Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Erica J Crespi, Olivia Brooks, Ekaterina Burduli, Samantha Ranjo, Cara L Carty, Luciana E Hebert, Sara F Waters, Maria A Gartstein
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and coping experienced during pregnancy can have important effects on maternal and infant health, which can also vary by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we assessed stressors, coping behaviors, and resources needed in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of 162 perinatal (125 pregnant and 37 postpartum) women in the United States. METHODS: A mixed-methods study captured quantitative responses regarding stressors and coping, along with qualitative responses to open-ended questions regarding stress and resources needed during the COVID-19 pandemic...
March 1, 2021: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fahimeh Mohseni, Behzad Garmabi, Mehdi Khaksari
It has been shown that alcohol consumption by pregnant women can have detrimental effects on the developing fetus and lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Exposure to alcohol in rat pups during this period causes long-term changes in the structure of the animal's hippocampus, leading to impaired hippocampal-related brain functions such as navigation tasks and spatial memory. Apelin-13, a principal neuropeptide with inhibitory effects on neuroinflammation and brain oxidative stress production, has beneficial properties on memory impairment and neuronal injury...
February 18, 2021: Neuropeptides
E F Sanches, A S Carvalho, Y van de Looij, A Toulotte, A T Wyse, C A Netto, S V Sizonenko
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the major cause of motor and cognitive impairments during childhood. CP can result from direct or indirect structural injury to the developing brain. In this study, we aimed to describe brain damage and behavioural alterations during early adult life in a CP model using the combination of maternal inflammation, perinatal anoxia and postnatal sensorimotor restriction. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 200µg/kg LPS at embryonic days E18 and E19...
February 24, 2021: Brain Research
Mohadese Momeni, Abolfazl Ebadi, Mehdi Sadegh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-pregnancy chronic exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (Pg LPS) on the learning, memory, and seizure susceptibility of the offspring. DESIGN: To achieve periodontitis, Pg LPS (5 μg/kg) was injected into the gingival of five female rats every 48 h for three weeks. Five control female rats received saline (0.9 %) and five female were kept intact. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in the blood samples...
February 6, 2021: Archives of Oral Biology
Mayra Gómez, Dario Rossi, Roberta Cimmino, Gianluigi Zullo, Yuri Gombia, Damiano Altieri, Rossella Di Palo, Stefano Biffani
The use of genetic evaluations in the Water Buffalo by means of a Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) animal model has been increased over the last two-decades across several countries. However, natural mating is still a common reproductive strategy that can increase the proportion of missing pedigree information. The inclusion of genetic groups in variance component (VC) and breeding value (EBV) estimation is a possible solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different genetic grouping strategies and their effects on VC and EBV for composite ( n = 5) and linear ( n = 10) type traits in the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) population...
2021: Frontiers in Genetics
M E Reis, A F Toledo, A P da Silva, M Poczynek, E A Fioruci, M C Cantor, L Greco, C M M Bittar
Lysolecithin is an antiinflammatory emulsifier associated with improved apparent digestibility of total dietary fat and improved feed efficiency in dairy cattle. However, it is unknown if lysolecithin (LYSO) improves performance in calves. Moreover, since many conventional milk replacers use vegetable-sourced fat (e.g., palm oil), nutrient absorption and fecal score may be affected in neonatal calves. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of LYSO supplemented in milk replacer on performance, metabolites, and gut health of preweaned dairy calves...
February 18, 2021: Journal of Dairy Science
Raquel Soler-Blasco, Mario Murcia, Manuel Lozano, Blanca Sarzo, Ana Esplugues, Jesús Vioque, Nerea Lertxundi, Loreto Santa Marina, Aitana Lertxundi, Amaia Irizar, Simone Braeuer, Walter Goesler, Ferran Ballester, Sabrina Llop
BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As) is considered to be toxic for humans, the main routes of exposure being through drinking water and the diet. Once ingested, inorganic arsenic can be methylated sequentially to monomethyl and dimethyl arsenicals. Several factors can affect both As exposure and methylation efficiency. OBJECTIVES: To describe the urinary concentrations of the different As species and evaluate the methylation efficiency during pregnancy, as well as their associated factors in a birth cohort of pregnant Spanish women...
February 16, 2021: Environmental Research
Julio D Loureiro, Ana L Migliorisi, Juan P Loureiro, Sergio Rodríguez Heredia, Jorge Rebollo, Karina C Álvarez, Sergio Morón, Romina Nuñez Favre
Tursiops truncatus gephyreus is only found in the inshore waters of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. They are organized in small socially, structured groups, which lead to low genetic variability and high anthropogenic threats. Currently, the information about their reproductive biology and management is still insufficient. Thus, this study aims to present novel information recorded for 20 years regarding reproductive parameters in a small population of captive T. t. gephyreus. Three of the animals involved were found stranded in La Plata River estuary and, the other two were born at the oceanarium...
