caloni, Alessandra Cazzaniga, Isabella De Angelis, Paola Fossati, Gianfranco Mormino, Marco Pedrazzi, Giulio Casati, Yula Sambuy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: ALTEX
Jeffrey Brown, Amy J Clippinger, Claire Fritz Briglia, Warren Casey, Kelly Coleman, Anja Fritsch, Thomas Hartung, Djik Maouyo, Thierry Muller, Johannes Reich, Laure Robert, Ruth Roeder, Guillermo Sanchez, Anita Y Sawyer, Shabnam Solati, Radhakrishna Tirumalai, Walter Zwisler, David Allen
Monocyte activation tests (MAT) are widely available but rarely used in place of animal-based pyrogen tests for safety assessment of medical devices. To address this issue, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Eval-uation of Alternative Toxicological Methods and the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. convened a workshop at the National Institutes of Health on September 18-19, 2018. Participants included representatives from MAT testing laboratories, medical device manufacturers, the U...
2021: ALTEX
Costanza Rovida, Sylvia E Escher, Matthias Herzler, Susanne H Bennekou, Hennicke Kamp, Dinant E Kroese, Lidka Maslankiewicz, Martijn J Moné, Grace Patlewicz, Nisha Sipes, Leon Van Aerts, Andrew White, Takashi Yamada, Bob Van de Water
The use of new approach methodologies (NAMs) in support of read-across (RAx) approaches for regulatory purposes is a main goal of the EU-ToxRisk project. To bring this forward, EU-ToxRisk partners convened a workshop in close collaboration with regulatory representatives from key organizations including European regulatory agencies, such as the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS), national agencies from several European countries, Japan, Canada and the USA, as well as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...
2021: ALTEX
Thomas Hartung
The whole blood pyrogen test invented 25 years ago, and its variant based on cryo-preserved blood one year later, brought momentum into the field of pyrogen testing, which, despite the broad application of the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, aka bacterial endotoxin test (BET), consumed several hundred thousand rabbits per year world-wide. The resulting international validation and lengthy acceptance and implementation process of what are called now monocyte activation tests (MATs) finally is impacting on animal numbers - at least in Europe - reducing them by more than 70% and counting...
2021: ALTEX
Birgitta van Bodegraven, Victoria Palin, Chirag Mistry, Matthew Sperrin, Andrew White, William Welfare, Darren M Ashcroft, Tjeerd Pieter van Staa
OBJECTIVE: Determine the association of incident antibiotic prescribing levels for common infections with infection-related complications and hospitalisations by comparing high with low prescribing general practitioner practices. DESIGN RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: UK primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD GOLD) and SAIL Databank (SAIL) linked with Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data, including 546 CPRD, 346 CPRD-HES and 338 SAIL-HES practices...
January 15, 2021: BMJ Open
N Bagheri, A A Alamouti, M A Norouzian, M Mirzaei, M H Ghaffari
In the dairy calf feeding, supplementation of forage to the starter feed is commonly practiced. However, data are insufficient about how changes in particle size (PS) of forage affect calf performance and behavior in a free-choice forage provision system. This study aimed to assess the effects of supplementing wheat straw varying in PS on performance, skeletal growth characteristics, ruminal pH, nutritional behaviors, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty-eight Holstein calves (43.8 ± 3.2 kg of BW) from d 15 of age were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 12/treatment; six males and six females): (1) starter without wheat straw supplementation (CON), (2) CON supplemented with wheat straw chopped at 1 mm geometrical mean particle length (GMPL) (fine PS), (3) CON supplemented with wheat straw at 4 mm GMPL (medium PS), and (4) CON supplemented with wheat straw at 7 mm GMPL (long PS)...
December 24, 2020: Animal
Marcin Sońta, Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek, Martyna Batorska, Kamila Puppel
This study aimed to explain the possibility of partial replacement of genetically-modified soybean meal (SBM GM) with pea seeds and rapeseed meal (RSM) in complete feed mixtures for growing-finishing pigs and to determine its impact on meat quality and health-promoting indices. The pigs (n = 50) were randomly divided into five groups, 10 animals each (gilts and barrows, 1:1, 3-breed: ♀ (landrace × yorkshire) × ♂ duroc), including the control group (C) and four experimental groups (E1, E2, E3, E4), and fed complete feed mixtures...
January 13, 2021: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ana Martins-Bessa, Miguel Quaresma, Belén Leiva, Ana Calado, Francisco Javier Navas González
The aim of the present study is to define and compare the predictive power of two different Bayesian models for donkey sperm quality after the evaluation of linear and combined testicular biometry indices and their relationship with age and body weight (BW). Testicular morphometry was ultrasonographically obtained from 23 donkeys (six juveniles and 17 adults), while 40 ejaculates from eight mature donkeys were analyzed for sperm output and quality assessment. Bayesian linear regression analyses were considered to build two statistical models using gel-free volume, concentration, total sperm number, motility, total motile sperm, and morphology as dependent variables...
January 13, 2021: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Tanapan Sukee, Ian Beveridge, Abdul Jabbar
The strongyloid nematodes belonging to the subfamily Phascolostrongylinae occur primarily in the large intestines of macropodid and vombatid marsupials. Current molecular evidence suggests that the two nematode species, Macropostrongyloides dissimilis and Paramacropostrongylus toraliformis , from macropodid marsupials are distant from their respective congeners. Furthermore, specimens of Macropostrongyloides lasiorhini from the large intestines of the southern hairy-nosed wombat ( Lasiorhinus latifrons ) and the common wombat ( Vombatus ursinus ) are genetically distinct...
January 13, 2021: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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