Maja Fuglsang Palmer
Informal carers play a vital part to ensuring that individuals in need of care, due to illness or disability, continue to experience a good quality of life. Care provision has been studied extensively, however, little is known about the associations of discontinuing care. This knowledge is important not only to ensure that informal carers are supported, even after caring episode, but also to ensure the care-recipients are not left without support. By conducting longitudinal analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), this paper uniquely starts to unveil the associations of discontinuing the caring role and the patterns of care provision prior to discontinuing...
November 26, 2020: Health & Social Care in the Community
Marie O'Neill, Assumpta Ryan, Anne Tracey, Liz Laird
This grounded theory study sought to explore how older adults' experience the transition from living at home to a care home with a specific focus on the latter part of the first year of the move. The study was carried out within a large Health Trust in the UK between August 2017 and May 2019. Purposive sampling was used in the initial stages of data collection. Thereafter and consistent with grounded theory methodology, theoretical sampling was employed to undertake semi-structured interviews with 17 individuals from eight care homes between 5 and 12 months after the move...
November 26, 2020: Health & Social Care in the Community
Meighan Mary, Sadiqua Jafarey, Rasha Dabash, Imtiaz Kamal, Arjumand Rabbani, Dina Abbas, Jill Durocher, Yi-Ling Tan, Beverly Winikoff
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a Family First Aid approach whereby women and their families are provided misoprostol in advance to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in home births. METHODS: A 12-month prospective, pre-post intervention study was conducted from February 2017 to February 2018. Women in their second and third trimesters were enrolled at home visits. Participants and their families received educational materials and were counseled on how to diagnose excessive bleeding and the importance of seeking care at a facility if PPH occurs...
November 26, 2020: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Rebecca Reno, Emily Warming, Claudia Zaugg, Kate Marx, Cheri Pies
PURPOSE: As theories about the causes of racial inequities in infant mortality evolve, they are becoming increasingly complex. Interventions to address these inequities must be similarly complex, incorporating both upstream and downstream approaches. DESCRIPTION: The Best Babies Zone Initiative (BBZ) has been in operation since 2012 with an aim of reducing racial inequities in infant mortality. BBZ is designed to be flexible and responsive to the conditions creating toxic stress in communities of color...
November 26, 2020: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Kaia M Schwartz, Caitlin E Martin, Heather S Hipp, Jennifer F Kawwass
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive life planning is an important aspect of OBGYN resident education. Despite learning about declining fertility and the implications associated with delaying pregnancy, OBGYN residents overestimate the age when fertility declines and fertility treatment success rates. OBJECTIVE: To characterize attitudes towards infertility, pregnancy timing, and fertility preservation among OBGYN residents at academic programs in the United States. METHODS: Cross sectional study of female trainees from 27 academic OBGYN residency programs...
November 26, 2020: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Rebecca Rebbe, Sharan E Brown, Rebecca A Matter, Joseph A Mienko
OBJECTIVES: Concerns have been raised that parents with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) interact with child protective services (CPS) at disproportionate rates than the general population as a result of bias and discrimination. However, there has been little empirical evidence to ascertain if these concerns are grounded. This study's objectives were to identify (a) the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of children born to mothers diagnosed with IDD diagnoses, (b) how many of these children interact with CPS (reports and removals) and (c) when these CPS interactions are occurring...
November 26, 2020: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Vivek Rajasekaran, Helen M Evans, Amin J Roberts, Craig Jefferies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2020: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Marc Le Blanc
BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed...
August 2020: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Maryam Ahmadi, Babak Khorsandi, Mahmoud Mesbah
Numerous studies have determined the adverse effects of air pollution on the health, welfare, and comfort of humans. More recently, the effects of air pollution on cognitive performance of humans are also focused. However, as a group in direct exposure to air pollution, drivers are rarely studied. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of air pollution on the performance of drivers. Their performance is evaluated by observing the number of recorded accidents. The effect of pollutant concentration (primarily PM2...