February 19, 2021: Zoo Biology
Aly Diana, Jillian J Haszard, Sri Y Irda Sari, Sofa Rahmannia, Annisha Fathonah, Wina Nur Sofiah, Haidar Rizqi, Raulia Haekal, Allissia Gilmartin, Michelle Harper, William Petri, Lisa Houghton, Rosalind Gibson
To reduce the burden of early-life linear growth faltering in low- and middle-income countries, interventions have focused on nutrition strategies, sometimes combined with water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, even when combined, their effects on linear growth have been inconsistent. Here, we investigate potential predictors of length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) in a cohort of resource-poor rural Indonesian infants to inform the optimal strategies to reduce linear growth faltering. Apparently healthy rural breastfed Indonesian infants were randomly selected from birth registries at age 6 months (n = 230) and followed up at 9 (n = 202) and 12 (n = 190) months...
2021: PloS One
Özlem Uzunlar, Ümİt Yasemİn Sert DİnÇ, Nezaket KadioĞlu, Tuba Çandar, Yaprak ÜstÜn
BACKGROUND: Water immersion and epidural analgesia are the most preferred pain relief methods during the labor process. Adverse effects related to these methods, impact on the labor, and perception of pain is well studied in the literature. We aimed to investigate the cord level of Copeptin, Total serum oxidant (TOS), antioxidant (TAS), interleukin (IL) -1, IL-6, and oxytocin after the labor with water immersion, epidural analgesia, and vaginal birth without pain relief. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 102 healthy pregnant women admitted to the obstetric delivery unit for non-complicated term birth...
February 18, 2021: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Chunyan Li, Melisa Olave, Yali Hou, Geng Qin, Ralf F Schneider, Zexia Gao, Xiaolong Tu, Xin Wang, Furong Qi, Alexander Nater, Andreas F Kautt, Shiming Wan, Yanhong Zhang, Yali Liu, Huixian Zhang, Bo Zhang, Hao Zhang, Meng Qu, Shuaishuai Liu, Zeyu Chen, Jia Zhong, He Zhang, Lingfeng Meng, Kai Wang, Jianping Yin, Liangmin Huang, Byrappa Venkatesh, Axel Meyer, Xuemei Lu, Qiang Lin
Seahorses have a circum-global distribution in tropical to temperate coastal waters. Yet, seahorses show many adaptations for a sedentary, cryptic lifestyle: they require specific habitats, such as seagrass, kelp or coral reefs, lack pelvic and caudal fins, and give birth to directly developed offspring without pronounced pelagic larval stage, rendering long-range dispersal by conventional means inefficient. Here we investigate seahorses' worldwide dispersal and biogeographic patterns based on a de novo genome assembly of Hippocampus erectus as well as 358 re-sequenced genomes from 21 species...
February 17, 2021: Nature Communications
Mícheál de Barra, Giorgia Gon, Susannah Woodd, Wendy J Graham, Marijn de Bruin, Catherine Kahabuka, A Jess Williams, Khadidja Konate, Said M Ali, Rukaiya Said, Loveday Penn-Kekana
RATIONALE: Although women in low- and middle-income countries are increasingly encouraged to give birth at facilities, healthcare-associated infection of both the mother and newborn remain common. An important cause of infection is poor hand hygiene. There is a need to understand how environmental, behavioural, and organisational factors influence hygiene practice. OBJECTIVE: To understand variations between facilities and between people in hygiene behaviour and to explore potential intervention targets in four labour wards in Zanzibar...
December 5, 2020: Social Science & Medicine
Diego Fano-Sizgorich, Cinthya Vásquez-Velásquez, Sandra Yucra, Vanessa Vásquez, Patricio Tokeshi, Julio Aguilar, Claudio Ramírez-Atencio, Dana Boyd Barr, Gustavo F Gonzales
Inorganic arsenic exposure has been linked to the development of several health conditions, including adverse birth outcomes; and around 150 million of people worldwide are exposed to levels above the WHO suggested limit of 10 μg/L. A recent risk assessment in pregnant women of Tacna, of this same population performed by our group, found that 70.25% were exposed to arsenic concentrations in drinking water ≥25 μg/L. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between prenatal total urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and inorganic arsenic (U-iAs) with adverse birth outcomes...