November 26, 2020: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guilherme Amorim Franchi, Margit Bak Jensen, Mette S Herskin, David M McNeill, Clive J C Phillips
We used spontaneous behaviours to assess response to dry-off involving abrupt dietary and milking frequency changes, followed by regrouping, after the last milking in 15 clinically healthy Holstein-Frisian cows kept outdoors. Moreover, we explored the potential of infrared thermography to detect eye temperature variations possibly induced by dry-off. On days - 1, 0, 1 and 2 relative to dry-off, we recorded whether cows vocalised during feed delivery; ate fresh feed within 5 min; and mean maximum eye temperature at approximately 1 h after feed delivery...
November 25, 2020: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Robert S Salter, R J Markovsky, D W Douglas, S J Saul, A C Tran, D R Legg, J A Schwartz, D M Conaway, L W McRobbie, Emily Kalinowski, Mary Bulthaus
A qualitative 3 min one-step assay for detecting beta-lactam, sulfonamide, and tetracycline antibiotics was validated following milk screening test guidelines developed by FDA-CVM, AOAC-RI, and IDF. The validated 90% detection levels with 95% confidence were: penicillin G 2 part per billion (ppb); amoxicillin 4 ppb; ampicillin 9 ppb; ceftiofur plus metabolites 50 ppb; cloxacillin 9 ppb; cephapirin 15 ppb; sulfadimethoxine 8 ppb; sulfamethazine 9 ppb; chlortetracycline 34 ppb; oxytetracycline 53 ppb; and tetracycline 42 ppb...
September 1, 2020: Journal of AOAC International
Ishita Biswas, Debanjan Mitra, Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Pradeep K Das Mohapatra
Tannase is an inducible industrially important enzyme, produced by several microorganisms. A large number of bacteria have reported as tannase producers; however, some of them are pathogenic in nature. Therefore, it is quite uncertain whether the application of these tannase enzymes from such pathogenic bacteria is suitable for industries and human welfare. Till date, there is no clear evidence regarding which group of bacteria (non-pathogenic or pathogenic) is better suited for their application in the edge of industries with particular reference to the food industry...
November 2020: Heliyon
Paolo Zucca, Marie-Christin Rossmann, Jorge E Osorio, Kevin Karem, Paola De Benedictis, Josef Haißl, Paola De Franceschi, Elisa Calligaris, Michaela Kohlweiß, Giulio Meddi, Wolfgang Gabrutsch, Horst Mairitsch, Oronzo Greco, Roberto Furlani, Marcello Maggio, Massimiliano Tolomei, Alessandro Bremini, Ingrid Fischinger, Paolo Zambotto, Peter Wagner, Yvonne Millard, Manlio Palei, Gianna Zamaro
Illegal animal trade (pet, wildlife, animal products, etc.) is an example of transnational organized crime (T.O.C.) that generates a large business with huge profit margins. This criminal activity causes several negative effects on human health (zoonoses), animal health and welfare, market protection, consumer fraud and may be used as tool of agro/bio-terrorism. Illegal animal trade can facilitate the spread of zoonoses that are defined as diseases and infections that are transmitted by vertebrate animals to man...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jean-Loup Rault, Susanne Waiblinger, Xavier Boivin, Paul Hemsworth
Domestic animals often seek and enjoy interacting with humans. Positive human-animal relationships can elicit positive emotions and other positive welfare outcomes. Nevertheless, our understanding of the underlying processes that govern the positive perception of humans by animals is incomplete. We cover the potential mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of positive human-animal relationships from the perspective of the animal. This encompasses habituation, associative learning, and possibly attachment or bonding based on communication and social cognition...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Fernando O Mardones, Karl M Rich, Lisa A Boden, Andrea I Moreno-Switt, Marisa L Caipo, Natalia Zimin-Veselkoff, Abdulaziz M Alateeqi, Isabelle Baltenweck
We present scientific perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and global food security. International organizations and current evidence based on other respiratory viruses suggests COVID-19 is not a food safety issue, i.e., there is no evidence associating food or food packaging with the transmission of the virus causing COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), yet an abundance of precaution for this exposure route seems appropriate. The pandemic, however, has had a dramatic impact on the food system, with direct and indirect consequences on lives and livelihoods of people, plants, and animals...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Dana Erdtmann, Oliver Keuling
Although the almost worldwide distributed wild boar Sus scrofa is a well-studied species, little is known about the behaviour of autochthonous, free living wild boar in a spatiotemporal context which can help to better understand wild boar in conflict terms with humans and to find solutions. The use of camera traps is a favourable and non-invasive method to study them. To observe natural behaviour, 60 camera traps were placed for three months in a state forest of 17.8 km2 in the region of the Luneburg Heath in northern Germany...
2020: PeerJ
Fábio Pértille, Adriana Mercia Guaratini Ibelli, Maj El Sharif, Mirele Daiana Poleti, Anna Sophie Fröhlich, Shiva Rezaei, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Per Jensen, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
Production animals are constantly subjected to early adverse environmental conditions that influence the adult phenotype and produce epigenetic effects. CpG dinucleotide methylation in red blood cells (RBC) could be a useful epigenetic biomarker to identify animals subjected to chronic stress in the production environment. Here we compared a reduced fraction of the RBC methylome of chickens exposed to social isolation to non-exposed. These experiments were performed in two different locations: Brazil and Sweden...
2020: Frontiers in Genetics
Baran Akagunduz, Muhammet Ozer, Fatih Ozcicek, Ali Veysel Kara, Sahin Lacin, Mustafa Özkaraca, Abdulkadir Çoban, Bahadır Suleyman, Renad Mammadov, Halis Suleyman
Pazopanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is generally used for the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer and advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It can cause various degrees of hepatotoxicity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of taxifolin on pazopanib-induced liver toxicity. A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: the pazopanib (PP), pazopanib plus taxifolin (TPP), and control (C) group. Taxifolin was administered to the TPP (n=6) group with a dose of 50 mg/kg. Distilled water was orally admnistered to the C (n=6) and PP (n=6) groups as a solvent...
November 26, 2020: Experimental Animals
Yuyo Ka, Tomoyuki Ogura, Kayo Tomiyama, Masami Ueno, Ryoko Nozu, Nobuyuki Tsuruzono, Yuya Nozawa, Mariko Hamano, Akira Takakura, Riichi Takahashi
To avoid microbial contamination risk, vinyl film isolators are generally used in animal microbiome experiments involving germ-free (GF) mice and/or gnotobiotic (GB) mice. However, it can take several months to gain expertise in operating the isolator competently. Furthermore, sterilization and sterility testing, which are essential for isolator preparation, can take more than 20 days. Hence, we built an experimental rearing environment that combines an individual ventilation cage system and a bioBUBBLE clean room enclosure to easily set up an experimental animal microbiome environment for animal facilities...
November 25, 2020: Experimental Animals
Katrina Paz D Calimag, Czarina Catherine H Arbis, Therese Marie A Collantes, Jussiaea V Bariuan, Mary Jasmin C Ang, Cleofas A Cervancia, Mark Joseph M Desamero, Maria Amelita C Estacio
Despite decades-long existence of the Philippine stingless bee industry, the biological activity of propolis from this native bee species (Tetragonula biroi Friese) remains poorly understood and sparingly investigated. Herein, we examined the potential anti-inflammatory efficacy of Philippine stingless bee propolis using the lambda (λ)-carrageenan-induced mice model of hind paw edema. Thirty (30), six-week-old, male ICR mice were randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=10/group) as follows: distilled water group, diclofenac sodium group (10 mg/kg), and propolis group (100mg/kg)...
November 25, 2020: Experimental Animals
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