March 2021: Exposure & Health
Jasminka Talapko, Tomislav Meštrović, Emina Pustijanac, Ivana Škrlec
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a positive single-stranded, icosahedral, quasi-enveloped RNA virus in the genus Orthohepevirus of the family Hepeviridae . Orthohepevirus A is the most numerous species of the genus Orthohepevirus and consists of eight different HEV genotypes that can cause infection in humans. HEV is a pathogen transmitted via the fecal-oral route, most commonly by consuming fecally contaminated water. A particular danger is the HEV-1 genotype, which poses a very high risk of vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus...
January 29, 2021: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Jeremy S Lum, Katrina M Bird, Jennifer Wilkie, Samuel J Millard, Sachie Pallimulla, Kelly A Newell, Ian M Wright
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most common treatment for opioid-dependent pregnant women worldwide. Despite its widespread use, MMT is associated with a variety of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in exposed offspring, particularly cognitive impairments. The neurobiological abnormalities underlying these cognitive impairments are, however, poorly understood. This is, in part, due to a lack of animal models that represents the standard of care that methadone is administered in the clinic, with inconsistencies in the timing, doses and durations of treatment...
February 8, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Takashi Abe, Robert S Thiebaud, Jeremy P Loenneke
We recently reported the fat fraction percentage of white adipose tissue in adolescents and adults measured by the water-fat separation method, but there was limited discussion about the change in adipose tissue fat fraction with growth. The purpose of this updated review was to examine the fat content of white (subcutaneous) adipose tissue during the process from birth to adulthood by adding the latest available data. A relevant database was searched through November 2020. Nineteen studies were included. We found that calculated mean values of fat fraction percentage in white adipose tissue were 72...
January 30, 2021: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Mina Jafari, Vida Hojati, Mehdi Khaksari, Golamhassan Vaezi
Ethanol is associated with oxidative stress. Exposure to ethanol during childhood may lead to neurological disorders. Congenital disorders induced by alcohol are mainly caused by an oxidative-inflammatory cascade due to extensive apoptotic neurodegeneration in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. Simvastatin, which acts as an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), is widely used to manage cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the neuroprotective effects of simvastatin against nervous system disorders have been introduced...
February 3, 2021: Brain Research
Maeve M Kelleher, Suzie Cro, Victoria Cornelius, Karin C Lodrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Eva M Rehbinder, Adrian J Lowe, Eishika Dissanayake, Naoki Shimojo, Kaori Yonezawa, Yukihiro Ohya, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Kumiko Morita, Emma Axon, Christian Surber, Michael Cork, Alison Cooke, Lien Tran, Eleanor Van Vogt, Jochen Schmitt, Stephan Weidinger, Danielle McClanahan, Eric Simpson, Lelia Duley, Lisa M Askie, Joanne R Chalmers, Hywel C Williams, Robert J Boyle
BACKGROUND: Eczema and food allergy are common health conditions that usually begin in early childhood and often occur together in the same people. They can be associated with an impaired skin barrier in early infancy. It is unclear whether trying to prevent or reverse an impaired skin barrier soon after birth is effective in preventing eczema or food allergy. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To assess effects of skin care interventions, such as emollients, for primary prevention of eczema and food allergy in infants Secondary objective To identify features of study populations such as age, hereditary risk, and adherence to interventions that are associated with the greatest treatment benefit or harm for both eczema and food allergy...
February 5, 2021: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Setegn Muche Fenta, Hailegebrael Birhan Biresaw, Kenaw Derebe Fentaw
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African countries, neonatal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Ethiopia is one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest death rates of newborn children. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in Ethiopia at the individual and community level. METHODS: The 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data was accessed and used for the analysis. A total of 2449 newborn children were included in the analysis...
February 4, 2021: Tropical Medicine and Health
Vanessa R Coffman, Anja Søndergaard Jensen, Betina B Trabjerg, Carsten B Pedersen, Birgitte Hansen, Torben Sigsgaard, Jørn Olsen, Inger Schaumburg, Jörg Schullehner, Marie Pedersen, Leslie T Stayner
BACKGROUND: High levels of nitrate (<mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mi>NO</mml:mi> <mml:mn>3</mml:mn> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> </mml:msubsup> </mml:mrow> </mml:math>) in drinking water cause methemoglobinemia in infants; however, few studies have examined the potential effects of low-level exposure on fetal growth, and the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the association between maternal exposure to nitrate in drinking water during pregnancy and offspring size at birth in a nationwide study of full-term (<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
February 2021: Environmental Health Perspectives
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